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V»</-iu^7. . Cf^k:, 




Ub samne mere jo peer o juwan hue 
Du,uwa nu kure yih ki mere rpooiih men zuban hue 
Muen huzrut i Suoda ko smna bolte yaro ! 
Ullah hee uUah ki kya nuzm o buyan hue. 

Mirza Moohummud Rufeeu — oorf Suoda. 


Reprinted from the Edition o/ 1810, 


Pf.^  f 


Alphabetical Scheme and Vowels, page iv 

Consonants, vi 

Prospectus of English Letters and Combinations, ix 

Hindee-Roman Orthography, x 

Comparative View of the former and present Mode of Orthography, xi 

Names of the Letters of the Persi- Arabic and Nagree Alphabets, ib. 

The variation of Arabic Orthography and Orthoepy, and Explanation of the Plate, . . xiv 
A short Account of the Hindoostanee Language, by Meer Ummun of Dillee, .... xvi 
Sir William Jones' Remarks on the imperfection of the English Alphabet and Ortho- 
graphy, xviii 

Of the Noun, >. xix 

Article, " -^ • ^ **• 

Declension "^  • •" • n^*, *^* 

Adventitious Particles among the Declensions, xxi 

Postpositions, xxu 

Gender, xxiii 

Adjectives, xxiv 

Of Comparison, xxv 

Pronouns, Regulars, Irregulars, and Neuters, xxvi 

Scheme of Declension applicable to Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns, 8ec. . . . xxviii 

Of the Verb, and its formation, xxxii 

Conjugation . . . • ^.^ xxxvii 

Syntax of the Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, and Verb, .... from xl to Iviii 
General Remarks . . .*" from Iviii to the e<d. 

Plate to face the Introduction 


-..lino fmai^d 

naistn tMM sirilfi-j 

fir.y , . 

iii'/f <»J Ix (iln/t 
in!!) ')rf1 ' 

ft'.f^f i. 

./^.[T!,: U:':< 

-jjoiEiMr iE3©iE^iHiwii(SK (0mL(nmmEmT. 


jVIoIIE than twenty years have elapsed since the English and Ilindoostanee Dictionary was first 
presented to the world, under circumstances of great disadvantage both to the Author and the Work. 

In that period, a new era may be said to have commenced in the annals of oriental literature, 
under the patronage of the East India Govemments abroad, and of tlie Honourable Court of Direc- 
tors at home ; the demand therefore has been so extensive for every usefid publication upon eastern 
learning, that a very large impression of the English and Hindoostanee Dictionary is now almost 
out of print, at a time when it has been more required than ever to enable the youth of this country, 
destined for India, to keep pace with the rapid progress and improvement of philological knowledge 
in all the languages of the East 

The want of adequate funds, and a succession of untoward events, have hitherto prevented the ap- 
pearance of a long-promised Hindoostanee and English Dictionary, which, even now, cannot with 
propriety or advantage be commenced until the present Edition assume that uniform and consistent 
arrangement, wherein the former was so defective, having, in fact, an Appendix nearly as extensive 
as, and probably not less valuable than the body of the book. 

Lieutenant Thomas Roebuck, of the Madras Military Establishment, having obtained two years 
leave of absence from the Court of Directors, for the express purpose of assisting me to reverse the 
English and Hindoostanee Dictionary, we soon found that task nearly impracticable, and were 
forced, with considerable reluctance, to content ourselves with first finishing this volume, as the 
only means left to enable us in due season to complete the next, on principles more creditable to our- 
selves, and on the whole much more advantageous to the Public. 

Heavy expence, numerous errors, and great delays, are so inseparable from every attempt to print 
any thing here in the oriental character, as to oblige us to limit our exertions in that department 
within the narrow bounds of a copperplate, in whicli the Roman and oriental characters are so syste- 
matically illustrated, that we confidently hope thereby to conciliate the good-will of those oriental 
scholars, who have hitherto found most fault with the Roman letters, in all such works as the pre- 
sent, without perhaps duly weighing the many arguments adducible in their favour. When the 
reader has perused with attention all that relates to the proposed Hindee-Roman Orthoepigraphical 


alphabet in the following sheets, he will, it is presumed, find little difficulty in comprehending the de- 
sign, nature, extent, and application of the preceding plate, more especially when he has also studied 
the particular explanation of its contents, after the alphabet has been in this place sufficiently dis- 
cussed. People forget that the whole of my Hlndee-Roman orthoepigraphical plan, is a mere ex- 
tension of the alphabetical principles on which any foreign language (where the character differs 
from our own) is necessarily represented to us as the learners of such a tongue ; and moreover, that 
the mere view of strange characters can neither convey their various powers to the reader''s mind, 
nor confer the faculty of just pronunciation on the organs of speech. If the ingenuity of man had 
hitherto produced literal symbols intuitively as visible sounds, the common outcry against my present 
system would certainly prove well founded ; but until the power of the Persian letters named kaf, 
zubur, re, dal, zubur, noon, be illustrated to us otherwise than by the Roman characters k, u, r, d, 
u, n, I must persist in my own scheme. These letters, combined agreeably to their ordinary powers 
in our language, form the word kurdun, as distinctly as the corresponding oriental symbols can pos- 
sibly do, for even they will be pronounced kerden or kurdun by people from different countries, 
conformably to the sounds which the zubur or diacritical mark ' u, is known a priori to possess. 
This observation holds good throughout the whole of the eastern tongues, which, like the German, 
Greek, or any other language, may easily be represented in our own Roman characters, modified to 
comprise every possible sound. In this way the scholar has not at starting too many obstacles to 
encounter, and I am clear for smoothing the path to useful knowledge, so that out of fifty who pur- 
sue it, forty of them at least may be encouraged to obtain a reasonable though proportionate share, 
instead of leaving that number perfectly ignorant, while ten clever lads only, by dint of genius and 
application combined, leave their less acute fellow-students in the lurch for evei\ 

Were the Hindoostanee a matter of little moment to the great majority of our youth who pro- 
ceed to India ; were it merely an ornamental or recondite part of their education, it would be of 
much less consequence to the nation, whether forty, or ten of fifty, ever acquired it fluently or not ; 
but being an object of vital importance, it certainly becomes worthy of our serious regard, that ten 
only of fifty shall fail in making due progress, which, with all the facilities I have given the learner, 
may still be the case. The grand point is, by some scheme or other to render the study of the most 
necessary oriental tongues easy at first, that every learner, if possible, may acquire some taste for, 
and knowledge of their rudiments, to prepare him for proceeding with alacrity in his future career, 
instead of being harassed and disgusted at the outset with a strange tongue, and a still stranger cha- 
racter at the same time. Were we to learn the French through the medium of a new alphabet, I 
have little hesitation in saying, that for thirty tolerable linguists in this language we would not have 
ten, and the same effects will be produced by similar causes in the acquisition of any other tongue, 
more especially in a country like India, where every thing conspires to enervate the body and mind 
of most students, who have not previously, during the passage or at home, acquired a relish for the 
vernacular speech of the people among whom they are destined for many years to sojourn. That 
the real pronunciation and inflections of words, with the general construction of the Hindoostanee, 
are most obvious in the Roman character to learners, there can be no doubt ; nor is there any thing 


- itt 

to prevent them from afterwards making theirselves masters of whatever character they find most 
essential in the prosecution of oriental studies ; why then shoidd this previous acquisition be deemed 
a »'ine qua non to thousands, who may never feel the want of oriental letters, but who, from the 
want of an intelligible tongue, may run the risk occasionally of losing their heads, and injuring 
irremediably the dearest interests of their countrymen. 

The Persi-Arabic alphabet, as used in Hindoostan, seems rather a hieroglyphic than a real in- 
structive character ; for no man, unless previously acquainted with the oriental languages to a consi- 
derable extent, can easily decipher either the printed or manuscript compositions of the natives ; a 
certain knowledge of these languages a priori is therefore as indispensable to beginners, who wish to 
make a cheering progress in the eastern tongues, as that degree of proficiency in English is to our- 
selves, when we are under the necessity of perusing a letter in a very illegible hand, before wc can 
readily fathom the writer's drift or meaning. 

If the foregoing observations be justly applicable to any one language in India, more than to 
another, they certainly preserve all their force when applied to the llindoostanee, either in the 
Nagree or Persian character. While orthography in English is disgracefully perplexing, the ever 
varying forms of the oriental letters are still more puzzling to those students who have never had an 
opportunity of acquiring the preparatory instructions, which .it is hoped these sheets contain, both 
for the practical colloquist at his first outset, and the intended profound scholar, who will find nothing 
here which his future acquirements can require him to forget or unlearn : on the contrary, he will 
soon perceive, that from the very circumstance of having been taught the rudiments of Hindoostanee, 
in the plan now adopted, he will insensibly become a more correct oriental orthographer and orthoe- 
pist than many professed Mosnshces (native teachers), and most of his own countrymen, who have 
not experienced such advantages. 

By way of illustration, we shall take the very common words sahib, mmtcr, lord, oozr, excuse, thus 
marked to show the swad in the first syllable and the large he in the last, being letters very different 
in form, though similar in sound, to those called seen and small he, which last are exhibited in the 
plate as the exact parallels of our own s and h, consequently they require no discriminating mark, 
like the former, in such a scheme as the present. 

Should the above, perhaps premature, discussion at all perplex the learner, he may suspend his 
judgment upon it till both the plate and alphabet have been duly explained, for he will then find no 
difficulty in the application of the present argument to oozr also, and to every otlier word of this sort 
in the language. 

Much may be said about the most appropriate character for the Hindoostanee, by the Hindoos or 
their admirers on one side, and not less by the Moosulmans and their followers on the other ; the 
truth however is, that both the Persi-Arabic and Nagree are so defective, in various ways, as to 
require the modifications and distinguishing signs which I introduced some years ago, at the College 
in Calcutta, with the very best effects : these have of course been preserved in this work, and will 
be found in all the publications from the Hindoostanee press in Bengal, since that period. 


The abecedarian arrangement of the two characters used in Hindoostanee, being totally dissimilar, 
I naturally enough have contrived from them both a system of my own, founded upon philosophical 
principles, that ought to pervade every alphabet, as a regular scheme, well calculated for the com- 
prehension of juvenile minds during their first efforts on the very rudiments of vernacular speech 
and grammar. 


As the great interchangeableness of letters, more especially of vowels, is often the cause of 
much perplexity to beginners, who may have an opportunity of conversing with natives of diffe- 
rent provinces, it is useful to consider every letter in the same scries, as a very common substi- 
tute for any other, especially for such as naturally coincide the most in their formation and power. • • 



3 cull 


wool 1 

progressively the shortest possible 


» f 

sounds of 


there keel 
e ee 

cole cool 
o oo 

V all very long. 




V diphthongs. 





I semivowels. 

13 h 



by which the whole of the foregoing vowels may be thus 
expirated, hu hi hrn ha he hee ho hoo hue hue 
inspirated, uli ih oah ah eh eeh oh ooh ueh uoh 
Uquijied, yu yi yen ya ye yee yo yoo yue yuo 
. wu wi woo wa we wee wo woo wue wuo 

The Roman letters in the present scheme of writing the Hindoostanee, preserve almost the same 
powers they actually possess in the Latin language, agreeably to the Scottish pronunciation, and 
in the most common unexceptionable combinations and sounds in our own tongue. 

No mute nor superfluous characters ever occur at the end, nor in any other portion of a word, 
and two Roman letters are never used to express a sound which can be conveniently effected by 
one. There are in all forty-nine useful combinations, letters or sounds, in this language, agree- 
ably to the foregoing and following subdivision of the whole, in \vhich, for the conveniency of the 
learner, all the vowels are illustrated by examples; die consonants are in general self-evident; 
but where this is not the case, the subsequent prospectus will remove every doubt on the subject. 


u is invariahly the short S or u in up, fun, sun, never sounded like oo ; purdu or pSrd3, a curtain, 
therefore cannot be purdoo, nor can mnonshee, a teacher, gcolistan, moosuhnan, become, witli any 
propriety, munshee, gullistan, mussulman, as they are generally pronounced by persons who 
have not learned those words correctly from my works, or in India. This letter, according to 
circumstances, denotes the ulif, tikar, zitbur, or Immzu, and may also be deemed the inherent in- 
visible vowel of every initial or medial consonant, which is not followed by another short or 
long vowel. When the consonant is final, this u is lost, unless represented in the oriental 
characters by a mute aspirate, as exhibited in the Plate. 

In no instance can u have the sound of our pronoun you, because such a word in this work 
would be written as in page iv. yoo ; the scholar must therefore never call u (my very short 
a) either you or oo, yoo being in fact the name of the letter which has with us, very absurdly, 
the various powers of u oo oo yoo, while in this work its name u, and sound S, are alike consis- 
tent throughout. 

i & 00 being respectively the shorts of e ee, and o oo, is the reason of only three short to five long 
vowels above, i is termed zer, and oo pesli, in the Persian alphabet. 

a must, at first, be prolated like the word awe, until the learner's own ear can discriminate when 
and where the medial sound, between the extreme long a and short S or u, will be most proper. 

e'"^'^ resembles ai in hair, pair, fair, pain, rain, &c. ; but the medial shades of this letter, and ee, till 
' '-'"'they fall into the short i, can be acquired by practice only; I have therefore, as in u, a, mark- 
ed in my system merely the extremes of short and long vowels. 

ec as in bee, see, lee, fee, heel, feel, keel. 

o always very long. ? * i . 

, , 1 T . c -^^ ^ '^'^^ ce are to i, so are o and oo to oo in the oriental tongues. 

oo the longer the better. > '^ . 

ue composed of a and e, sounded like the organ of sight, eye, or as ui in guide, guise. 

uo reversed by us in our, liow, &c. ; which, formed agreeably to the order of the component parts 
of this diphthong, ought to be uor, huo ; thus when ought clearly, on similar principles, to be 
 written hwen, hooen, as Dr. Lowth expresses it. 

h the perfect aspirate, either before the vowel or after it, as ha, ah, in both situations to be as dis- 
tinctly expressed with the expiration ha, and the inspiration ah, as b is in ba, ab, both fully 
sounded and heard. 

When h follows any consonant so — ^, a brother, it should always have the full expi- 
ration, unless denoted by the subservient h, of which we shall treat among the consonants, 
page vii. 

y like h and w, rather a consonant than a vowel, though i e and ee before each other, or a, &c. 
are very apt to become y in most languages, and vice versa. 

w as y and i e ee are to each other, so is w to o oo uo ; the series yu yi yoo ya, &c. wu wi 
Woo wa, &c. may therefore be also represented as in eea ooa, &c. recollecting that the hiatus 
is generally prevented by the change to yu ya wa, &c. 



















pu phu 

P P^ 


g V- 








> liquids and nasals. 

> j^alatials. 

tshu tshhu dzhu dzhhu 


chh j 
khu khu 
kh kh 





ghu ghu 
gh gh 



36 consonants, 13 vowels, &c. being in all 49 letters with distinct sounds in the 
Hindoostanee alphabet, the name and power of which individually are as much alike as possible ; 
our letter h, or aitch as it is most absurdly called, being simply termed hu, a breathing, du also 
standing for delta, gu for gama, &c. though the particle kar may be subjoined to the whole so — 
ukar, ikar, akar, &c. bukar, hukar, &c. as in the Hinduwee alphabets. 

From the foregoing paragraph the reader will now perceive, that the series bu bhu pu phu, &c. 
mu nu ngu lu ru, &c. exhibits the name of each letter unconnectedly as such, while b bh p ph m n 
ng n 1 r shows their sound or power connectedly, in the formation of words. Among the vowels the 
name and power may always be alike, but with the consonants it must, for obvious reasons, be other- 
wise, as here illustrated from the oriental alphabets, which, like our own, require one vowel at least 
to give utterance to the consonants, as their name implies. 

The consonants might be named by any of the vowels as auxiUaries, as well as by u, were not 
this the shortest sound of a, invariably inherent in the whole of the Nagrce or Hindoostanee conso- 
nants. The vowel might also stand on either side subserviently, as bu, ub ; da, ad ; fi, if ; pee, eep, 
with sufficient effect in any uniform system. Our alphabet partakes of both principles, as bee, dee, 
ef, el, perhaps to distinguish the mutes from the liquids, among which ess might be included, were 
this, at the best, either a very consistent or convenient arrangement in any alphabet. 

The ten expirated letters, bh ph th dh th dh chh jh kh gh, seem peculiar to the Hindoos, of which 
we can form no other idea than by frequently repeating the following, and such words as I have exhi- 
bited them, in this place : viz. a-bhor, a-dhere, u-phill, chur-chhill, nu-thook, mil-khouse, do-ghouse ; 
or by contracting them thus, bhor, dheer, thook, chhLU, khuos, ghuos. Sec and ringing the changes 
with this aspirated pronunciation, until it become quite famiUar to the scholar, which it must be in 


the course of two or three days devoted to this essential exercise, in the very threshold of mncntal 

orthoepy, to prevent the most dangerous mistakes. 

The expiratcs kh gh above must be most carefully distinguished from the gutturals kh gh ex- ) ■J 

plained below, because the h in these last and sh zh ch, is a mere subservient to express a sound for f 

which we have no character in our alphabet, not less defective in ch sh zh, though possessing the ( 

simple character j to denote the compound sound of dzh. 

n as a nasal before j ch k g and t or d, requires no particular mark, sounding exactly like our 
own letters nj nch ng nk nt, &c. in change, rung, sunk, want, &c. but elsewhere it is the French 
nasal, and then marked n. Preceding the labials b, p, n often becomes, as in most languages, m. - f- 

r should be everywhere expressed by a perfect vibration of the tip of the tongue on the upper 
teeth, as in the word Pamour, which few Englishmen can express well, though the Scottish and 
Irish find no difficulty whatever. 

t & d are formed by carrying the tongue forcibly against the roof of the mouth, while articulating 
the connnon dentals t and d of our own alphabet, which are as much softer than t d, as these 
are harder than the oriental t d, formed with a sliglit protrusion of the tongue between the 
teeth. Tub, duck, do ; tube, duke, dew, due, will convey a tolerable idea of the difference 
between palatials and dentals in the eastern tongues ; the t d of ttle four last, even with us, 
being mvich softer than in the three first ; for in fact some people seem to soften the liquified t 
and d with us, so far as to say, tshube, jook, jew for due, &c. The lisp of children, and others, 
will convey a tolerable notion of the very soft dentals d t in question, as essential sounds in the 
oriental tongues, which require the utmost assiduity and practice before the learner can perfectly 
comprehend or express them in the Persian and Hindoostanee languages. 

d frequently becomes a very harsh palatial r ; thus ghora, a horse, properly ghoda, though very 
seldom so pronounced. 

th in thin and thine does not occur in the alphabets of India, though the Arabs appear to possess 
similar sounds among their letters ; th is therefore uniformly as in hothouse, quasi ho-thuos, 
according to my system in page vi. already explained. 

s sh z zh are to each other as they stand in sin, shin, seize, seizure or seezhyoor, the h here being a 
mere subservient letter, as in gh kh ch, with no aspiration whatever. 

ch j called dento-sibilants, to shew their component parts as dentals and sibilants, which might be 
denoted by tsh dzh, were these not more complex than our soft ch in church (tshurtsh), j in judge 
(dzhudzh), to which, if due attention be paid now, the reader will never hereafter frenchify the 
j of just (dzhust), to zhust, as he will probably do at first, until frequently apprised that our j 
in jam (dzham) is composed of the dental d and sibilant zh, stated above. 

kh is the rough guttural k pronounced in the very act of hawking up phlegm from the throat, 
which becomes tremulous and ruffled, while the root of the tongue is with it forming the soimd 
required. This letter is familiar enough to the Scottish and other northern nations, but very 
troublesome to the English, who should first try it in muHi, lukh, nukh, &c. before attempt- 
ing it in khum, khul, and so on. 



gh is to g gh, what kh is to k kh ; consequently, the guttural Northumberland r, heard in the 
act of gargling the throat with water, as ghu, ghu, ghu ; mugh, lugh, rugh, are much easier 
than ghum, ghiil, &c. which learners will confound with gum, gul, &c. until the burr in the 
throat, as it is called, be duly acquired from some person who has this peculiarity, and who 
would call the word roolam, ghrolam, a slave, very properly, instead of goolam, as those do who 
have not acquired the gh accurately. ^  v 

q or our k articulated by raising the root of the tongue simply towards the throat, which must 
not be in the smallest degree ruffled, as in forming kh or gh. The q may consequently be styled 
a deep but liquid lingual letter, produced by clinking the root of the tongue against the throat, 
so as to cause a sort of nausea. The same sound will be recognised when pouring water in a 

I.  particular manner from a long necked guglet, as the liquid decanting may represent the lower 
part of the tongue acting upon the throat or neck of the vessel in question, unruffled by the 
water gushing from it. A few efforts will soon fix the q in the memory and on the organs of 
speech, perhaps at the expence of a slight nausea at first. 

The vowels, particularly such as are homogeneous, either in quantity or quality, are very inter- 
changeable ; and this holds good among the consonants also, even sometimes where affinity is not 
so very striking, as in y j and g, 1 n and s, d and z, m b and w. 

The learner should recollect, that c is never used but as a subservient in the combination tsh ch 
already explained. ' 

To prevent letters coalescing, the , is often inserted between them, that ee oo nk ng sh zh may be 
distinctly articulated, when necessary, as two separate sounds ; so, c,c 0,0 n,k n,g sji z,h. 

The number of syllables in a word is commonly regulated by the number of vowels. When two 
consonants intervene, they should be divided, ad-mee, a person ; but if one only, it goes to the last, 
pa-nee, -water, ba-hur, out, sa-yu, shade. This holds good likewise when the consonant is expirated, 
whence du-khun, the south, not duk-hun, unless to teach a beginner to sound the h in this word, that 
he also 'may not miscall it deccan ! as is generally done. Sometimes two consonants meet as in 
English, gurm, warm, fusl, season, swamee, lord, pran, life, tliough among the illiterate pronounced 
rather as gurum, fusul, puran, &c. 

The Prospectus of such letters and combinations, agreeably to their invariable power in the Hin- 
doostanee language, as can be farther illustrated by English examples, and which the reader might 
still otherwise mistake, may have its uses in this Introduction. I have therefore exhibited it in so 
obvious a manner, that no one acquainted with the English language can possibly misconceive the 
particular sound adopted from that tongue. 




y y" 


the French j or g, zh 

tsh ch 

dzh j 

g hard 




' yawn, yoke, your, &c. 
shin, ship, rush, 
pleasure, i. e. pleazhure. 
church, rich, 
jugular, judge, (juj), 
uphold, uphill. ' 
sink, brink, 
rung, sung, 
sans, bon, in French. 

hot house, nut hook, as the th o£thin and thine 
are not used in Hindoostanee, see page vii. 

For the vowels and diphthongs consult page Iv. and always consider u, short S ; a, long a ; i short, * 
and ee long, in every situation ; while the two diphdiongs, ue and uo, are ever to be treated as the 
ul or y and uo in guide, gued ; dry, drue ; our, uor. Sans and hon above shew the sound of the nasal 
n, which is so common in the Hindoostanee, when not followed by k, g, &c. in page vii. 

U in purdu, a curtain ; a in rat, night ; e in bed, (baid) scripture ; ue in uesa, so ; i in mila, found ; 
the hard g in gunge, o ganges ! and perhaps a few others, are very liable to be misconceived by a 
mere English reader, who docs not seriously attend to the fixed invariable power of such letters in 
pages iv. &c. q. v. before he attempts to derive any real benefit from the present plan : I am there- 
fore under the necessity of inculcating again and again the present unavoidable retrospection to the 
letters and their sounds, to prevent all future disappointment on that head, if possible, before the 
student can commence the reading of sentences or dialogues, with any satisfaction to himself or ad- 
vantage to those who may hear him. Initial and final a or u are apt to be omitted or transposed in 
many words without at all affecting their meaning, and a final ee, or e, in the same wav, is some- 
times added ; the learner must consequently be on his guard should such deviations occasionally 
attract his notice, the Hindoostanee not being more exempt from these irregularities than any other 

We must now proceed to the orthography of the Hindoostanee, having so far rather treated of or- f 
thoepy only, that a similarity of sound may never hereafter mislead us, when we wish to transpose' ' 
our knowledge from the Roman character, adopted here, to the oriental alphabets, contrasted with 
the letters of our own tongue, which all agree well enough till we come to the uen in uql ; thus, / 

u which, while pronounced as vi before explained, merely reminds the learner of its represent- i 
, ing the zuhur or u on the curious vowel consonant that the Arabians call uen, for which, how- ' 
ever, neither we nor the Hindoos have any corresponding letter : u final, after a long vowel, is !> 
almost mute, as in shooroou, beginning, while in shumu, a candle, it rather has the sound of a irt I 
water, and in Hindoostanee the word is rendered shuma, like those examples produced in 


page xiii. q. v. though on the whole, it is best to preserve the orthoepigraphlcal plan as much 
as we can, particularly when the sounds either way differ very little from each other, as any 
person will perceive who compares tu-urecf, rapidly sounded tuureef, with the common mode 
tareef, praise, in which last the uen is less obvious than in tu,ureef. 

u u expressing still the s,ame sound of u in up, cup, only denote particular Arabic combinations, to 
\ be acquired hereafter by those who may wish to study that language. 

a shows that uen precedes, but is almost lost in the sound of its following a ; this, therefore, dif- 
fers in the Hlndoostanee very little from the broad sound awe in call, &c. 

a a in sound as above, but each expressive of a peculiar form or combination in the Arabic, the 
knowledge of which may be at present dispensed with by the mere student of Hindoostanee, 
though a will be seen among the anomalies in the Plate, and afterwards recognised accordingly. 

i in ilni and tali, is to the zer or i exactly what u is to the zuhur or u in the foregoing page. 

i • no difference in the sound, though it certainly denotes rather ye, e, or ee, than i in the original. 

eeoo are to ee and oo, respectively, just what a is to a. 

CO see u and i, this being the uen in oomr and tuwazqo, with pesh or oo, as those are it with zuhur 
and zer. 

CO represents a semi-mute oo or w, of the original, as inserted in the Plate. 

vf ditto. 

h rather a harsher aspirate than h formerly described, and peculiar to the Arabic alphabet, but in 
Hindoostan pronounced just as the simple breathing hu. ^' '''"''*'**^ '" J 

hh discriminate aspirates in the Sunskrit alphabet from h and each other, though little used as 
such in Hindoostanee, and the sound does not differ from h in the smallest degree. 

11 r have been detailed in page vii. which the learner may now consult, under n and d. 

II n the first is peculiar to tlie Hindoos, the second to the Arabs, still both are pronounced like the 
common n in run, nurse, and may be seen thus un in the Plate. 

r 1 letters peculiar to the Sunskrit, but exactly of the same power as r 1. 

t d noticed in page vii. 

s 3 varieties of similar sounds by different letters, like our council, counsel, jilt, gin, &c. s in 
Arabic resembles our th in thin, but in the Hindoostanee it is merely s of sin, sun. 

z z z like the above, mere formal varieties of the self-same sound ; we write has (haz) haze, ex- 
pressing the z by s in has, and by z in haze, while the sound is the same in both. 

t is to t, precisely what s is to s, and like it in Arabic, has the power of th in thine, but in Hin- 
doostanee is pronounced like t in tin, tune, fully described in page vii. 

As the Hindoostanee student may often meet with my former publications, in which cither the 
Hindee-Roman system was not so correctly and ultimately fixed as it is now, or the orthography in 
the oriental tongues was not deemed of so much consequence as the- pronunciation, it is but fair to 
submit the following Prospectus to Iiis considei-ation, to guide him through the present or any other 
of my oriental works, in which he will nevertheless find very few deviations from my original plan. 


that do not entirely depend on the great progress we have made in the learning of the East since I 
commenced my large Grammar and Dictionary of the Hindoostance language. Among these, the 
words panw, the foot, ganw, a village, and a few otliers, were long expressed by ga,on, pa,on, in which 
tlie inflection plural was not half so distinct as it is now in panwon, ganwon, &c. though panw come 
as near the true pronunciation, if not more so, than pa,on formerly used. 


a, &c. 













and other Italic vowels, or Roman, 
when the word was in Italics. 


ou — 

eu — 



n n with" ° ditto. 

t or t with " ditto. 

t t with the ' over it. 

d ditto ". 

r ditto ". 

w with " over it. 

h with the figure ' over it. 

■or s with figures over them. 

z ditto, all much more troublesome 
, and less consistent than the z z z 
3 &c. of this Work. 


In the whole of the foregoing, the letters t d r alone represent sounds that are not quite familiar 
to ourselves ; for z z z are merely three forms of z for its one sound, as stated in page x. 

A very particular account of the two oriental alphabets, connected with the Hindoostance, cannot 
be expected in these sheets, because to those readers who mean to prosecute their studies far beyond 
a colloquial knowledge of that language, such a detail would prove superfluous, and to others it 
never could be of any real service in the ordinary intercourse of conversation and business ; but 
to enable the learner to converse more easily with the natives of India on their respective alpha- 
bets, we shall subjoin the names of the letters, first in the Pcrsi-Arabic, and then in the Nagrce, 
agreeably to their common order and appellations in each, thus : 

uhf, be, pe, te, se, jeem, che, he, khe, dal, zal, re, ze, zhe, seen, sheen, swad, zwad, to,e, zo e, 
uen, ghuen, fe, qaf, kaf, gaf, lam, meem, noon, wa,o, he, lam-ulif, humzu, ye or ya, zubur, zer, pesh. 

ukar, akar, ikar, eekar, ookar, ookar, ri, ree, li, li, lee, Iree, ekar, uekar, okar, uokar, n, bisurg : 
ku, khu, gu, ghu, ngu ; chu, chhu, ju, jhu, nyu ; Ui, thu, du, dhu, ru, rhu, n ; tu, thu, du, dhu, nu ; 
pu, phu, bu, bhu, mu ; yu, ru, lu, wu ; shu, shu or k,hu, su, hu, ch,hu, kk,h or kshu. 



The adjunct kar may be preserved or dropt in naming the above letters, whence u for ukar, and 
bukar, &c. for bu, &c. as already noticed in page vi. 

It must moreover be granted in this place, that neither the foregoing designations nor order of the 
letters are rigidly followed in all parts of India ; the scholar will therefore be prepared to make due 
allowance for those deviations in both systems that are too apt to occur in the alphabets of every 
language, as well as in the Ilindoostanee, which, like the English, has no appropriate character, un- 
less we choose to consider the Nagree in it on a footing with the old Saxon or German letters among 
ourselves, and the Persi-Arabic as the Roman, now so generally introduced, to the exclusion of the 
other from our mother tongue. Humzu, zubur, zer, pesh, and bisurg, are rather diacritical marks 
or signs than letters properly so called, and arc not only too often wholly omitted in oriental com- 
positions, but what is worse, some of them either change their own or other letters' powers so com- 
pletely, that it is no easy task always to assign them a local habitation and a name in our characters; 
As a Persian genitive sign, ins not only for the most part invisible, but must occasionally be ex- 
pressed by ye after a final vowel, and humzu as e when the word ends with u, thus, moO|e sur, {fie 
hair of^ the head ; chu^Tcm^eineT., the Jbuntahi oi generosity. 

Though humzu may be denoted u, it is in fact more used as the syllabic initial, where the semi- 
vowel consonants wa,o or ya become a species of pure vowels ; thus, da,ood, without the humzu ex- 
pressed or understood in the Persi-Arabic system, would be dawud, and ta,eed, tayud ; and in one 
particular form of the Arabic verb, the visible a is divided into its component parts ulif and humzu, 
viz. u u pronounced thus in tu,ummool, tu.ussoof, never tammcnl, tassoof ; but as these forms can 
easily be discriminated from all others, the scholar will seldom be much puzzled with them in the 
Hindoostanee tongue. On principles peculiar to the Persi-Arabic alphabet, the short vowels u i oo, 
cannot be introduced as verbal initials at all, without the aid of ulif, and even the long ee oo o, re- 
quire it in that situation, to prevent their being sounded as yu wu ; ulif, being then as essential to pre- 
serve the pure vowel sounds as humzu has been already stated to be, in such syllabic initials. A 
reference to the Plate will clearly show the truth of the last observation, since to denote initial i 
and ee respectively there, the reader will soon perceive an ulif besides the other correlative letters 
or vowel points. The final short vowels u i and oo are equally troublesome, always requiring the 
Persi-Arabic mute he to support them at the end of words, though nothing of the kind be necessary 
to medial consonants, these naturally having the inherent power of u, unless when it is lost in or 
altered by other long or short vowels, chushm, tlie eye, cannot become in Persian chushmu, ajbun- 
iain, without the he called the ha,e mukhfee, or mute aspirate u, though in chushmuk, spectacles, no 
such prop is requisite, unless it became necessary to make the quiescent k vocal in a word like 
chushmuku, did such a one exist in the language. The attentive scholar will here observe, that the 
inherent u is moreover silent when two consonants coalesce, as in chushm, not chushum, which often 
happens, as stated in pages viii. xiii, q. v. 

In the Nagree, or rather Sunskrit system, the short i and oo can be expressed finally without the 
intervention of a servile mute aspirate, while the u, on the contrary, often needs the aid of bisurg in 


ramu or ramiih, &c. before it can well be perceptible in words like ram, &c. from a quiescent final 
m, or any other terminating consonant. 

Verbal and syllabic initials, long and short vowels are, on similar grounds, much less perplexing 
in the NaTee than in the Persi-Arabic, whence da,ood, ta,eed, &c. are not liable in the former as in 
the latter to be read dawud, tayud, more than they are in the Hindee-Roman orthoepigraphical me- 
thod adopted for this Work, which I trust will be found to comprise the most unexceptionable parts 
of its three component alphabets, with as little of their inconsistencies as possible. 

By marking the Roman letters with dots below, we avoid all that confusion, which, with i, &c. 
must occur, were the dots above, and on the whole it thus becomes quite easy to be perfectly accu- 
rate in manuscripts, which is often very essential. ,y -iwlA 

To aid the writer's memory as much as in my power, and at the same time to shorten his labour 
in every respect, I have discriminated the most common letters which require dots, with one, two, 
three, in exact proportion to their frequency of occurrence in the language, but as three ... would 
be troublesome, I have run them at once into a line so - In illustration of this system, I have only 
to add, that the 18th Persian letter being most common is z, 20th the next, becomes z, and 11th, 
the least used of the whole, is expi'essed by z, as in the Prospectus, page ix. 

From the slight alteration of figured, Italic, and other arbitrary types, in page xi. like d, &c. to d, 
the learner will moreover perceive, from the Plate, that the Nagree and Roman characters are now 
more on a par with each other than they ever were before, which is also a consideration of some 
moment to a beginner. {|»>mj luy- yjii'^i 'itis. io'.ttiuv^ 9ju 

Every vowel, preceded by the mute consonant uen, is marked with a dot below, as u, a, &c. as in 
pao-e ix, but when the uen follows the vowel, although then generally sakin (quiescent), and almost 
mute, it is invariably expressed by u, which ^fter u, or finally, often assumes the sound of a, as in 
buud, lu,ul, shumu, shi,ur, rather pronounced bad, lal, shuma, shi,ar. On the contrary, this 
letter in shcnroou, rufeeu, &c. is hardly perceptible, and, in fact, inserted here only to show the 

The Hinduwee system of sounds corresponds, on the whole, much better with ours, than the Per- 
sian and Arabic, whence the great trouble which this letter uen gives both us and the Hindoos to ex- 
press it properly as a consonant, or indeed to conceive how it can be esteemed so, by any person 
■whatever. In this point of view, as far as mere Hindoostanee pronunciation goes, the dot in eed, 
'simply denotes the mode of thus spelling uced, almost without expressing the u either as a vowel 
or consonant, though the Arabs, and those scholars who follow or affect to imitate them in this 
guttural vowel consonant, make it in some degree yueed or yeed. 

All aspirated consonants, also t d and r, are peculiar to the Hindoos, who have no f, gh, kh, q, 
z nor uen in their alphabet, and the Arabians want ch, g, p, zh, e and o, whence the learner may 
soon discriminate words as Hinduwee, Persian or Arabic, more especially if he recollect that the 
first only admits of vocables with a double consonant initially, thus, pran, life ; krishn, black, &c. 
though these occur finally in all three languages, gurl, poison; gurm, warm; jshq, love; chushm, 
th£ eye. 



Wherever Arabic orthography and orthoepy are at variance with each other, by ul being prefixed 
to words beginning with n 7. t z s sh s z r z d s t, and thereby assimilating in sound with them, or 
when a a ee 00, immediately preceding ul, are contracted to their own several congenial short sounds, 
11 u i 00, while the 1 either remains or is lost by doubling the first consonant of the next word, these 
anomalies may be easily discriminated by such circumstances, and the intermediate hyphen ; thus, 
zoo ul qurnuen, fee ul tareekh, taliboo ul ilm, ula ul subah, &c. become zool-qurnuen, fit-tareekh, 
talib-cDl-ilm, ulus-subah, &c. and may in general be known as anomalous, though no consistent 
system can well embrace or distinguish these and similar orthoepical deviations farther tlian has 
now been done. 

After what has already been stated, there will be little difficulty in explaining the Plate, and even 
less in comprehending it ; I shall therefore commence with the following general observations. • 

The forms of the oriental characters on the Plate have been selected as the most common, though 
these will be found occasionally to vary a little in different parts of India. 

Every letter has a name and a, power so far distinct, but the learner will recollect that the initial 
of the name invariably shows the latter; thusjeem, gaf, &c. exactly tally with our j and g In the 
word jug, and must always be considered accordingly. When the initial ulif becomes long, it ought 
to have a particular mark, as in the Plate, over it : this being the only way to distinguish, in the 
Persian character, vocables like ubroo, eyebrow, abroo, reputation, from each other. 

The dots in the Persi- Arabic are of very great importance, because on their number or position 
the nature of the letter will often entirely depend, and its too changeable form be more readily 
recognised in every situation. 

be has one dot below, while pe requires three, and ya two only ; on the other hand, noon has one, 
e two, and se three above, frequently as the only discriminating signs of six very different letters, 
all of which may be represented occasionally by a simple curve called shoshu, so " with its superior 
or Inferior dots, as these are exhibited in the Plate. This holds good in he, khe, and che, the last 
having three, the second one, and the first none, either above or in the semicircular tail of the letter, 
when it assumes that appearance at the close of a word, or individually in the alphabet. To the 
foregoing may be added fe and gaf, seen and sheen, uen and ghuen, swad, zwad, to,e, zO|e, which 
generally preserve their heads, although their tails be totally lost when medial or initial, and they can 
thus be traced more readily than be, pe, &c. in Persi-Arabic writing ; still it must be granted, should 
the dots be omitted, which is too frequently the case, that the learner gets into a labyrinth indeed, 
from which nothing can extricate him except great proficiency in, and still greater practice from 
reading, the language under every form of writing. The binocular Persian he is introduced to pre- 
vent bhar, khar, and other such words, becoming buhar, kuhar, and so on. 

Having found the dots so useful in the Persi-Arabic, I have extended them and the dash - even a 
little farther, to denote certain Nagree symbols, for wliich there would otherwise be no parallel In 
the Persi-Arabic, and vice versa, when the Nagree seemed defective in some guttural and other 
sounds peculiar to the Moosulmans, as will be found fully illustrated in the Plate, though neither tiie 
whole of the aspirates, nor lee, ree, &c. have been exhibited there, because this would have proved 


a mere useless and expensive repetition of bh, 1, r, clih, &c. in the Persian letters^ simply with a dot 
or dash below them. The gn, though a compound of ju, and the nasal of that series, has rather the 
power of gnyu, and is one of the most difficult letters in the Hinduwee alphabet, which very few of 
the natives can pronounce well. The French, and even we, may form some idea of it from the coD3t- 
bination gn in ignorance, reign, &c. ; but although the words gnyan, jugn, agnya, be seldom if ever 
pronounced so, in ordinary discourse, there can be no harm whatever in denoting this letter ortho- 
graphically by the> combination gn, since the nasal will naturally be dropt, and the sound of the g 
left alone to speak for itself, as gyan, jug, agya. 

In the three first lines of the Plate, all the vowels and semivowels are properly arranged in Roman, 
Nagree, and Persian letters ; the consonants naturally follow in the same order, and the anomalies 
bring up the rear, these being, on the whole, much less used than the rest, and neither so easily ex- 
pressed nor understood in the present scheme. Though in Sunskrit there are various nasals, the n is 
by far the most common in the Hindoostance ; but should the others be wanted, they will generally 
be sufficiently discriminated by the consonant which immediately follows them, each subdivision 
or series of which having their own appropriate nasal, as formerly inserted and distinguished by 
semicolons in page xi. q. v. 

The Nagree, like the Persi-Arabic character, is very liable to change, more especially the vowels ; 
these have therefore been fully exhibited in the Plate, first in their complete form, as single letters 
preceding a consonant, and then in the contracted shape they assume when affixed to a consonant ; 
whence in the word ab, a would appear large and distinct, whereas in ba, half of the a is lost in b, 
and seems only one perpendicular stroke attached to b, instead of two, with a double curve prefixed, 
as represented in the Plate. This observation, variously modified of course, is applicable to all the 
Nagree vowels. Neither the horizontal dash - at the top of the Nagree letters, nor their upright • 
stroke, is very essential to them, and may consequently be often omitted, which indeed is always the 
case where two or more consonants unite together and lose their inherent u, the first consonant pre- 
serving its head line, and the last its upright stroke, when it has one. Such compounds must no 
doubt puzzle the Nagree student a good deal in the outset ; but in general the body of the letters is 
so httle altered in shape, that they may easily be traced by practice and perseverance with the most 
common and useful combinations of this sort. While these are extolled as a very convenient part of 
the Nagree system, I must confess my dislike to them, being at best an awkward contrivance, which 
fortunately the Roman letters do not require, to prevent burtun, a plate, from being pronounced 
burutunu, which by the Nagree plan would be the case, unless the r and t either coalesce in form 
and sound, or the r be followed by a small oblique mark of elision so ^ This even is adopted ta 
prevent the final consonant from being vocal, though one might naturally conceive that its final posi- 
tion would suffice for that purpose, as it does in almost every other language, the consonants of few 
or none having the inherent u, which is otherwise so convenient in the Nagree characters. Our 
word street, unless written in a peculiar way in the system of the Hindoos, would become sutureetu, 
■which lias been avoided above simply by juxta positiMi. 


There being not less than four letters like our z in the Persi-Arabic, I was glad to avail myself 
of the various forms which j assumes in the Nagree, as the simplest way of discriminating one from 
the other, for, in fact, the Hindoos have no such sound as z in their language ; we are consequently 
obliged to make j with a dot below answer that purpose. Those Hindoostanee students who wish 
to become masters of this orthoepigraphical ultimatum, with the most beneficial effects to theirselves, 
and with the least possible trouble, should transcribe the following extract from the Char Durwesh 
into any of the oriental characters they may prefer for that purpose. This exercise alone will give 
them a habit of writing with facility, besides enabling tliem to spell every word with the utmost 
accuracy ^nd precision. Every body will allow that this is an object of no small difficulty and im- 
portance in the languages of the East, where so many similar sounds are constantly expressed by 
very different letters, with which every scholar, however, is supposed to be so well acquainted, as to 
avoid all errors of that nature. Several excellent oriental scholars, and, among the rest, my par- 
ticular friend and former pupil, Mr. John Bardoe Elliott, of the Bengal Civil Service, have become 
such converts to the Hindee-Roman system, as to approve highly of the Plate, and general principles 
on which the orthoepigraphical scheme is now founded. This gentleman has lately favoured me 
with a short account of the Hindoostanee language, from Meer Ummun's elegant translation of the 
Char Durwesh ; and this, by way of exercise and instruction, is subjoined in the Hindee-Roman 
character, with Mr Elliott's literal version in English. 

huqeequt oordoo kee zuban kee boozoorgon ke moonh se yoon soonee hue, ki Dillec shuhr hindoo- 
won ke nuzdcek chuo jnogee hue. conheen ke raja purja qudeem se ruhte the, uor upnee bhak,ha bolte 
the. Huzar burus se Moosulmanon ka umul hoo,a. Sooltan Muhmood ghuzniwee aya; pher ghoree, 
uor lodee, badshah hoo,e, is amudoruft ke ba,is kcochh zubanon ne Hindoo Moosulman kee ame- 
zish pa,ee, akhir, umeer Tuemoor ne (jin,ke ghurane men ub tuluk nam nihad sultunut ka chula 
jata hue) Hindoostan ko liya ; oon,ke ane uor ruhne se lushkur ka bazar shuhr men dakhil hoo,a, is 
waste shuhr ka bazar oordoo kuhlaya ; pher Hnomayoon badshah Puthanon ke hath se liueran hokur 
wilayut gu,e ; akhir wuhan se an kur pusmandon ko goshmalee dee, ko,ee moofsid baqee na ruha ki 
fitna o fusad burpa kure. Jub Ukbur badshali tukht pur buethe tub charon turuf kemoolkon se sub 
quom qudrdanee uor fuez rusanee, is khandan i lasanee kee scon, kur lioozoor men akur jumu hoO|e ; 
lekin hur ek kee goya,ee uor bolce joodee joodee thee : ikuth,the hone se apus men len den, suoda 
sooluf, soowal juwab kurte kurte ek zuban rordoo kee mooqurrur hoo,ec. Jub huzrut Shah Juhan sahibi 
qiran ne qilu,e mrobaruk uor jam; musjid uor shuhr punah tu, umeer kurwaya, uor tukht i ta,oos 
men tumam juwahir jurwaya, uor dul badul sa khuemu chobon pur istad kur tunabon se kliinchwa- 
ya, uor Nuwwab ulee Murdan khan nuhr ko lekur aya, tub padshah ne khoosh hokur jushn furmaya, 
uor shuhr ko upna dar ool khilafut bunaya, tub Shah Juhan abad mushhoor hoo,a (ugurchi Dillee 
joodee hue, wooh poorana shuhr uor yih nuya shuhr kuhlata hue) uor wuiian ke bazar ko oordoOiC 
moo,ulla khitab diya. Umeer Tuemoor ke uhd se Moohummud shah kee badshahut, bulki Uhmud 
shah uor alumgeer sanee ke wuqt tuk peerhee bu peerhee sultunut ek san chulee a,ee ; nidan zuban 
rordoo kee munjte munjte uesee munjee ki kisoo shuhr kee bolee cos se tukkur nuheen khatee lekin 


qudrdan i mconsif chahiye jo tujweez kure, so ub khaoda ne bu,ud moxldut ke Jan Gilkrist sahib sa 
dana nooktu riis pueda kiya ki jinhon ne upne gyan uor ookut se nor tulash o niihnut se qa,;don kce 
kitaben tusneef keen, is subub se Hindoostan kee zuban ka moilkon men riwaj li(X),ii, uor nuye 
sir se riionuq ziyadii hoo,ee ; nuheeri to iipnee diistar o goof tar o riiftar ko bcora nulieen janta ; 
ugiir ek gunwar se poochhe to shuhr wale ko nam rukhta hue, uor upne tu,een sub se bilitur 
suraujhta hue ; khuer aqilan klirod medanund. jub Uhmud Shah Ubdalee Kabool se aya uor sliulir 
ko lootwaya, Shahi akim px>rub kee turuf the ; warls uornialik i nioolk ka nu rulm, sliuhr 
be sir hoguya ; such hue, padshahut ke itibal se shuhr kce ruonuq thee ; ek bargee tubalioe puree 
rii.ees wuhan ke muen kuheen trom kuheen hokur iuhan iiskc seeng siima.e wuhau nikul <jue; ils 
mcolk men puhcnnchhe wuhan ke admiyon ke sath sungut se batcbeet men furuq aya uor buhcwt 
uese hueu ki dus panch burus kisoo subub se Dillee men gu,e uor rulie, wooh bhee kuhan tuluk 
lx)l sukenge kuheenn nu kuheen chook bee ja.enge uor jo shukhs sub afuten suhkur Dillce ka rora 
hokur ruha uor dus pancli pcoshten oosee shuhr men goozrecn uor oos ne durbar oonira,on ke uor 
mele thele oors chhuryan suer tumasha, uor koochu gurdee ojs shuhr kee ninoddut tuUik kee hogce, 
uor wuhan se nikuhie ke bu,ud upnee zuban ko lihaz men rukha hoga, ooska bolna ulbuttu theek 
hue; yih ajia bhee hur ek shuhr kee suer kurta uor tumasha dekhta yuhan tuluk puhooncha 

" I have received the following detail of the origin of the Hlndoostanee language from the mpuths 
of my ancestors : The city of Dillee, according to the Hindoos, has stood for four ages. Their 
princes and subjects have resided there from the remotest antiquity, speaking their peculiar dialect. 
Tlie empire of the Moosulmans is of a thousand years standing : Smltan Muhmood of Gliuznu led 
the way. Then succeeded the Ghuoriyan and Lodiyan dynasties. From this intercourse, the lan- 
guages of the Hindoos and Moosulmans became in some degree intermingled. At length, Tuemoor 
(in whose family the title and dignity of the state still remain) conquered Hindoostan. On account 
of his coming and remaining, the military market became stationary in the city ; therefore the 
market of the city obtained the name of cordoo-Bazar or Camp-Market. Then Hromavoon, bcinw 
defeated by the Puthans, fled to Persia. After some years, having returned, he punished the sur- 
viving rebels. No disturbers of the peace remained who had sufficient power to excite rebellion. 
When the Emperor Ukbur ascended the throne, then all the neighbouring tribes, having heard of 
the discriminating generosity and liberality of that unrivalled family, collected together ; but the 
dialect and language of each differed from that of the other. Being assembled together, niakino' 
exchanges and bargains, and carrying on colloquial intercourse, the oordoo became by degrees the 
standard language. When his Highness Shah Julian (sahibi Qiran, the lord of felicity,) caused the 
royal fortress, the great mosque, and the city ramparts, to be built, he adorned the peacock throne 
with jewels ; and having erected a tent Infhj as the heavens, reared it on poles, and fixed it with 
ropes, while the Nuwwab Ulee Murdan Khan cut the canal, and brought it to the city. Then tlic 
emperor being happy, ordered a festival, and made the city tlie scat of government. Since tliis 
time, it has been called Shah Juhanabad, (though Dillee is distinct, for that is called the old, this 



the new city,) and its market-place obtained the name of the Royal Camp. Since the tinle of 
Tuemoor till the reign of Moohummud Shah, indeed till the age of Uhniud Shah and Alumgeer 
the Second, the empire continued, generation after generation, in the same family. At length, the 
oordoo dialect, by continual polishing, attained such a degree of elegance, that the language of no 
other city could stand in comparison with it. But an impartial judge is required to form a deci- 
sion. It has pleased God to bring forward such a learned critic as Mr. John Gilchrist, who, by 
his judgment, acuteness, and indefatigable industry, has been enabled to compile a Grammar of the 
language. On this account, the Hindoostanee language has become more widely diffused among 
the surrounding states, and has acquired increased lustre. Still every one deems his own lan- 
guage, habits, and customs the best. The clown thinks himself the politest man in the world, 
and finds fault with the citizen ; but the wise know how to decide the matter. 

" When Uhmud Shah Ubdalee came from Kabool, and plundered Dillee, Shah Alum bad gone 
towards Bengal. No heir nor possessor of the throne remaining, the city was left without a leader. 
So true it is, that the city received all its splendour from the good fortune of the monarchy. On a 
sudden, ruin spread around ; the most respectable persons of the city became scattered abroad ia 
various directions, wherever they could severally find refuge. Thus situated, from having inter- 
course with the inhabitants, their language became altered. There were also many who, for various 
reasons, went to reside eight or ten years at Dillee. How can it be expected that such persons will 
speak with idiomatic purity ? they must necessarily fall into a number of mistakes : while those 
men, who, having endured at Dillee all hardships, remained firm as the pavement, and whose an- 
cestors have inhabited the city for five or six generations ; and he who has moreover frequented 
the levees of the nobles, all the fairs, shows, and walks, and for many years has been at the public 
amusements and haunts of the city, and who, after having quitted it, has paid particular attention 
to the language, will assuredly possess the oordoo dialect in its utmost extent and purity. Such is 
the case with this pilgrim, (Meer Ummun, the author,) who, visiting many cities, and having seen 
many sights, has made this progress in his work." 

The late Sir William Jones, in the first volume of the Asiatic Researches, p. 13. most judiciously 
remarks : " Our English alphabet and orthography are disgracefully and almost ridiculously im- 
perfect ; and it would be impossible to express either Indian, Persian, or Arabian words in Roman  
characters, as we are absurdly taught to pronounce them ; but a mixture of new characters would 
be inconvenient, and by the help of the diacritical marks used by the French, with a few of those 
adopted in our own treatises on fluxions, we may apply our present alphabet so happily to the nota- 
tion of all Asiatic languages, as to equal the Devanagari itself in precision and clearness, and so re- 
gularly, that any one who knew the original letters, might rapidly and unerringly transpose into 
them all the proper names, appellatives, or cited passages, occurring in tracts of Asiatic literature." 

Though I by no means pretend to assert, that my system of Hindee-Roman orthography will 
prove so infallible as the method proposed by the above celebrated writer, still I may safely affirm, 
that there will not be above one word in five hundred where it will not be found perfectly 


correct, and truly useful to every beginner who takes the necessary pains to comprehend what has 
been already said in these sheets on the subject. 

It being customary in works of this nature to prefix a general view of the Grammar, connected 
with the Dictionary, I have deemed it advisable to introduce here, in the form of Grammatical 
Principles, the substance of my large Hindoostanee Grammar, now out of print, in the belief that 
these will supply its place, if studied with the attention which their utility and importance will be 
found to merit. 

Having often observed the great advantages of numerical arrangement on the score of reference 
and memory, the reader will perceive that I have endeavoured to exhibit the whole of the rules, 
including the forms of declension and conjugation, in a connected series of paragraphical principles, 
with their respective numbers, from first to last ; and he will, I trust, make due allowance for 
the occasional defects of a plan founded upon general convenience, which cannot therefore be 
fettered by the more methodical and common forms of a regular Grammar. 

aii ,»/ OF THE NOUN. 

'.mn,.^ -a*',. Si 

-»«jj«M4 tutil \d wJirtafOg'SM -jiuMA THE ARTICLE. iHJlf ifSfli/IHO? ^^>a Vili: 

1. The articles a, the, as in Latin, are commonly inherent in the simple noun ; kltab la,o, may 
si<mify, according to circumstance, either bring a or the book. 

2. Ek, one, sometimes ko,ee, any, express the Indefinite, a, an, and wooh, he, she, it, that ; yih, 
he, &c. this ; hee or ee, very, the definite article th£. In Arabic words, ul is used, as ul-qooran, 
the koran. 


3. Nouns are declined like those of both ancient and modern languages, on the twofold principle 
of inflections and postpositions combined in one, which still exists among our pronouns, /, me ; 
thou, thee ; he, him. The necessity of the inflection or oblique, in all the cases here, cannot escape 
the most superficial English scholar, although the mere nouns, like of a man, to a man, from a man, 
can give no adequate idea of pronominal inflection in that tongue. 

4. Particles termed, from their apparent preposterous situation, postpositions, perform the office 
of our prepositions in the formation of the various cases of every noun, which must then appear, if 
declinable, in the inflection, as our of him, to him, from thee ; never of he, from thou. See 3. 

5. Nouns of the first declension are all masculines, declinable in the singular, and terminate in 
a, an, or u only, the vowels of which, in the singular inflection and nominative plural, become by 
substitution e. d 2 


6. On the same principle of substitution, these nouns of the first declension also adopt the adven- 
titiotis on and o, for the inflection and vocative plural, lurk-on, boys ; lurk-o, O boys. 

7. The great majority of Hindoostanee nouns, like the English, are not inflected in the singular, 
and belong to the second declension, as murd, a man; murd-ka, of a man, a mans ; murd-ko, to 
a man, and so on. This declension comprises every noun which does not end in a, an, u, and all 
feniinines, whatever their termin:^tion may be. ,;^, -.^ , 

8. The nominative plural of all masculines of the second declension is the same with the singu- 
lar ; but feniinines in ee assume the adventitious particle an, and the whole of the rest en, for thje 
case in question, whence lurkiyan,* ^ir^A- ; kitab-en, books; duwa-en, medicines. -i , . ^ 

9. The inflection or oblique plural of every noun in this declension is formed by simply adding 
on to the singular ; and by dropping the nasal n, the vocative plural is also produced, murd-on, 
inen ; lurklyon, girls ; kitab-oii, hooks ; sipahiyo, O soldiers ; consequently the plural cases must, 
by 3. 4. all run so, murdon-ka, of men, metis; kitab-on ko, to books; duwa-on se, with medicines. 

10. The Inflection differs from a case by springing at once from the noun's self, whereas a case 
generally requires not only the inflection, but a postposition also, as exemplified in 4. 7. 

11. Except the nominative, genitive, and vocative, the number and names of the various cases 
depend entirely on the nature of the postpositions, which the learner may subdivide into objective 
dative, locative, social, instrumental, ablative, causal, communicative, &c. 

12. The nominative, vocative, and feminine particles an, en, e, o, ee, are so called, that they 
may not be confused with the simple inflectives on, e, which alone are governed by the postpo- 

13. The inflection plural in the second declension is a syllable longer than the singular, except In 
certain words, where the penult is a short vowel, which is then dropt. Puthur, a stone ; burns, a 
year ; glrih, a knot, have puthron, burson, girhon, not puthur-on, &c. 

14. The very reverse of the above, and for the same reason, eupfionice gratia, is observable in 
duwa-on becoming duwa,e,on, duwayon, medicines ; ma|On, ma,e,on, mayon, mothers ; which some- 
times thus increase a letter or a syllable, instead of being contracted, as in 13. 

15. When a hiatus of this kind is met with among verbs, as well as nouns, an intermediate y or 
w is of constant and great use ; so is a contraction of the short u in many verbs, as we shall perceive 
in the conjugation of ana, aya, a,e, awe, sumujhna, sumjha, &e. 

16. Sometimes a masculine noun, like saqec, a cup-bearer, admits of an in the nominative 
plural, as an adopted Persian nominative, (resembling radii, data, phenomena, in English,) which 
occasionally holds good for the inflection also, especially in the Dukjiunee Hindoostanee, which 
generally prefers ruqeeb-an, yar-aii, to ruqceb-on, rivals ; yar-on, friends. 

* By referring to page v. the learner will at once perceive why this word and all such become 
hirkiyan, hirkiyon, sipahiyo. Sic. etymology thus almost invariably accommodating itself to the 
general rules of orthoepy, an example of which occurs also in 13. 


17. Every word which does not terminate in u, a, an, with all the feminines that do, bclon;^ to 
the second declension, as stated in 7. besides many other arbitrary exceptions from the first in a, as 
baba, a son ; khcoda, God ; which in the singular are totally indeclinable. 

18. The first and second declensions differ in the want and possession of a singular inflection, in 
the addition and substitution of inflective, vocative, and nominative particles, and in the first ad- 
mitting of masculines only, while the second comprises both masculines and feminines, a few 
words in 25. excepted. 

19. They agree in having the very same plural inflections and vocative particles, in their mas- 
culine, nominative plurals, being almost entirely like the singular numbers, and in assuming the 
same postpositions for all the cases. 

20. The result of the foregoing premises is, that there are seven adventitious particles, divisible 
among the declensions as follows : 

_. ( a ) nom. ti 

First -I J- . ^ .S , 

( e ) mflec. <* and nom. plur. 

^ ee ^ singular as a substitute. 

Second ■< an V nom. fem. S j ee 

' en J "g " (any other let. 

Common (on 1 inflective g murd-on, men. 

to both ( o j vocative murd-o, O men. 

21. In words like ga,e, ga,o, a cmv ; ga,en, ga,on, cows ; gha,o, a wound ; unkhiya, an eye ; 
the nasal n alone is, for obvious reasons, added in the plural. Dhoo,an, smoke ; ro,an, hair, and 
words of this sort, have dhoo.en, rO|en, unkhiyan, dhoo-on, unkhiyon, in the nom. pi. and in- 

22. English pronominal declension is so analogous to the economy of Hindoostanee nouns, that 
nothing more is wanted than to use the Hindoostanee postpositions after the inflections, as we do 
the prepisitions before them in our own tongue, whenever the pronoun is inflcctible. Murd-ko, 
to a man ; murd-on ko, to men ; compared with to you, to thee ; you will give to me, and I will 
return to you, pave the way for what follows. , 

23. The pronoun t/u)u, thee, yon, from the foregoing examples, exactly resembles the second 
declension here, reversing the numbers, as the plural you is no more declinable than the singular 
murd, &c. of the second declension. He, him, they, them, is, in like manner, no bad emblem of 
the first, except in the nominative plural not differing from the singular inflection, lurk-a, lurk-e, 
boy ; lurk-e, lurk-on, boys. 

24. Certain words, as raja, a prince ; chucha, an uncle ; gunga, the Ganges ; either belong 
regularly to the first, or, as exceptions, revert to the second declension ; others, like tcgh or tcghu, 
a sword ; boond, bcwndee, or boonda, a drop ; shoohrut, shoohru, fame ; are common in both gen- 
der and declension, from their various terminations. 







boy, -s. 




a girl. 
















25. Juguh, station ; turuh, manner ; futuh, victory ; with a few more, besides sometimes 
dropping or transposing the inspirate, occasionally seem to have an obscure inflection to jugih, 
turih, and consequently belong in some measure to the second declension in the plural, jughen, 
jughon, and to the first in the singular number, not unlike delicium, delicice, in the Latin tongue. 
See 18. 

26. As the nominative is much used for the accusative in short sentences, or where there would 
otherwise be two oblique cases, so is the oblique or inflection introduced for the nominative, fol- 
lowed by the expletive ne, before the transitive verbs in any perfect tense. Lurke ne diya ghora 
lurkiy-on ko, the boy gave the girls a horse ; murdon ne kuha lurkon se, the men told the boys. 

27. The inflection plural of certain nouns may belong to the first or second declension, from the 
different principles of addition and substitution by which on is applied ; thus the inflection or ob- 
lique of gor, a grave ; bund, a bandage; chushm, the eye; with numberless others, cannot well 
be discriminated, unless by the context, from the oblique of gora, fair ; bundu, a slave ; chushmu, 
a fountain ; which are also goron, bundon, chushmon. 


28. The postpositions are simple and compound ; the first require the mere inflection of a noun, 
while the second govern its inflected or feminine genitive. The simple hardly exceed twelve in 
number, but the compounds are numerous. 

29. Ka, of, V ; ko, to ; se, from, by, to, with, on ; pur, on, at ; men, in, at ; and the rest are a 
species of primitive particles, whose deduction is very difficult ; on the contrary, sath, with ; pas, 
Ttear ; waste, for ; age, before ; mare, through, from ; liye, khatir, for, are generally nouns, adjec- 
tives, or verbs, which require ke or kee between them and the inflection, as by 28. and 35. 

30. Lurke-ka, of a boy, a boy''s ; lurke-ko, to, (or simply) a boy ; lurke-se, from a boy ; and 
lurke ke sath, with a boy ; ought now to demonstrate the difference of simple and compound post- 
positions, because the last example, Including all such, is merely elliptical of lurke ke sath men, in 
a boy''s company, sath in reality meaning company, as sathee does a companion. 

31. Almost every word which terminates in e may be considered as inflected from a ; the post- 
positions therefore that end in e, are generally mere inflections ; lurke ke age, before the boy, when 
analysed, is lurke ke age men, in front of the boy, aga being a noun which signifies front, van, fore- 
part, &c. 

32. Ka, of, 's, has not only all the governing qualities of a postposition in the Hindoostanee, but 
is itself a declinable adjunct in the second declension, that admirably proves the intimate connec- 
tion between genitive and adjective forms in most languages. As an adjective affix, which every 
spholar should consider it, ka, ke, of the first, reverts in its feminine form kee, to the second de- 


-e- boy's -e- Ixty's 

33. lurkw ka ghora, a horse. lurk- ke ghore se, from a horse. 

-ee- girls -ce- girFs 

-e- boy's -e- boys 

.lurk- kee ghoree, a mare. lurk- kee ghoree se, /ro»» o mare. 

-ee- girPs -ee- girCs 

-ka murd, man. -ke murd man. 

kam- a useful kani- -se, from a useful 

-kee uorut, woman. -kee uorut woman. 

are examples, which by extension to a number of such combinations, will elucidate the nature of 
ka, ke, kee, better than a volume on the subject, to those learners especially who shall acquire the 
habit of rendering these particles by 's in preference to of, and who at the same time recollect, that 
cow''s milk, earners hair, his (he's) house, whose (who''s) name, exhibit nearly the same sort of adjec- 
tives in our language also. 

34. Simple postpositions seldom govern the inflected genitive, but compounds frequently require 
the inflection only, the intermediate ke being dropped ; lurke pas, tiear a boy ; ghore age, before the 
horse, 30. 31. 

35. When the compound postposition is otherwise a feminine noun, like turuh, manner, way ; 
khatir, sake, for ; turuf, side ; nisbut, relation ; the intermediate ke becomes kee, lurke kee khatir 
(ko), for (the sake of) a Imy ; lurkee kee turuh, like a girl, on the very same elliptical principles 
as 30. because were se added to the last example here, it would be — in the way of a girl. 

36. None of the other simple postpositions among the nouns (52) are declinable except ka ; but 
as the whole at times may be used propositi vely, the learner should advert to ure, the vocative 
masculine sign, becoming uree before feminines. Ure lurke, O boy ; uree lurkee, O girl. He 
must moreover recollect, tliat kee, the feminine genitive sign, may at times be confounded with 
kee, the feminine of kiya, and also that se, the ablative, is on a similar footing with the se of sa, 
se, see,* son, in 45. of which hereafter. 

37. All the postpositions have a variety of meanings, which the learner ought carefully to re- 
collect, as he may often meet with se and others signifying from, with, to, by, at, on, &c. according 
to various circumstances, which cannot be adverted to in a work of this kind. 


38. Males and females are naturally masculine and feminine, whatever their terminations may 
be ; ee, t, sh, and all Arabic nouns of the form tuzreeb, are in general feminine, while a, u, and all 
the rest, may be treated as masculine finals, till the scholar learns the reverse from practice and the 
Dictionary, Vol. II. 



S9. The word qubeelu, applied to a wife, is perhaps a solitary instance where termination is pa- 
ramount to sex, and this may be owing to qubeelu properly meaning a family. Panee, water ,- 
ghee, boiled butter ; motee, a pearl; duhee, curdled milk ; jee, life, are probably the only words in 
the language, ending in ee, which are still masculine, when not so by the grand rule of nature, like 
malee, a gardener ; sipahee, a soldier. 

40. Feminines are formed from masculines, by substituting for, or adding ee, in, un, u, &c. to 
the masculine finals. 

41. Nur occasionally denotes the he, and madu the she, as In Persian. There are some nouns, 
like admee, homo ; usamee, a client, which have the common gender as applicable to either sex : 
and many others are doubtful, fikr, care ; jan, life; tukrar, repetition ; lufz, a word, &c. appearing 
sometimes in one gender, and at other times in another, among the best speakers and writers of 
Hindoostanee. A few words, viz. ma, a mother ; bap, a father ; murd, a man ; itorut, a woman, 
as in other tongues, have no literal affinity to denote their opposite genders. 


42. Adjectives are declined exactly as substantives having the same termination ; they are con- 
sequently of the first and second declensions, like ka, ke, kee, and when used as nouns, they assume 
on, but not otherwise, 48. 

-a -a, boy. -e -e, boys. 

gor- lurk- a fair gor- lurk- fair 

-ee -ee, girl. -ee iy^> girls. 

-e mart's. on, men, 

gOT- ka, a fair gor- se, from fair 

-ee woman's. -iyo? women. 

43. When the adjective follows the noun, it can assume an, whence goree lurkiyan, and lurkee 
goriyan, both denote /air g-irfo. 

44. Ordinals require the addition of wan to the cardinals, whence, 

wan -a, hoy. -wen -e boy. 

dus- lurk- the tenth dus- lurk- sq, from the tenth 

ween -ee, girl. ween -ee girl. 

45. The adjunct of similitude sa, se, see, son, denoting like, ly, ish, resembles ka, as an adjective  
particle of infinite use in the Hindoostanee. 


46. When compounded with adjectives, it does not retjuire any inflection, kala-sa, blackUh; with 
nouns it commonly does. 

-sa lurka, boy. -see lurkee, girL 

lurke- o childish lurkee- a girliah 

-see lurkee, girl. -sa lurka, bog. 

47. The comparative and superlative degrees are Ixjst formed by se, men se, sub se, though 
buhoot, very, uor, more, &c. often occur as in English — 

lurke lurkee goree girl bog. 

8C hue, the is fairer than the 

lurkee lurka gora boy gif^ 

gore gora gora, bogj 

se or sub se the fairest &c. 

goree goree goree, girl^ 

but the above are sufficient to shew the regimen and concord here. 

48. The cardinal numbers are declined like other nouns of the second declension, with this pecu- 
liarity, that bcth the vocative and inflection are often substituted for the mere nominative ; thus, 
teen, teeno, teenon, seem all to denote three, the three, in this case even before intransitivcs, and 
transitives present and future, or unlike 42. with nouns, as teenon fuqeeron se, from the three men- 

49. These numerals are not perhaps the only words of the above description, as burson, dinun, 
muheenon, puhron, and such inflections, frequently supplant the. nominative plural ; burus, year* ; 
din, days ; muheene, months ; puhur, watches, in expressions like burson goozre, years have elapsed. 

50. As the vocative is sometimes used for the nominative among adjectives by 48. so is the no- 
minative frequently for the vocative among nouns, whence beta, O son; yaran, O friends. 


51. The whole of the pronouns from the nature of their inflections, may be classed under the 
common declension, being in general inflected in the singular by substituUon like the first, and in 
the plural by that and addition also, agreeably to both declensions. 

52. There is a jx)stposition e singular, and en plural, peculiar to the pronouns, in other respects 
exactly corresponding with ko, for, to, &c. of the nouns; but to facilitate the acquisition of such 
useful parts of speech, the pronouns may at once be divided into regulars, irreguiatv, and neuters, 
on principles that will necessarily be developed in their detail here. 




53. This subdivision contains the third personal proximate and remote demonstratives, yih, he, 
she, it, this;- yr.^h, he, she, it, that ; along with the relatives, correlatives, and interrogatives, juon, 
tuon, who, which, that same ; kuon, who ? which ? 

54. The nominative plural pf the above personals is. formed by substituting e, for their two last 
letters, whence ye, these ; we, they, those ; all the rest have this case alike in both numbers ; and in 
the singular, indeed, jo and so commonly occur for juon,, tuon, as kon, ko, ke, occasionally do for 
kuon. ' 7 r , 

55. The inflection of the whole is a substitution of is for the singular, and in for the plural ; thus, 

.^j.- is, him, her, this. -^ ens, him, that.-t.'-nixft^ ■',:'. 

'm,^thet)t, these. rton, :4hem, those. 

. ' •, jis, jin, whom; tis, tin, *bhom ; kis, kin, ivhoin? • 'r;'; 

56. T-he 'particle on, by addition applies so completely to the whole of these -and the other wo 
nominal plurals, as to mak<e one almost suspect that the above were formerly dual inflections, and 
to believe the real plurals are inhon, «>nhon, jinhon, tinhon, kinhon, tliough now iutroduced almost 
pi-omiscuously. This conjecture meets with some support by mun, / ; ma,- mayan, we, and. others 
of this nature in the Persian. 

57. The aspirate in oonhon, &c. is very apt to be supj*essed, not only here, but in other pro*, 
nouns, which frequently drop, assume, or preserve it very capriciously, 70. From the various 
cases of pronouns still preserving the aspirate, there is every reason to believe that in, oon, jin, kiHj 
toom, &c. were formerly written -and pronounced inh, oonh, toomh, &:c. 

68. The whole of the regulars and neuters have their various cases formed by ka, ke, kee, and 
the other postpositions, affixed to their inflections, almost exactly as the nouns, and in this respect 
they perfectly coincide with the pronouns of our language. ' s^'^ttk .B# 

69. Wooh, he; cos, him; <ns-ka, of him ot his, (force's); oos-ko, cos^, to him or him; con-fcai 
of them, their; ron-ko, oonh-en, to them ; ooil-ke pas, near them ; con-ke 'waste, for them ; oan-k^ 
hxtkohsc, frotn their boys, are illustrations, which, with a few such instances, will make whatever 
is apparently difficult in the declension of all Hindoostanee nouns and pronouns, remarkably easy to 
every student. 


'jiii Vibaji f)' : .(iauftfit iixi'  ;»edT .fa 

60. There are three pronouns under this division, the first and second personals, muen, T ; tuen, 
or too, thou, with the reflective or general pronoun ap, self, which seems compatible with the whole 
in that sense, somewhat lite our own. 

61. The principal deviation consists in the genitive sign of the personals, being ra, re, ree, and 
the reflective having ria, ne, nee, with this difference, thai ka is equivalent to of, \ "while they 
seem rather to express, besides of, the n, r, of our own pronouns, mine, tkine, her, yottr, Src. 


.- 62. The inflected genitive of these words, mere, tere, &c. is either used for their simple inflection 
moojh, toojh, &C. or simple postpositions, among these pronouns, can govern the inflected genitive, 
whence mere or moojh-pur, oa me. Moojh, toojh, on the other hand, often occur in verse foK.meca» 
tera, or their inflections, but seldom in prose, and ordinary conversation. .' ;'■'/ .*••* 

63. Since ra and na are equivalent genitive signs to ka, toomhare waste, fur you ; upne waste, 
for aelf, cannot well,, without a pleonasm, become toomhare ke waste, upne ke waste, unless these 

as adjectives mean your and own, with some intervenient noun expressed or understood. 

64. Muen, /,• mer-a, -e, -ee, of me, mine ; moojh, me; hum, we; humar-a, -e, -ee, of you, yojtr^i  -^/^ &-^ 
humon, us, is the standard for tuen, thmt, except that too is much used for thou, whence toom, you, 

which,, aa in EngUsh, generally occurs for tlie inflection tooodion, you, likewise, as hum does for us, 
from the resemblance which In this respect hum, toom, also bear to nos, we, ?t« ; vos, you, in both 
the subjective and objective states of these Latin pronouns. 

65. Hee or ee, after these personals, denotes self, and in every case biit the nominative usurps < 
the place of ap; muen hee, muen ap, I myself ; moojhee ko, never moojh ap ko, to myself; toojhee, 
thyself, must be carefully discriminated from toojhe, to thee, thee, that cases like toojhee ko, to thy- 
self, thyself, may not be considered as the pleonasms, toojh-e-ko, &c. with a double postposition. 

QQ. Ap, self, is rather a perplexing word, from its meaning also honour, worship, applicable to 
both the person spoken of and addressed. Muen ap se such kuhta boon, ki ap gote huen,. / assure 
your worship that his honour is asleep, or that you are asleep ; muen upna kuhta hopn, ap ka nulieen, ' 

/ am speaking of myself, not ofipu. ,^^^, » <^ ^ xnoifci .0 

67. Upna either applies to own^ with my, thy, &c. before it, according to circumstances, ot to 
my, thy, &c. self; kyoon toom upne ap ko tulwar se maroge .? what, will you kill your ow7i self with 
a sword ? wooh upne tU|een galee deta hue, he abuses his self. 

68. When my, our, thy, your, his, her, their, follow their respective nominatives, as the governed 
words in the same member of a sentence, upna in general supplies their pjac«^ and vice versa. I 
saw my father, muen upne bap ko dekha ; we three brothers atid our sister went, hum teen bhB,ee uor 
humaree buhin gu,e ; and we all saw our uncle, uor hum subhon ne upne chuche ko dekha. 

69. The possessives.or pronominal genitives, with all words of that, description, may be singular 
as far as they are merely concerned, and plural with respect to their nouns, or viae versa. Mere 
ghore, my horses ; humara ghur, our house ; hum toom upne su,ees se kuhenge, we, (that is, you and 
I,) will tell our groom ; when each have a groom, the sentence must then run partly thus,^ upne 
upne su,ees ko, or upne su,eeson. 


• /yjji /ill .r.i"' ,«'rv- V .'•J ■«» f*** *«"•> • *■' 

70. Are also three in n,umber, ke,a, kya, what ? ko,ee, any ; and koocbJb, «D»te ,- 4!he first is Je- 
cUned with an intervening, aspiratp, kaiie, and the two last have almost indiseriminatcly kisee, 
klsoo, for their inflection singular, and kinhoon, kinheen, for the plural, both af wHch also drop 
the aspirate, and ar« <jn the whole very liable to confusion with kuoji^'ia its various inflection.s, 

E 2 


71. Ko,ee more properly relates to persons, and kcnclih to things, but the distinction between 
them is often very obscure. Kya is much used adverbially for liotv, what ! and in the inflection 
witii the postpositions, for what purpose, sort, kind, stuff, &c. as occasion may require. 

72. Yih kahe ka sundooq hue, expresses what materials is this chest made qf? but yih sundooq 
kahe fco, means to what use is this chest applied ? '•'^ '*■'« ***' i"**^ '^ '*''*-' 

73. The compounds like jo ko,ee, whoever, are doubly inflected to jis kisee, &c. but kuon sa, 
ko,ec sa, juon sa, whichsoever, &c. change in the particle of similitude only. Kuon see kitab loge, 
which of the hooks do you take? juon see toom' chaho, whichever you please. 

To render the foregoing principles as easy as possible, I shall here exhibit their general result in 
a more practical scheme of Declension, applicable to nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, as they com- 
monly appear in other Grammars. Although, strictly speaking, three or perhajis four Declensions 
miglit be found in the Hindoostanee, it will be advisable to reduce them to two, because almost 
every nuLsculine noun which ends in a, u, or an, is declined like ghora, a horse ; piyadu, a foot- 
man ; while the whole of the rest follow, qulum, &c. Thus, 

First Declensimi. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. ghora, a horse. ghore, horses. 

 G. ghore ka, ke, or kec, of a horse, or a horse's. ghoron ka, ke, kee, of horses, or horses''. 
D. ghore ko, to a horse. i ghoron ko, to horses. 

A- ghore ko, a horse. ghoron ko, horses. 

V. ghore re, horse. Rhoro, O horses. 

A. ghore se, with, from, or by a horse. ghoron se, with, from, or by horses. 

N. piyadu, a footman. piyade, footmen. 

G. piyade ka, ke, or kee, of a footman, or a piyadon ka, ke, or kee, of footmen, 

 D. piyade ko, to a footman. piyadon ko, to footmen. 
A. piyade ko, a footman. piyadon ko, footmen. 
V. piyade re, O footman. piyado, footmen. 

A. piyade se, from, &c. a footman. piyadon se, with, kc. footmen. 

^ Second Declension. 

N. qulum, a pen. qulum, pens. 

G. quhim ka, kee, or ke, of a pen, or a pen's. qulumon ka, ke, kee, of pens. 

D. qulum ko, to a pen. qulumon ko, to petis. 

A. qulum ko, a pen. qulumon ko, pens. 

V. qulum re. Open. qulumo. Opens. 'H '^^' •' ' 

A. qulum se, with, &c, a pen. qulumon se, with, &c. pens. '*•"'■ t*''. 



N. soorut, a face. 
G. soorut ka, ke, kee, of a face. 
D. soorut ko, to a face. 
A. soorut ko, a face. 
V. soorut ree, O face. 
A. soorut se, with, &c. a face, 

N. ghoree, a mare. 

G. ghoree ka, ke, kee, of a mare. 

D. ghoree ko, to a mare. 

A. ghoree ko, a mare. 

V. ghoree ree, O mare. 

A. ghoree se, with, &c. a mare. 

sooruten, face.g. 
soorutoii ka, ke, kee, of faces. 
sooruton ko, to faces. 
sooruton ko, faces. 
sooruto, O faces. 
sooruton se, by, kc. faces, 

ghoriyan, mares. 
ghoriyon ka, ke, kee, of mares. 
ghoriyon ko, to mares, 
ghoriyon ko, mares, ...v4-4. 

ghoriyo, O mares. • ^'rrt- "Ti ."n- 
ghoriyon se, with, &c. mares. 




N. khuta, a fault. 

G. khuta ka, ke, kee, of a fault, 

D. khuta ko, to a fault. 

A. khuta ko, a fault, 

V. khuta ree, O fault. 

A. khuta se, by, kc. fault. 

khuta, en, faults. 

khuta.on ka, ke, kee, of faults, 

khuta,on ko, to faults. 

khuta|On ko, faults. 

khuta,o, O faults. '■' '" 

khuta,on se, with, kc, faults. ' 

— r 

N. dana, wise, or a wise man. dana, wise, or wise men, 

G, dana ka, ke, kee, of a wise man, or a wise man^s. dana,on ka, ke, of wise men. 
D. dana ko, &c. dana.on ko, &c. 

The student must be prepared to meet with several nouns similar to khuta and dana in the 
course of his reading, and the way to discriminate them as such, is to note every word ending with 
a en, as a nominative plural of some feminine in a, consequently of the second declension, and 
indeclinable in the singular. When the postpositions do not inflect final a or u to e, or when a,on 
terminates any word, it also must prove a masculine or feminine of the second declension, as an 
exception from the first, and should ever after be treatetl accordingly. Some few nouns are com- 
mon, and depend upon the whim of the writer ; for instance, the word raja, a kitig, in the genitive 
singular, becomes raja ka, ke, kee, or raje ka, ke, kee, and of course, in the inflection plural, is 
either raja,on ka, ke, kee, or rajon ka, ke, kee ; these must accordingly be learned by practice 
and experience in the language. 

VJ 110 ij)' 


The Pronouns Personal, &c. are as follows : 

\st Person. ,.*»*^.»> 'A 

• '   .,-■•..■ I -.. . ■■» 

Singular. Plural. 

N. muen, /. hum, we. 

G. me-ra, -re, or -ree, my, mine, or of me. hum-ara, -are, or -aree, our^ our''s, ofm, '^ 

*D. moojh ko, tome. humon ko, torn. .'.^ »nw* ./ 

A. moojh-e, wie. ^\'^^^ -" hum-en, «*.  -^ ^w« v»« i««i«» .A 


A. moojh se, from, &c. me. nrtnt^-, . humon se, from, &c. us.'^'^^^ '■ ■*''"*.'> "^ 

v ,o^ Mi ^'^ Person. . , >j 

N. tuen,f thou. ' tojm, ye, or j/om. 

G. te-ra, -re, or -ree, o/ ^Aee, thy^ &c. toomh-ara, -are, or -axee^q/lyoft^ j/9tMr>&c. / 

D. tcDJh ko, ^aJlAee. tromhon ko,; to 2^om. .Aij vi ,■« 'jiVorta .A 

A. toojh-e, /Aee. toomh-en, you. 

\. UM-re, O thou. «»\ ,flp,r=-..ii toom-re, O yoM. crf^_ft ^ti»hl .K 

A. tojh se, from,, &c. thee, i ^^ ,^,, -, ,,^i tomhon se,.from, &c. j^om. ^j\^j ^^^^^ .^ 

SS Person Proadmate. •' Al , 

. •'  * . 

N. yih, he, she, it, this, the. ye, they, these. — > 

G. is-ka, -ke, or -kee, of him, her, this, his, its. inhon-ka, -ke, or -kee, their, their\ cfth&m. 

T). is-ko, to him, to her, it, or this. inhon-ko, to these, to them.^ .< '■ 

A. Is-e, him, her, if. inh-en, them, these. 

V. yih-re, O this. ". ' '" ' ye-re, these. 

A. is-se, from, kc. him, mr, it, or this. ~ '' inhon-se, from these, from them, kc. 

,...'«& .a 

3d Person Remote. 

' N. wooh, /te, &c. iAffl^. we, #Aey, those. 

G. oos-ka, -kc, -kee, of him, his, ker, &c. conhon-ka, -ke, -kee, their, theirs, of those, them. 

J), oos-ko, to him, &c. ^Aa#. ij)9«J«'> ri. <■!■ 'J oonhon-ko, fo them, to those. 

''"'A. oos-e, him, that. nna i^&aiitM of>-8i, oonh-en, them, those. .»i)«t 

V! wooh-re, O that. we-re, O ^/w«e. •■-" v^-fc ■: ' 

A. oos-se, from, &c. Am, &c. that. — '- bonhon-se, from, ke. them, fflhee. 

' ■• '.'..■■. 

, * The scholar should recollect here, that the dative and vocative, like the same cases among tlie ~ 

nouns, are used indiscriminately. 

■|- Too or toon, more common, though less conciliating after muen here than tuen ; as too, how- ~ 

ever, is retained in the vocative or reciprocating case with the nominative, the reader can readily 

call on too also, whenever he pleases. , , 


The (reciprocal, reflective, or general personal ami possessive) pronoun ap, upna, self, own. 

Singular and Plural. 

... fn 

N. ap, self, I, thou,. he. he, she, Stc. A. ap-ko, upne-ko, self, me, &c. 

G. up-na, ap-ka, &c. of self, own, rm/, thy, his, V. j T 

Aer, &c. A. ap-se, upne-se, ^on», &c. «e(/', &c. 
D. ap-ko, upne-ko, to self, &c. me, thee, &c. 



This last pronoun is the same mtxjtTi numbers, and applicable to /, we, you, he', as wcTl as to 

.r 'jIcfinjiySL 

self, selves, my own, his own, their own, &c., 



N. kuon.-a'^" ■*" ' 
G. kis-ka, -ke, or -Wee. 
D. kis-ko. 
A. kis-e. 
V. kuon-re. 
iA« kis-se.' 


ii .V 


Example 1. 

kuon, who, what, which ? 

kinhon-ka, -ke, -kee, whose, of whom ? fkc. 

kinhon-ko, to whom ? &c. 

kinhen, whom, ? 

kubn-re, O who, what ? 

kinhon-se, from whom f 

•Jt\t M 

Example 2. — witioh has ne Plural in the Hindoostanee. 

a. kya, which, what ? 
^?G. kaheJt«, -Jcc, .kee, of w/iich f &c 
D. kahe-ko, to or for tvhich, to what ? 

N. juon. 

(G. jfis-ka, ~ke, -kee. 
£. jis-ko. 
A. jis-e. 
A. ji«-8e.. 

A. kahe-ko, which, what ? 
V. kya-rc, O which, ufliat ?: 
A. kahe-se, from which ? 




juon,- dbho, -wMch, 'what. 
jinhon-ka, -Jce, -kee, .ui^«e, oftirhich, &e. ? 
jinhon-ko, to whom, to which. i 

juihen, whom, wldch. 

jinhon-se, from who»i, from what, Ssc i 



N, tuon, 

G. tis-ka, -ke, -kee, of 
D. tis-ko, to 
A. tis-e, 
A. tis-se, from 

Example 1. 
N. ko,ee, 

G. kisee-ka, -ke,-kee, o/" 
D. kisee-ko, to 
A. kisee-ko, 
V. ko,ee-re, 
A. kbee-se,/«>»> 

that or this, 
he, she, it, 
&c. also him, 
her, his, &c. 


.7 ,t%9 



tinhon-ka, of 
tinhon-ko, to 

 !• r, t , tinhon-se,/«)w» 

Pronominal Adjectives. 

these, those, they, 
them, their, &c. 


a, an, any one per- 
son, body, or thing. 

Example 2. 

kisoo-ka, -ke, -kee, of 
kisoo-ko, to 

kisoo-se, from 

some, little, few, 
-persons, bodies, 
or things, .^i .yr 

-iA'i .\i 


'4*i r'^"'^ 

74. The imperative, in the second person singular, is the root or radical portion of every verb 
in the Hindoostanee, and in general, as in our language, is also a significant useful noun. 

75. Every infinitive terminates in the inflectlble particle na, ne, nee, already noticed in 61. but 
here meaning to, which, like the other postpositive particles, is invariably affixed to the imperative, 
chah-na, to love, the Hindoostanee tongue being in this respect of position, as in some others, 
diametrically opposite to ours, i^ ^■^•^' *-\jvA'» oi ^twAttf *^«>\,io. «i ,o3l-orfai fl 

76. The perfect tense and participle are formed by adding a, (or ya,) e, ee, een, iyan, to the 
imperative, agreeably to the gender and number of the persons, on principles already illustrated 
among the nouns, chah-a, love-d, 16. 20. 42. 

77. The present tense and participle merely require the letter t, as a temporal sign, to precede 
the several particles, enumerated above, as past signs, and which all occur here exactly under 
similar circumstances, chah-ta, love, lovest, &c. .^^,. _^ 

78. The aorist, or subjunctive present, assumes for both genders, oon, e, e, singular, and en,'o 
en, plural, in the order of persons observed here, and on principles recognisable in part by 20. 21. 

79. The future springs from the aorist by adding g, as a future sign prefixed to *the perfect a 
&c. thus, ga, ge, exactly in the order of persons observed in 78. and with respect to gender, &c. 
as in 76. 



80. The pluperfect participle is either txpressed by the imperatlve''s self, or the various particles 
ke, kur, e, kurke, and kurkur, promiscuously affixed to the root, for that most useful portion of, 
the verb. -vV 

81. The result of the foregoing principles, on the verb palna, to trreed, or any other, is as follows : 

Singular. Plural. 

In all the Persons. 

M. & Infl. 


Inf. ger. noun, &c. 

-na, ne. 


Pres. tense and part. 

-ta, te. 


Perf. tense and part. 

-a, e, 


Imp. & Aor. M. & F.* 

^ -oon- e- e- 

r after all the 



Future < above aorist 



C particles. 

Pluperf. part. 

-ke, kur, e. 

kurke, o 

-en -o- 


neeii, niyan. 




-gcen -giyan. 

The inf. or gerund masc. belongs to the first, and the fern, to the second declension. The root 
pal is also used as a jiluperfect participle. 

82. As the particles above enumerated are applicable in the very same manner to all verbs 
whatever, and as the whole drop e in the second person singular of the aorist, to form the root or 
second person of tlie miperative, it naturally follows, that there is but mie conjugation in the whole 

83. When the imperative or root ends in a, (or o sometimes,) it requires ya, instead of a only, 
for the perfect ; if a dissyllabic, having the penult short, this is generally dropt in every tense but 
the present; whence \ia.y a., found ; nikla, issued; nikloonga, I icill issuej from pa-na, tojind; 
nikul-na, to issue, 13. 14. 15. 

* The first person singular differs from the two others, as the second person plural does from 
the first and third persons. Of this mode or tense I may observe, that it is often a present or 
future, both indicative and subjunctive, and also by dropping the e of the second person singular, 
it is the complete regular imperative. Beihg the very basis of the future, and allowing also as a 
present tense, of tlie auxiliary signs boon and hue, it is a portion of the verb highly worthy of the 
readcr''s attention. The hyphens after the aorist are placed in such a manner as to demonstrate, 
that the future of all verbs is regularly so : Pal-oon-ga, pal-e-ga, pal-en-ge, pal-o-ge, &c. In 
other words, that the aorist particles oon, e, o, en, always intervene between the future ga and the 
verb's root or imperative ; but from the effect which the future sign g produces in contact with 
the nasal n, there is no necessity whatever to discriminate it as such in pal-otm-ga, paloonga, 
&c. here, though absolutely requisite in the aorist above. iAii«i~ ': .,4W- 

xxxiv ■' INtKO'DUCTtON. 

84. Should the root or imperative terminate in any vowel, the aorist assumes w, or drops e very 
capriciously ; whence ho, ho,e or howe, hon, ho,en or howen, are all used promiscuously for may 
he, singular and plural. In other respects it is in all such verbs perfectly regular, 83. 

85. The future being founded on the aorist entirely, is consequently under the very same rule ; 
ho-ga, ho.e-ga, or howe-ga, will he, and may always be treated accordingly. 

86. All causals and regular actives being formed by the insertion of wa or a before the na of 
neuters, in the perfect and aorist the whole, of course, are regulated by 83. 84. 85. 

87. As among the nouns, a, e, denote masculines, also the inflective singular and nom. plural, 
the same occurs among the verbs, while the feminine is in like manner formed by the substitution 
of ee for a, 76. 

88. Nasal n only or een and an are, in conjugation, likewise the plural adventitious letters in 
the feminine persons of that number ; the vocative plural or o of nouns is always the sign of the 
plural 2d person imperative and aorist, while e is the singular, and en the plural particle, 20. 

89. The inflection on or oon is met with in the 1st person singular of the aorist only ; whence 
it now appears, that there is not a single adventitious pairticle among the nouns that does not recur, 
under some tense or other, among the verbs also. T, denoting present, and g, future time, are the 
only verbal letters which do not occur adventitiously among the nouns. 

90. The various parts of the verb, except the root or imperative, may belong as nouns to the 
first declension, and, like ka becoming kee, they sometimes revert to the second. 

91. By taking for granted, what may almost be proved, that kee-na, moo-na, dee-na, lee-na, 
hu-na, are the ancient infinitives of kurna, to do ; murna, to die ; de-na, to give ; le-na, to take ; 
ho-na, to he ; and also supposing that o and oo, j and g, are respectively nearly the same letters, 
we shall not find one single irregular verb in the whole Hindoostanee language. 

92. The common transition of a,e, o,e, u,e to ue, and the arbitrary contraction or expansion of the 
aorist by 84. will assist in accounting for the auxiliary verb or present sign being apparently so 
irregular. ' '^ '^ *^ »»eh»*i ^t^***** ,v-i>W>*s.\^ f«i;ii^ .ly^i-^ii:, , i;:,..,--. -;^ .'^'..■. 

93. Ho.oon, ho,e, ho,en, ho,o, the regular aorist of ho-na, to he, may hot only "be" expanded tcr 
howen, &c. but moreover contracted to ho, hon, with an intermediate modification hU|Oon, hU|e, 
hu,en, hu,o, which fall naturally enough into boon, hue, huen, ho, the present tense of this useful 
verb, for which ruhna, to stay, also occurs as an auxiliary, particularly for tha, 97. 

94. On the above reasoning we can clearly accoimt for the various modifications of the future 
howe-ga, ho.ega, ho-ga, hu,ega, hucga, which can hardly be said to differ in meaning, unless the 
last should come nearer a present tense than the rest. 

95. Hoon, &c. affixed to participles, present and past, has exactly the same power and use as 
our am, do, have, &c. ; muen hota hoon, / am ewisting or do exist ; wooh hoo,a hue, he hath been. 

96. When these signs are omitted, the mere present becomes not only indefinite, but also a past 
tense in the subjunctive mood : jo muen lurka hota uesa nuheen kurta, were I a hoy I would not 
act so, or had I heen a hoy I would not have done so ; jo muen wuhan sota kisee ko nuheen jugata 
had I slept there I would not have waked any one. ■'''" "' 'jj>««Of>'>:i X'^'"*>»<J« dguorij ,jnri .^ii 




97. To express the imperfect of the auxihary hona, the word tha, was, did, had, is in use, and 
is probably a contracted perfect of tlie obsolete regular verb thana, to stay, he sfat'umed, which to 
this day means a station, post, guard, as khana, to eat, also sv^iniics food, victuals. 

98. From the above tha, and the indefinite present or participle, comes the imperfect tense, 
muen hota tha, / was existing, or did (then) eonst ; too hoo,a tlia, thou did exist, or had been, 93. 

99. By affixing the future of the auxiliary to the present and perfect of any verb, we procure a 
kind of dubious tense or perfect of the subjunctive : hum hoo,e ho,cnge, we may have been ; tcom 
hote ho,enge, you may (then) have been ; wliich can seldom be translated, shall have been. 

100. The perfect tense and participle often appear to assume and drop the auxiliary hoo,a at 
pleasure: upne moo,e hoo,on, or moo,on ko garo, tmry your slain; upne maron ko jila,o sac[ee, 
animate thy victims, O ciip-bearer ! 

101. In the passive voice the perfect participle of the active verb assumes jana, to go, be, affixed 
in its various tenses, which may nevertheless be followed by such parts of hona as particular tenses 
may still require : hum mare guye the, we had been beaten ; tcnm mare guye hoge, you may have 
been beaten. ■)Wjj»i\'ci 

102. The perfect participle passive, in all compouritl tenses, seems to require guya, (instead 
of jaya, which is seldom used,) but commonly drops it in those which are simple : muen mara 
guya boon, / have been beaten ; muen mara ja,oonga, / shall be beaten. 

103. The personal pronouns, as in Latin, are liot always expressed, the termination, auxiliary, 
or sense, generally pointing out the particular person. When they do occur, it is commonly so : 
' muen, / ; too, thou ; wooh, he, she, that. yih, he, she, this. 

hum, we ; toom, you ; we, they, those. ye, they, tliese. 

The proximate is used only when requisite to discriminate he, as this man, they, these men. 

104. Although the Hindoostanee verbs have often inherently potential, permissive, and other 
properties, they nevertheless require also certain compound forms to express them, the last or 
subservient portion of which is generally conjugated like all other verbs. 

105. These compounds are formed in five diiferent ways, and may be conveniently termed 
radical, preteritive, i?iflective, participial, and reiterative, from the nature of their composition. 

106. The radical (I.) is a very extensive class, comprehending, besides numberless adverbial 
infinitives, the potential and completive forms. 

107. Under the preteritives (II.) are all the passives, desideratives, requisitives, proximatives, and 

108. When the infinitive occurs in the inflected, (III.) instead of the radical form, a consider- 
able number of i«cej)^uc, jjerajissi ye, and ac<;t<m<ire verbs are produced, all highly useful in this 

109. The participial (IV.) combinations are also very numerous, and may be subdivided into 
continuative and statistical. 

110. A very few come under tlie reiterative (V.) class, in which the subservient part has pf 
itself little or no very obvious meaning whatever, although certiuiily dcducible from other signi- 
ficant words. 

F 2 


111. The result of the above enumeration, systematically considered, is thus: 

I. Radicals. 

1. Adverbials, from their signification with us, kat-dalna, to cut off; gir-purna, to fall down; 

kha-jana, to eat tip. ' v'v,\ ,v. 

2. Potentials, bol-sukna, to he able to speak. 

3. Completives, pee-chookna, to he done drinking ; kha-chookna, to finish eating. 

II. Preteritives. 
1. Passives, mara-jana, to he beaten. 

<% Desideratives, mura--chahna, to wish to die. 

S. Requisitives, mura-chahna, ought to die. 

4. Proximatives, mura-chahna, to be about to die. 

5. Frequentatives, bola-kurna, to make a habit of speaking ; jaya^kiirna, to have a trick of going ; 

puera-kurna, to practise stviinming ; aya jaya kurna, to make a practice of 
' coming and goings tofreqzient. - , .■ .^ 

III. Jnjlectives. 

1. Inceptives, seekhne-lugna, to begin to learn. 

2. Permissives, jane-dena, to let or permit to go. 

'■3. Acquisitlves, ane-pana, to be allowed to come ; jane-pana, to be allowed to go. 

IV. Participials. 

1. Continuatlves, purhta-jana or -ruhna, to continue reading. 

2, Statistical, gate-ana, to come singing ; rote-duonia, to run crying. 

V. Reiteratives. -'?' 

'T. Subservients, bolna^chalna, to converse, &c. ; byahna-burna, to marry ; with perhaps a few more. 

112. The inflected iiifinitive at times supplants the radical and preterite forms ; whence chulne- 
sukna, to he able to walk ; buetline-chahna, to wish to sit down. In 'this way, however, muen nu 
chul sukta, / cannot ivalk ; muen chulne sukta, / can, are very liable to confusion ; and as 

- muen nuheen chulne sukta, is not a very musical sentence, the ne therefore, I think, ought always 
on such occasions to be entirely avoided. 

113. The passives and participials change in both their component parts, according to the gender 
and number of their nominatives : wcoh maree gu^ee thee, she was slain ; we gate a,e tlie, they 

, cam^ singing ; wooh rotee ruhee, she continued weeping. vuioiiji. uit) A-i'l >' .■■;), 

114. The reiteratives are in fact conjugated double, oos se muen nu kubhoo bola nu chala, / 
never had any thing to say to him, resembling in this respect the pronouns, 73. 

A summary of the whole verbal principles will now be conspicuous enough in the following 
page, which comprises the form of every intransitive and transitive verb in the language, with the 
entire passive voice of every active verb, comprehend/cd in one conjugation, from which there is 
hardly a single exception or irregular in the Hindoostanee. -^ ;.ii«i.Vvi« ,_(j. ■.... ';<» > 



Imp. umr. bol, speak thou. Inf. and Gcr. nuisdur. l)olna, to speak. 
Pres. and Part, isiiii haleeyu. lx)l-ta, speaking. Perf. and I'art. isnii niufool. bol-a, spoke, spokeu.* 

Present. — hal. 
muen bolta hoon,lspeak,dospeak,oramspeaking. 
too bolta hue, f/ioti art speaking, speakest. 
vooh bolta line, he speaks, is speaking. 
hum bolte huen, we speak, are speaking. 
tram liolte ho, you speak, are speaking. 
we bolte huen, they speak, are speaking. 

Perfect. — mazee mootluq uor qureeb. 
muen bola hoon, / spoke, or have spoken. 
too bola hue, thoic spokest, hast spoken. 
wooh bola hue, he spoke, hath spoken. 
hum bole huen, we spoke, have spoken. 
tram bole ho, you spoke, have spoken. 
we bole huen, they spoke, have spoken. 

Imperfect. — istimraree. 
muen bolta tlia, / did speak, or was speaking. 
too bolta tha, thou didst speak, ivast speaking. 
wcoh bolta tha, he did speak, was speaking. 
hum bolte the, we did speak, were speakitig. 
tcom bolte the, you did speak, were speaking. 
we bolte the, they did speak, were speaking. 

Pluperfect. — bu,eed. 
muen bola tha, I had spoken, spoke, ordidipeak. 
too bola tha, thou hadst spoken, &c. 
wooh bola tha, he had spoken, &c. 
hum bole the, we had spoke7i, &c. 
toDm bole the, you had spoken, &c. 
we bole the, they had spoken, &c. 
Future. — rarostuqbil. 
muen boloonga, / shall, or will speak. 
t(X) bolega, thou shall speak, &c 
wroh bolega, he shall speak, &c. 
hum bolenge, we shall speak, &c. 
tfom bologe, you shall speak, &c. 
we bolenge, they shall speak, &c. 

Aorist & Imp. — moozari uor umr. 
muen boloon, / may, or ran speak, if I speak. 
too bol-e, thou mayest speak, speak thou. 
Wooh bole, he may speak, let him speak. 

/jfl iiJS' 

hum Iwlen, we may speak, if we speak. 
toom bolo, you may speak, speak you. 
we bolen, they may speak, let them speak. 

1. Dubious. — hal mtutushukkee. 
muen bolta hoonga, / may be speaking. 
too bolta hoga, thou mayest he speaking. 
wooh bolta hoga, he may he speaking. 
hum bolte ho,enge, we may he speaking. 
toom bolte ho,oge, you may he speaking. 
we bolte ho,cngc, they may he speaking. 

2. Dubious. — mazee mootushukkee. 
muen bola hoonga, / may have spoken. 
too bola hoga, thou mayest have spoken. 
wrah bola hoga, //e may have spoken ^' 

hum bole ho.enge, we may have spoken. 
toom bole ho,oge, you may have spoken. 
we bole ho,enge, they may have sjwken. 

Conditional. — mazee mootumunnee. 
muen bolta, had I spoken, I would have or might 
have spoken, or were I speaking. 
too bolta, had thou, &c. 
wooh bolta, had he, &c. 
hum bolte, had we, &c. 
tram bolte, had you, &c. 
we bolte, had they, &c. 

Potential. — imkanee. <; 

muen bol sukta or suka, / can, or could speak. 
too bol sukta or suka, thou, he. 
Wooh bol sukta or suka, he, &c. 
hum bol sukte or suke, we, &c. 
toom bol sukte or suke, you, &c. '■ 

we bol sukte mr suke, they, &c. * 

Future Completive. — moostuqbil i qureeb. 
muen bol chookoonga, / shall have spoken. 
too bol chookega, thou shall luive spoken. 
Wooh bol chookega, he shall have spoken. 
hum bol chookenge, tve shall have spoken. 
toom bol chookoge, you shall have spoken. 
we bol chookenge, they shall have spoken. 

* The present and perfect participles, strictly speaking, are discriminated by hoo,a affixed ; this, 
liowever, is so often omitted as to confound tlio two parts of the verb together ;' but the context 
amimonly prevents misconception. By omitting or inserting the auxiliaries of the perfect, it may 
be divided into simple and compound 



When the verb is transitive, all the perfect tenses will often remain wholly uninflected, while 
their pronouns, on the contrary, will be thrown by ne into tlic inflection, as far as they can ; 
thus, — 













~r « 



o '* 





■Si .o 




c^ ^ -C 

<: ^ -a 

The pluperfect participle, mazee nm,utoof uluehi, bol-kur, bol-kc, &c. hnvwg spoken, has ap- 
peared in detail under palna, 81. and merits every attention from the learner, not only as the 
participle which joins two or more members of a sentence, by suspending the meaning, till it closes, 
but also as a convenient abverbial form of the greatest use in the language, in such expressions — 
sahib ke yihan jakur, humara sulam kuhke ooskee topee mangke, oose lekur phir a,o, having gone 
to the gentlemmi's, given my compliments, and borrowed his hat, return icith it here. Whatever you 
do, act deliberately, jo kojchh ki toom kuro so soch-ke kuro, from sochna, to think ; duorke jao, 
go quickly, i. e. having run. 

The future of the infinitive and participle generally occurs so, bola-chahna, to he about to speak, 
bolne-pur, bolne-wala, about to speak ; but such combinations can give little or no trouble to any 
scholar, who has really studied the foregoing principles. The reader cannot well forget, tliat a for 
the fem. sing, becomes ee, and that ee in the fem. plural must be een or iyan ; he must moreover 
recollect, that e of the 2d person imperative singular is always drbpt in that mood; whence, 
bol too, speak thou ; ugur too bole, if thou speak. 

No transitive verb can now be difficult in the active; we shall therefore here exhibit the passive, 
from which the learner will also acquire the verb jana, to go, or to be, as the auxiliary with bona, 
in this voice, provided he leave out mara and mare in his progress through the different tenses, 
thus ; muen jata boon, I go, do go, or am going ; too jata hue, thou goest, dost go, or art going, &c. 
as far* as muen ja chookoonga, I shall have gone, to the end. On similar principles, the verb bona, 
to be, may be treated as a regular verb, meaning to exist, (95. 68.) with the slight deviation of 
hoo,a for ho,a in the perfect tense. One or two more compound tenses might have been added to 
the following form of the verb, but as they very seldom occur, the scholar will lose little by their 




Inf. and Ger. musclar. — ^mara jana, to be beaten. 
Pres. & Part, ismi halecyu. — mara jata, being beaten. Perf. & Part, isini mufool. — mara guya, beaten. 

Present — hal. 
muen mara jata hoon, / am beaten. 
too mara jata hue, thou art beaten. 
wooli mara jata hue, he is beaten. 
hum mare jate liuen, we are beaten. 
loom mare jate ho, you are beaten. 
we mare jate hucn, they arc beaten. 

Perfect. — mazee mootluq uor qureeb. 
muen mara guya hoon, lums. or have beenbeaten. 
too mara guya hue, thojt hnxt been beateii. 
wooh mara guya hue, he hath heefi beaten. 
hum marc guye huen, we have Iteen beaten. 
tram mare guye ho, you have been beaten. 
we mare guye huen, they have been beaten. 

Imperfect. — istimraree. 
muen mara jata tha, I was then beaten. 
too mara jata tha, thorc tvasf beaten. 
wrah mara jata tha, he wa.s beaten. 
hum mare jate the, we were beaten. 
tram mare jate the, yoti were beaten, 
wc mare jate the, they were beaten. 

Pluperfect. — mazee bu,eed. 
muen mara guya tha, / had been, or was beaten. 
too mara guya tha, thou hadst been beaten. 
wrah mara guya tha, he had been beaten. 
hum mare guye the, we had been beaten. 
toom mare guye the, yoti had been beaten. 
we mare guye the, they hud been beaten. 

Future. — mmstuqbil. 
muen mara ja.oonga, / shall, or will be beaten. 
too mai"a jawega, thou shall be beaten. 
wooh mara jawega, he shall be beaten. 
hum mare jawenge, 7ve shall he beaten, 
tram mare ja,oge, you shall be beaten. 
we mare jawenge, they shall be beaten. 

Aor. and Imp. — mrozari uor umr. 
muen mara ja,oon, / may, or can be beaten. 
too mara jawe, thou mayest be beaten. 
Wooh mara jawe, he may be beaten, or let him be 

hum mare jawen, we may be beateM. 
toom marc ja,o, yon muy be beaten. 
we mare jawen, they may be beaten. 

1. Dubious. — hal mrostushukkee. 
muen mara jata iioonga, / may be beaten. 
too mara jata hoga, thou mayest J>e beaten. 

Wooh mara jata hoga, he may be beaten. ' 

hum mare jate ho,enge, tvc may be beatem''^' .'-'^' 
toom mare jate ho,o'ge, you may be beaten. <^« «i.A 
we mare jate ho,engc, they may be beaten. • 

2. Dubious. — mootushukkee. 
muen mara guya lioonga, Imay have been beaten. 
too mara guya hoga, fhoumayest havebeenbeaten. 
wooh mara guya hoga, he may have been beaten. 
hum mare guye ho,enge, icemayhavebeenbeaten. 
tram mare guye ho,oge, you may havebeenbeaten. 
we mare guye ho.enge, they may have been beaten. 

Conditional. — mazee mootumunnee. 
muen mara jata, had I been, would have been, or 

might have been beaten. 
too mara jata, had thou, &c. 
wooh mara jata, Itad he, &c. 
hum marc jate, had we, &c. 
toom mare jate, had you, &c. 
we mare jate, had they, &c. 

Potential. — imkanee. 
muen mara ja sukta or suka, / can or could he 

too mara ja, &c. thou canst, &c. 
Wooh mara ja, &c. he can, &c. 
hum mare ja sukte or suke, we can, Sec. 
toom mare ja, &c. you can, &c. 
we mare ja, &c. they can, &c. 

Future Completive. — moostuqbil i qureeb. 
muenmarajachoDkoonga,/«A(7/^ have been beaten. 
too mara ja chookcga, thou shall, &c. 
Wooh mara ja chookega, he shall, &c. 
hum mare ja cliookenge, we shall, &c. 
toom mare j a chnokoge, you shall, &c. 
we mare ja ehookenge, they shall, &c. 



SYNTAX. , . 


115. Our definite the, being in all probability a mere ellipsis of this, that, as a, an, are of oiie, 
any, there can be nothing extraordinary in yih, wash, often supplying our th^& place, whatever we 
may think of their occasionally representing a likewise. 

116. AVhen this is the case, it appears that the pronoun, or adjective rather, might also be trans- 
lated by such a, and ought to be followed by the relative ki. Hurgiz nu janiyo wooh admee dronya 
men nuzur awe, ki jis men ueb nu ho, never believe (nny or such) a man tvill he found cm earth who 
has no failing. Yih, in examples of this kind, is not perhaps so common, however it may other- 
wise be very proper. ' , 

~ 117. Ek and ko,ee seem both equally congenial with our a, an, any. Jub muen eehan ek (or 
ko,ee) admee be ueb dekhoon buhoot tu.iijjoob kuroonga, ivheji I shall behold in this world a spotless 
man, I shall marvel much ; yihan tuk beemar hue, ko,ee dum men murega, he is so ill, that he will 
die in a little time (or breath.) ' 

118. In many instances koochh, some, may yet be found no less applicable, as koochh phul, in 
my opinion, denotes any or a fruit ; hoo at times occurs for hee, as ajhoo, to-day, this very day,hut 
these rather denote very, really, self ; wcnh ghur men hue, he is in the house, viz. at home ; muen 
crhur hee men tha bahur nuheen, / was witlmi the house absolutely, not ivithout. 

119. When the pronominal articles follow each other, one of them certainly seems very like our 
the, though at the same time we may still recognise them as pronouns ; yih wooh admee hue, wcoh 
yih admee hue, this or that is the man. 

120. The introduction of the Arabic particle ul is attended with the change or coalition to which 
1 is subject in that language, with any letter which follows it, the gutturals k, kh, q, gh, uen, li, 
h, with b, j, f, m, yu, and u, excepted; us-sukhee hubeeb mllah, a generous man is the friend of God. 

121. It seems essential to all the articles but hee, ee, to precede the nouns or adjectives ; thus, 
tumamee shuhur, the whole town ; yih lurka ck din wuhan ek gliureeb fuqeer ke yuhan ruha fha, 
the hoy sojourned a day at a poor mendicant's. For the last ek, were ko,ee or kisee substituted, the 
meaning of the sentence would hardly be changed, owing to the intimate connection between the 
articles and pronominal adjectives here, 117. 

122. Where our the is almost indispensable, there is none apparent in Hindoostanee. We can 
say, the cook David, or David the cook, the butler John, or John the butler, indiscriminately, with little 
inconveniency ; but the Hindoostanees cannot thus rteverse, Da,ood bawurchee, Yuhya khansama.n, 
consistently with the idiom of their language. , 


123. Nouns may precede, but generally follow their attributes, the verbs excepted ; cos booddli 
jnurd ko bola,o, call that old man. 


124(. When two nouns apply to the same person, they agree without any intermediate particles. 
Kul Suoda sha,ir awe to awe, the poet Sttoda will probably come to-morrow. 

125. A noun denoting possession or connection of any kind with another, is for the most part 
put in the genitive ; murd ka ghur, a mmis hoime, or the hi)7cse of a man. 

126. The sign in such expressions varies according to circumstances ; murd ke ghur kee lukree 
ke kanton ka mol, a man's house's timber'' s Tiails' price, because the ka must always agree as an ad- 
jective in gender, number, and case, with the noun which follows it, 32. 

127. This genitive sign is sometimes superseded by the Persian iz-afiit, viz. i or t!ie Arabic form, 
in which the article ul is apt, uniler its various modifications, (120.) to be mistaken for a genitive 
sign also. Surdar i fuoj, the commander of an army ; ghulut ool amm, an error of the vulgar, from 
ghulutno ul amm, a peculiarity that more properly belongs to Arabic grammar. 

128. Collectives, which cannot well be treated partitively, require their attributes in the singu- 
lar, and vice versa ; bura lushkur aya tha wuhan, is waste humare log bhagc, a large army arrived 
there, on that accoimt our people Jled. 

129. Though the situation of ka may be so far .-eversed, still it agrees best with our \, while 
the other genitive signs are certainly much better rendered by of. As the grand secret of intro- 
ducing ka properly rests on a perfect knowledge of the principles connected therewith, 29. 32. 33. 
&c. cannot be too well understood, especially as a competent idea of ka paves the way to a rapid 
progress in every department of the Hindoostanee. 

130. Since ka is often dropped where we retain of, and vice versa, the following examples may 
prove useful ; adh s6r mukhun la,o uor ek ser doodh, bring a pound of butter and a quart of milk ; 
fikr ka luf?. mooshturik hue, yu,iine kudliee moozukkur kudhee moO|Unnus, the wordfikr is common, 
that is to say, sometimes masculine, sometimes feminine. 

131. Ka frequently expresses (with or without of) worth, seldom size, bulk ; ek puese kee ufeem 
mutur bhur hogee, a penny-worth of opium is the sixe of a pea ; do roopu.e ka kupra dus roopu,e ke 
than se nu bechoonga, / won't sell two rotipee's worth of cloth from a piece worth ten. 

132. Our /or and to ai;e often expressed by ka, so are the compounds tvriting-table, &c. where 
position alone makes a noun an adjective ; likhne kee mez pur pcene ka pance rukho koochh 
khane ke pliul sumet, put water for drinking on the writing-table, along with some fruit to eat. 

133. When several words are connected together in a sentence, they seldom require above one 
sign of the case they are in, muen upne bap, ma, bete, bha,ee uor buhin ko khilata boon, I feed my 
father, mother, son, brother, and sister, where ko may or may not be affixed to them all, as tlie 

speaker chooses. 

134. Ka, in particular (rather puzzling) situations, becomes ke by the ellipsis of pas, yihan, or 
some such words ; cos ke lurka aj hoga, her child will be born to-day ; huzrut Ibrahcem ke beta suo 
burns tuk nu hoo.a tha, the patriarch Abraham had no son for a himdred years. Were ka substitut- 
ed here for ke, the sense would be completely altered. 

135. Ka is itself often dropt, so are the other postpositions ; Gunga jul, Ganges water, instead 
of Gunga ka panec ; upne ghur (ko) ja,o, go home ; upnee ankhon (se) dekha tuen ne ? hast thou 



seen with thine own ei/es ? ghore (kc) f)as mut yoonhee buetho uesa nu ho tcomko lat mare, do not 
sit near the horse thus, lest he Jack you. , 

136. When ka is followed by ka in the same member of a sentence, the first of course becomes 
ke; but where there are two distinct parts, either disjunctive or conjunctive, both may remain as 
ka. Murd ke ghcolam ka bap, the marCs slave's father ; murd ka uor ghoolam ka bap, the man's 
and slave's father ; khane ka basun, ya peenc ka piyalu mere pas la,o, bring me a plate for eating 
off, or a cup for drinking. 

137. A? in English and other languages, some of the postpositions occur prepositively, espe- 
cially the compounds, or those from tlie Persian and Arabic tongues ; Kulkutte se le Bunarus teen 
sua kos honge, from Calcutta to Bunarus the distance may he 600 miles ; bughuer (i) moorubbee 
(ke) in dinon (men) oos kee surfurazee kyoonkur hogee, without a patron now-a-days, how shall he 
acquire promotion ? ^:s:hv^\it{y .tA'i 

138. Although one or other of the i^afuts i or ke ought, grammatically considered, tobe pre- 
served in such sentences as 137. still, in the hurry of conversation, they are too often omitted, and 
often indeed contracted, whence bidoon (i) Khooda mera iior ko,ee nuheen, except God I have no 
other friend ; mueii bujooz surf o nuho (ke) kgoclih uor nuheen janta, / know nothing hut grammar, 
are examples that drop i, ke, at pleasure. 

139. In the Persian as well as Hindoostanee, the compound prepositions govern the genitive ; 
thus, pesli i hookuma zun bu nisbut i murd kum zurf ust, hukeemon ke age uorut bu nisbut murd 
ke kum zurf hue, among philosophers, woman, compared with man, is the weaker vessel. This in 
Hindee might also have bu nisbut i murd, dropping ke, or murd kee nisbut, omitting bu, agreeably 
to the comprehensive nature of this curious tongue. 

140. When postpositions are otherwise nouns, adjectives, or verbs, as by 3.9. 30. 31. this alone 
may account for the ke, kee, or i, which they re(^uire in both languages ; and that the rule is not 
altogether ai-bitrary or fanciful, wo see in the Hindoostanee from these examples, uese bcemar ke 
huqq men tubeeb kya kuhta hue, what does the doctor say respecting such a patiatt ? ki loom isturuh 
(se) oose surd cheez nu khila,o, that you ought not in this manner to give him tilings of a cold nature 
to eat. 

141. Analysis shows that' huqq above, is a noun here, meaning respecif, regard, and beemar ke 
huqq taen, signifies in regard to the patient ; but custom has not yet authorised the omission of men, 
whatever may happen through time to such phrases; on the contrary, isturuh se, thus, in this ma7i- 
ner, is already used with or without the se, and will probably soon, like — cds ke age (ko or men), 
hefore him, drop the postposition entirely. 

142. The extensive application of the postpositions to various, and even opposite meanings, is 
well worth the serious notice of the student, who should always be led, by the general sense of the 
passage, to the particular force of this or that sign there, when translated into English. Bap ne 
bete ko ghur se bolaya uor cos se kuha hakim ke houkm se ki is ghur ko charon turuf se russee se 
ghero isee turuh se, the father called the son from the house, and said to him, by the magistrate's or 
ders, surround this house on all sides with a rope, in this manner. > 


148. The former is one instance of a hundred that might ]k given in pr(X)f of the principle laid 
down, and illustrated purposely by se, from the frequency of its occurrence to annoy the learner in 
this way, yih lurka din ko kupra gule men nuheen rukhta, is ko muen kya kuroon is halut men 
muen lachar hoon tis pur bhee monft men bud nam hota hoon, the child in the day-time will not keep 
clothes on his back, what can I do with him, in this situation I am helpless, nevertheless I get into dis- 
grace for nothing. To the last, in like manner, a thousand similar sentences could be added, were 
any more necessary now. 

144. Chhote sir ka admee, a man with a small head ; bure hath kee uorut, a woman with large 
hands, arc further proofs of the foregoing assertions ; it must be confessed, however, that these may 
also be thus rendered, on the obvious property that ka possesses as an adjective affix, a small headed 
man, a large handed woman. 

145. When numerals accompany nouns, these often drop their inflective signs, and in certain 
combinations even their plural terminations ; teen sipahee (on) ne char murd (on) ko mara, three 
soldiers beat four men ; suo ghora nuwwab ke yuhan tha, a hundred horses were at the nuwwaVs. In 
our language a hundred horse signify ^ much more than a hundred horses, that the first conveys the 
idea of a like number of men, as troopers, along with them. 

146. When nouns arc of the first declension, or rational beings are the object of discourse, the 
foregoing latitude of deviations seem inadmissible. Mere yuhan suo admee se kum nu honge, / 
cannot have less than a hundred men with me ; huzar ghore {or ghoron) se koochh kum hoga, then 
may be rather less than a thousand horses ; do ghoron {not ghore) ne char lurkon ko mara, two horses 
killed four boys. 

147. Plurals, under pecuUar circumstances, take ka or ke indiscriminately, as the noun follow- 
ing may be viewed either individually or collectively ; dus murdon ka {or ke) sir kat dalega, he 
will cut off the heads of ten men. 

148. Arabic plurals are not only in use as such in the Hindoostanee, but occasionally are treated 
as singulars, and under l)oth circumstances, moreover, admit of Hindcc plural inflections ; wuhan 
ke oomura,on ka yih bhee ek oomura hue, he is also a grandee among the grandees of that place ; aj 
kul kee ukhbaron men umeer ool oomura kuhlata hue, in the papers of tlie present time he is also term- 
ed a noble of the nobles. 

149. When the possessive sign happens to be ambiguous, the precise meaning can be thus ascer- 
tained, Yu,uqoob kee tusweer, Jacob's picture ; Yu,uqoob ke yuhan kee tuswccr, Jacob's property ; 
Yu,uqoob kee soorut kee tusweer, Jacob's likeness ; Yu,iiqoob ke hath kee tusweer, Jacob's perfor- 

150. Wh<H:cver the apostrophe 's can be rendered in French chex, ke yuhan, ke pas, ke kune, 
&c. are thus used, wuhan kc surdar ke yuhan, at the commander's of that place ; yuhan ke hakim 
ke yuhan hue, he is at the magistrate's of this place. Should he possess a town and country house, 
the latter may be thus discriminated, yuhan ke hakim ke wuhan. 

151. These postpositions moreover denote among, with, about, also possession, like the Persian 
uzani. Wooh mere yuhan ruhta hue, he stays with me ; ccsawiyon ke yuhan uesee chal ruwa nu- 



heen, among the Christians such conduct is not allowed ; ek roomal murd ke yuhaii jo hota kyoon nu 
deta, had the man a handkerchief about him, why would he not give it ? 

152. The unbounded utility of ka is in no part of the language so conspicuous, as in the facility 
■with which adjectives can at once be thereby formed from verbs, nouns, and even adverbs, by a 
process of which we have no parallel in our tongue. Ub ka sal, the jjresent year ; kam kee bat, a 
useful word ; hone ke hadise, possible accidents. In this way, yuhan ka, Aere's ; wuhan ka, there s ; 
kidiaii ka, Where's ? tub ka, thens ; kul ka, yesterday s or to-morrow''s, with thousands of others, 
are of constant and convenient use in tlie Hindoostanee, though we can form no adequate conception 
of them in our own tongue, as it is often impossible to express these compounds without consider- 
able circumlocution.* 

153. Sometimes two, or even more postpositions follow each other in particular situations, and 
are of frequent application in this way : ghore pur se giroge, you will fall from (off) the horse ; 
chuokce ke neeche se cotha,o, lift it from below the chair ; ghur ke beech men se riikalo, take it from 
the middle of the house ; deewar pur se {or ko) hurn just kur kooda, the deer with a hound sprung 
over the wall ; aj mere durwaze pur se wooh sipahee chula guya, to-day the soldier went piast (or pass- 
ed by') my door. 

154. Certain compound postpositions, particularly in poetry, sometimes require only the simple 
inflection, instead of the inflected genitive ; mrojh pas se hurgiz mut ja,o, never go from (near) me ; 
sha,id wooh toom oopur yih toohmut lugawe, he may perhaps lay the scandal upon you, the principle 
laid down here is almost the very reverse of 62. - , ' v,.vr > 

155. A few double postpositions may probably be met with, either as allowable pleonasms or 
vulgar errors, which cannot well be now corrected ; wuhan ke surdar ne cos kotwal ke tu,een ko 
mardala, the commanding officer of that place slew the police officer ; fil-huqeequt men uhwal yoon 
hue, the story in fact is thus ; ap kee bu duolut se, by your worship's auspices. 

156. Instead, of the ordinary Hindoostanee plurals, those of the Persian and Arabic forms are 
frequently introduced, especially in written documents, letters, &c. whence chuokiyat, uorat, 
mustoor-at, soobu-jat, zllu-jat, qllu,u-jat, purwanu-jat, karkhanu-jat, with thousands more, for 
chuokiyari, chairs ; uorten, women ; soobe, provi7ices ; zilu.e, districts ; qilu.e, castles ; purwane, 
orders ; karkhane, mamfaclories, almost exactly as we do data, radii, phenomena, in English. 

157. As ure, re, are rather contemptuous vocative signs, it is much better to adopt the prefixes 
ue, e, ya, o, he, for the singular ; ue lurke, O hoy I not lurke re. In the plural even, these pre- 
fixes may be met with so, ue lurke kuhan jatc ho .'' O boys, where are you going? 

* The learner ought to be on his guard against the suggestions of an ignorant Moonshee in exam- 
ples like the above, because he will often pronounce them wrong, by viewing the subject from a 
different quarter, or through another medium than I have done. For instance, he will always be 
apt to say, ub ke sal, without reflecting on the nominative and inflective forms evident in ub ka sal 
buhoot gurm hue, this year is very warm, and ub ke sal (men) muen wuhan ja|Oonga, / will go there 
(during) this year. 


158. For the use of inflections for nominatives, and of tliese for accusatives, the scholar may 
look back to 20. and forwards to the regimen of verbs, for ample information, as the activity and 
perfection of the verbs is in general the cause of all the peculiarities here. 

159. When a causal sign is used in Hindoostanee, merely to denote the accusative case, or a 
mere adverbial expression, of course the sign is totally omitted in English : oon ghureebon ko kaiie 
ko maroge ? why mil you beat those poor people? jane de oonko, nuhcen to hum tiom ko khoob 
peetenge, let than alone or I will thrash you. 

160. When the dative happens to be the sign in question, we may either insert or omit it in our 
language, though as an accusative case it must invariably be omitted there, sometimes in com- 
pliance with the nature of the verb Introduced : tcnmne lurke se kuha ? Aid you tell (or say to) the 
boy ? cosne ek kitab moojh ko dee, he gave a book to me, or he gave me a book, in which the verb 
is feminine, from the object being so ; a peculiarity to be explained in the subsequent pages. 

161. In the above example, since kitab is the nominative, only used accusatively, agreeably to 
26. there can be no objective sign in cither language necessary, as ghora la,o, and ghore ko la,o, 
must both be translated simply, bring the horse. 

162. When inflections are met with, as in 135. without their postpositions, they occasionally 
acquire a kind of adverbial meaning : tuman fuoj wuhan pucron guya, the whole army went there 
on foot ; hum yuhan se chuokriyon guya, the deer went bounding hence ; lurka do ek muheenon 
men ghootnon {or godriyon) chuhie lugega, the child will begin to walk on all fours in the space of a 
month or two. 

163. Some of the postpositions are more apt than others to be used promiscuously, as — oosne hum 
sc ip''' humare sath) buhoot dostee kee, he shewed me much friendship. It must moreover be recol- 
lected, that se likewise represents the adverb llian (quam) as the sign of comparison, and as such 
also governs the simple inflection, 47. 

164. It is no easy task to be more particular on the subject of gender in the Hindoostanee lan- 
guage than in the preceding sheets, with much prospect of great precision on one side, or advantage 
on the other. Every Arabic word of the babi tufccl, like tuzreeb, tuzkeer, &c. is feminine ; 
so are a vast number of indeclinables in the singular, wliich terminate in a of the Arabic and 
Sunskrit, like doo,a, a prayer ; dufu,u, a time ; and bliak|ha, langxiage. Some scholars conceive, 
that nouns beginning with m, and denoting place or instrument, lean to the feminine, though I 
suspect this depends much more on the finals enumerated below. 

165. The terminations r, h, 1, k, g, d, o, e, s, f, 1, m, monosyllables having ee, ue, e, for their 
vowels, with the names of most rivers and birds, incline much to the feminine gender. All the 
letters of the alphabet that as such end in e or 1 are feminine, the rest are masculine ; but wa,o is 
said to be of doubtful gender. 

166. The power and preference which animate masculines possess in other languages over 
feminines, exist also in this ; but among inanimates here, vicinity and number, however, appear to 
confer a right on the feminines not always to be found in other languages : mere malee ke lurkee 
o lurka dono gore huen, the daughter and son of my gardener are both fair ; toomhare bete kee kitab 


o kaghuz yuhan pure hue, your son's book and paper are lying here ; Soolueman kee uorten, lur- 
kiyan, sulieliyaii uor lurke subhee uch-chhe the, SolmnerCs women, daughters, damsels, and sons were 
all good. 

167. Every noun which the student has not some good reason for considering feminine, should 
be treated as mascuhne ; and wherever the example is rather dubious, it may, in a great many in- 
stances, be managed in one or other of the three following ways, without exposing the learner to 
any grammatical inaccuracy. 

168. With the noun in question, 1st. an adjective not ending in a or u may be used ; 2d. the 
aorist may be substituted for the present ; and, 3d. the accusative case must be preferred to the 
nominative, introduced as such : shurab buhoot toorsh (instead of khuttee) hue, the wine is very 
sour ; khubur puhoonche to puhoonche (in lieu of sha,id puhoonchegee), the news will arrive ; ki 
cos ne fuoj ko ja mara (in preference to fuoj ja maree), that he assaulted the army. 


169. As with us, ought to precede their nouns ; but from the pliabUity of this tongue, their 
order is on many occasions reversed. When this occurs to Persian words, tlie i becomes requisite, 
nek murd, or murdi-nek, a virtuous man ; the first being termed sifut muosoof, an adjective Avith 
its qualified noun ; and the second, izafuti tuoseefee, that is, the genitive sign of quality. . ..^^ J,i4-t^,m 

170. Adjectives here, as in all languages, are often used for and treated in their declension 
exactly as nouns, to such a degree that they even admit of other adjectives qualifying them as mere 
nouns: nadan duolutmundon uor uqlmund ghureebon kee poonjee men bura furq Imc, there is a 
great difference between the treasure of the ignorant rich and the sagacious poor. Were duolutmi^nd 
nadanon, &c. thus reversed, they would still apply as well as the- first. ^-^^ 

171. Though adjectives agree, generally speaking, in gender, number, and case, still there is a 
wide deviation from the Latin and otlicr tongues, in the Hindoostanee examples like durwazu (or 
durwaze ko) kuon kala kurega ? who will make the door black ? jis shukhs ne dee war ko kala kiya, 
or jis shukhs ne deewar kalce kee, the person who made the wall black. 

172. Although, from the general tendency of construction in this language, all adjectives ought 
to ao-ree with their nouns in gender, number, and case, it appears that the feminines only do so, 
and even then under certain limitations. Those foir girls who came, we lurkiyan goriyan jo aiCen 
tlieen, we goree lurkiyan, or we goriyan lurkiyan, are all more or less allowable in the order they 
now stand, and the same observation applies to those which follow, oon kee baten bholiyon sc, 
bholee baton se, baton bholiyon ,se, or bholiyon baton se, from their innocent words. It must 
nevertheless be confessed, that in ordinary conversation, and by authors in general, the adjective is 
prefixed to the noun in its simplest feminine state only. 

173. The above mode of inflecting the adjectives is not applicable, except with numerals, to any 
masculines or indeclinable ad'ectiv«?s : vuhan ke uch-chhe (never uch-cjihon) lurkon ko oosne 


bolaya, he hath invited the good hoys of this place; we teen ghore jate huen vruhan ke teenon mur- 
don ke waste, these three horses are going for the three men of that place. 

174. Properly sjieakiiig, the Hindoostance, like the French, has no degrees of comparison, the 
increase or decrease of any adjective being cither expressed by auxiliary words, by repetition, or 
by the position and construction of the sentence denoting the comparative and superlative degrees. 

175. The most natural mode of expressing the first degree seems to require the positive re- 
peated ; whence uch-chha, good ; uch-chha^uch-chha, good-good, or better ; and uch-chhe se uch- 
chha, good than good, or best, which probably in the infancy of all languages was the mode most 
obvious, and conse(iuently as such adopted ; an observation that may also be extended to the 
formation of plurals, at the earliest dawn of speech among men. 

176. It is useless to enumerate all the subservient words here, like uor, more, which may be used 
as with us, because the whole will be found in the Dictionary ; nor can it be necessary to state 
more than the simple fact of Persian words having their degrees regularly marked ; thus, bih, 
good ; bih-tur, better ; bih-tur-ecn, best ; as the learner never can find such words at all difficult, 
when they really do occur in the Hindoostance, which, except in the instance of bihtur, and a few 
familiar adjectives, is, comparatively speaking, very seldom indeed. 

177. The construction, which is equivalent to a comparative or superlative degree, will be 
immediately recognized in these examples : w<uh upnc quom men buron sc (or ka) bura hue, 
he {that person) is very great in his own nation, pur yih chhoton men (se or ka) chhota hue, but 
he (this) is very inferior ; sub se boodha kuon hue ? who is old than all ? or who is the eldest ? yih 
lurka cos lurkee se gora bo niklega, this boy will turn out fairer than that girl, ugurchi wooh lurkee 
is lurke se ubhee goree hue, although that girl be now fairer than this boy, 

178. A very little attention will show, that sentences of the above conformation are, for the 
most part, exactly the converse of our mode or position of such words as, khoonee se wooh hakim 
khoon khwar hue, that judge is more blood-thirsty than a murderer, being positionally translated is, 
murderer than that judge blood-thirsty is; but the learner is not to conceive from this, that the 
usual ductility of Hindoostance construction has not its full force in these particular expressions 

179. Se, in comparison, thus appears not only to express than, but more, by giving that power 
at least to the adjective, if it do not inherently denote so much. Here se is remarkably prone to 
confusion with the inflected particle of similitude sa, se, see, in expressions of this nature; • 
kh(K)niyon se we hakim khoon kh^yar huen, those judges are more blood-thirsty than murderers, or 
blood-thirsty as murderers, whichever the reader chooses ; and the best way to prove that similitude 
only is intended, or to lessen the equivocation in such phrases, will be to substitute uese for se 
in the sentence, se being in fact the same word, merely contracted for the conveniency of the 

180. That the learner may be on his guard with respect to such combinations, he shoidd care- 
fully advert to the tliree modes of explaining the following and similar instances of and)ignity in 
the Hindoostance : kyoon hum se uch-chhe admee le gue ho ? why have you taken good men from 


me ? why Jiavc you taken better meii than me ? or why have you taken good men like me ? When the 
word compared happens to be feminine, the ambiguity is eifectually avoided by see ; nicojh see 
uch-chhee hiikee ko kalie ko leia,oge ? why carry off a good girl like me ? 

181. The adverbial sign of comparison than is frequently rendered also by ki, but so far then 
under a negative form as to be termed the kafi nafiyu or nufee ; ek admee mure {or moo.a) bihtur 
(bhula) ki (nu) tuman shuhr, may be translated either, heller one man die than the whole city, 
or that one man should die is well, not the whole city. 

182. Kuni se kum, the least ; buhoot se buhoot, the utmost, and many similar expressions, are 
so truly useful, that they caimot be adverted to soon enough, as mere superlative forms. It is 
curious, that the particle of similitude sa also affects particular words in the manner of the degrees 
here; whence buhoot-sa, a great deal ; thora-sa, a very little. Krochh is also introduced for a like 
purpose: panee koochh gurm to hue pur thoree see ag chuhiye oosko is halut men ruk,hne ko, tht 
water is rather hot, but a little more fire is requisite to keep it in that slate. 

183. The Aral)ic degree of comparison may in general be known by its peculiar deviation from 
the positive, or more properly the radical form, which consists merely in the prefixing of u to the 
first syllable, and the transposition and change of the short vowels, on principles peculiar to that 
extraordinary language: zcnlm, oppression; zalim, oppressive; uzlum, more oppressive; zullam, 
most oppressive ; fuz.1, fazil, ufzul, fuzzal, excellence, &c. for which and others consult the Grammar 
of that language, or the British Indian Monitor, Vol. I. p. 411, &c. 

184. Adjective and participial compounds are, like the pronominals in 73, declinable in both 
their constituent parts ; at the same time this is not absolutely requisite in the first of them : oos 
gul-e {or a) kute ko juldee oothake garo, take away that throat cut {corpse) quickly and bury it. 

185. In 48, we have already discovered the peculiar construction of numerals, and some other 
words which so far partake of their nature; it appears, however, that the final o or on denotes 
something collective or emphatic, as — we do ja.enge, these two will go, if expressed, we done 
ja,enge, we must then translate, they will both go, which evidently deviates considerably from the 
former sentence. 

186. Collective numbers, introduced as above, are of course very different from simple cardinals, 
whence, as in our language, suekron admec, hundreds of men; huzaron sipahee, thousands of 
soldiers, must not be confounded with — sue admee, a hundred men ; huzar sipahee, one thousand 
soldiers, for reasons too obvious to require any other illustration here, except that our of is not 
expressed on such occasions in the Hindoostanee. 

187. Numerals of every sort follow the declension of their terminations, as already elucidated 
among the nouns, some of which, like burus, a year ; jor, a junction, assume wan, wen, ween, 
burswan, yearly ; joorwan, joined, though wan in general be certainly a numeral affix for all the 

: ordinals beyond char, four. 

188. There is very little peculiar to the syntax of numbers in this, compared with other tongues, 
except the curious application of ek, to denote near or about: unde bees ek cws burtun men ho,eno-e, 
ziyadu nuheen, there may be about twenty eggs in the vessel, not more ; admee dus ek wuhaii buethe 



hiien, ahmit ten, (nearly ten, ten or so, &c.) nie?i are sitthiff there. In these examples the noun pre- 
cedes its numeral, and this seems a necessary part of such a mode of speech. Do teen, two, three, 
as with us, denote some, a fetr, which is likewise expressed in Hindoostanee by ek adh, lit. a 

189. When a number is reduplicated, it either conveys the idea of by and the quantity men- 
tioned, or it denotes that the number of tilings stated has been given to each of the persons named : 
dus dus nuokuron ko ane dc uor char char roopu,e de, let the servants appear by tens, and give each 
{dividoti of ten) four rupees ; oosne panch lurkon ko teen teen tumache marc, he gave each of the 

fioe hoys three slaps. 

190. Should the sentence prove emphatic, hee or ee is introduced : tees ka kya zikr, pucha.shee 
ko bhejo, thirty are out of the question, send the whole fifty. The cardinals terminating in h, com- 
monly drop the penult u in their ordinal state, on principles already explained : barhwaii barhwan 
admee cos suo men se nikalo, take out every twelfth man of the huiidred. 


191. The personals are, by 103. very often merely understood, and their position, even when 
expressed either before or after the verb, is of little consequence in the Hindoostanee. In all com- 
plex narrations, the personals are transposed in a way which we can have no conception of, unless 
we advert to the style of the Bible and other translations from Oriental tongues : Urustoo ne kuha 
Uflatoon se kl muen bhee toomharee sath ja,oonga, Aristotle told Plato that he also would go with 
him, 196. 

192. When two pronouns occur of different persons, genders, or numbers, with any one tense, 
the verb is either repeated with both, or understood to the last of them, unless where deference to 
masculine gender, or any other state of the pronoun, proves paramount to vicinity : muen a.oonga 
ya wooh (awega), / or he will come ; wcioh poochhega ya muen (poochhoonga), he or I will ask ; 
yih (murd) uor wooh (iiorut) dono ja,cnge, he and she will both go. The words in parenthesis 
here may be omitted or expressed ad libitum. 

193. It is singular enough, that so polite a people as the Hindoostanees are, should invariably 
in their expressions answering to ymi and /, transpose these to hum icom, or muen tuen, for we, in 
such sentences as — hum toom or muen tuen ja,enge, we will go ; mcojhe toojhe wulian kuon poo- 
chhega, who will think of us (thee arid me) there ? 

194. The Persian ma and shcoma sometimes occur thus : ma murdoom, we people ; ma bu duo- 
lut, we his majesty ; huma shooma,* we people, men like us ; padshah jo upne huqq men yih joomlu 

• As these express either people like us, or the whole world, it is probable they are formed from 
these different words (Persian) humu and shimmu, or (Hinduwee) hum suman, now corrupted to 
huma shooma. 



' ma bu duolut irshad furma,enge,' bolen to bolen, pur ma murdoom, uesee bat hurgiz na kuhenge 
upne liye, the king m-ay use this sentence speaking of his self if he please, ' we tvill give orders,^ hut we 
people cannot say so of ourselves. 

195. The second personal is used in the plural for the singular, or vice versa, precisely on the 
same principles we do, from motives of respect, adoration, familiarity, and contempt ; the first 
personal, on the contrary, is generally reversed, and those who, as men speaking to their equals or 
superiors, should use muen, /,- moojh, me, are now too apt to employ hum, we, and tcs. 

196. Though the substitution of one person and number for another has been noticed above, it 
may be proper here to give an instance which might otherwise mislead the reader, when not advert- 
ing to the third being sometimes adopted by writers for the first person, where he is supposed to 
have mentioned some family disgrace or misfortune relative to his own wife, as a speaker or com- 
plainant befoi'e a judge, &c. : ek shiikhs ne padshah se urz, kee ki, khoodawund, kul rat ek sipa- 
hee mere ghur men akur (meree, but changed by the narrator to) tis shukhs kee joroo ko zubur- 
dustee se chheen leguya, a jierson represented to the king saying, sire, last night a soldier entered my 
house, and forcibly carried away {my, now converted to) that person's wife. 

197. As our pronoun her is both the genitive and inflection of she, so are mere, tere, humare, 
toomhare, upne, often the same in Hindoostanec, with simple, and always with compound, postpo- 
sitions, agreeably to the following examples : mere nuokur tere pur nu upne pur humare samne 
toomhare ghur men uesee bat upne moonh se hurgiz nuheen nikalengc, my servants neither on thee 
nor theirselves before us and in your house, will let such an expression escape their mouths, 62. 

198. Agreeably to 26. two oblique cases seldom occur together : sahib khidmutgar ko ek ghora 
(never ghore ko) denge, the gentleman will give the valet a horse, unless they both happen to be 
pronouns ; muen toom ko oosko doonga, / tvill give you to him ; I will give him to you, muen oosko 
toom ko doonga; you will give m£ to him, toom moojhe oosko doge. In these the position so far 
removes the ambiguity, but not so perfectly as in our language. 

199. With verbs of selling, delivering, &c. the sign of the last word or second oblique case is 
commonly changed to hatli, pas, yuhan, kune, and put consequently in the inflected genitive : 
wooh moojh ko toomhare kune bechega, he will sell me to you ; hum toom ko ooske pas rukhenge, 
/ will place you with him ; but of this at full length under the verbs.* 

200. Pronominals, like masculine adjectives, 172. drop the adventitious on in the plural ; 
whence, though we say oonhon or con ko bola,o, call them, still we cannot say indiscriminately oon 

/ {or conhon) lurkon ko bola,o, call tltose boys ; it may therefore be asserted, that the additional on 
denotes rather the substantive than the adjective form of these vocables, which are not moreover 
subject to the same objection that numerals are : con teenon ko hanko, drive those three ; never oon- 

 The learner in asking whether a person will sell him a book, &c. in our way, will probably 
say, hum ko bechoge ? will you sell me ? which must appear absurd in the extreme, unless the 
speaker be a slave, and the other his master. See the Monitm; Vol. I. p. 215. 


hon teenhon, 173.; uor adiniyon (or uoron) se poocliho, ask other men (or others); upnc bha,iyon 
(or upnon) so jK)oclihoon<fa, / will asfc my relatimis, &c. 

201. The scholar should here recollect, that as the Asiatics have a great antipathy to be put in 
the singular, is, ods, are so much avoided for him, he)', that even in, con, have so far lost their 
plurality, as absolutely to require the on for the real plural, or to enable any body to be very 
respectful to one personage. In this way we ciui account for — oonhon ne furmaya, he, {his wornhip) 
observed ; inhon ko lechulo yuhan se, fake them {all, or very respectfully, him) hence. 

202. In these matters so much attention is paid to etiquette among the natives, that a wife 
seldom mentions her husband, or a dependant his superior, under any other form than we, or 
conhon, ap, they, viz. my lord, his honour, and so on, though addressing the man's self in the 
second person. Nay, even in and con, though plurals, become degrading expressions, like is or ooa 
to a gentleman, particularly when followed by ne; whence inhon ne or oonhon ne yih juwab 
moojhe diya, he or she gave me this answer, would rather be improperly applied to any decent per- 
son with is, in, cos, con, for inhon. 

203. It may be proper to subjoin, under 69. &c. that upna must always follow the leading 
pronoun, where khood is used in similar Persian sentences : mun kitabi khmd khwahum khand, 
shooma neez kitabi khmd bi khaneed, mucii upnee kitab ko purhoonga, toom bhee upnee purho, 
I will read my book, do you read yours. When any conjunction intervenes, upna is not necessary, 
because they say — muen uor mera bap, / and my father. Khood subjoined to ap is often a respect- 
ful address to a superior, equivalent to your highness, you are absolute ; and in the same manner — 
ap log, ap logon, may be introduced for your honours, worships ; whence — ap logon men uesee chal 
ho to ho, pur hum logon men hone kee nuheen, such a custom, for any thitig I know, may exist 
among you Britons, but it never can among us. 

204. The relative jo, who, is apt to be confounded with jo the conjunction, if or that ; but as 
the i^esult is generally the same, this is seldom inconvenient: jo ko,cc sipaiiee ueece bat kuhe, 
whichever soldier uses such a term, or if any soldier use such an expression. It occasionally is used 
for jub, when, likeicise, and is then followed by to, then, both of which are apt to be pronounced 
juo, tuo, so that here, as in seb, se,o, an apple, tlie o and b are merely convertible. 

205. As the antecedent is often not expressed in the Hindoostanee, jo by transposition supplies 
its place very effectually : wooh nirraul nala jo wuhaii buhta tha so indinon sookhguya, that limpid 
stream which flowed there, it now a days is dried tip, may be thus turned, jo nirmul nala, &c. As 
a relative after kuon, who ? juon suppUes, for the sake of sound perhaps, the place of jo, as tuon 
does of the correlative so in 54. for the same reason : kuon nala sookhguya ? what stream is dried 
up? Wooh nala juon oos roz toom ne dekha tlia, tuon sookhguya, the stream which you saw thai 
day, it (or the same) is dried up. 

206. The double inflection of some pronominals ought not to be forgotten; whence jiskisee, jistis, 
jlnkinhoon, &c. are frequently to be met with, like our irhosocver, whomsoever; but jistis, hoW' 
ever, seems to liave acquired a particular meaning in— jistis (or uese wuesa) kee bat pur mut ja,o. 


do not go on what any fellow (or the vulgar) says. Uesa tuesa, with all its inflections, in the corre- 
lative form becomes downright abuse. 

207. Ki, the Persian particle, is used in the Hindoostanee also, both as a pronoun and conjunc- 
tion, but it is totally indeclinable in every situation here : do puhur ka wuqt tha ki muen udalut 
men aya wooh kuhta hue ki mmjhe mu,uloom nuheen ki ye admee we huen ki kul a,e the ki we 
we hueii ki purson a.e the, at noon ivhen I came into court he was saying, that I know not whether 
these men are those who came yesterday, or those are the m^n who came the day before. In composi- 
tion, ki seems nearly equivalent to kOiCe, as jo-ki and joko,ee both express our whoever. 

208. The possessive, or genitive state of pronouns as adjectives, is so apt to be confounded with 
their mere pronominal forms, that the learner cannot be too much on his guard against the errors, 
to which he is liable on various occasions and sentences like tliis : aj kul moojhe foorsut nuheen ki 
muen upne sahib ke pas ruhoon bhula oonke yuhan kyoonkur ja,oon, / have not sufficient leisure at 
present to continue with my own master, then how can I go to their''s {their master''s), or to them, 
according to particular circumstances. 

209. Interrogatives are generally marked by k and relatives with j ; they are nevertheless fre- 
quently, by implied or expressed negation or dubiety, subject to substitution so ; tvho is he ? when 
and whence did he come ? what does he say, and what sort of man is he ? wooh kuon hue ? kub uor 
kuhan se aya tha ? kya kuhta hue uor kuesa admee hue .'' / know who he is, jo (for kuon, with 
negatives) hue muen janta hoon ; but when and whence he came I know not, lekin kuhan (for juhan, 
with affirmatives) se uor kub (for jub) aya tha, muen waqif nuheen ; / understand what he says, 
and know what sort of man he is, jo (for kya, with negatives) kuhta hue muen sumujhta hoon uor 
puhchanta hoon juesa (for kuesa, with negatives) admee hue. If the present principle prove true, 
it will save learners in future from much trouble and uncertainty in this hitherto perplexing por- 
tion of the language. 

210. The relative words may also be used in sentences where the interrogative tone marks the 
meaning sufficiently, though in the Hindoostanee the interrogation be most commonly pointed out 
by the word also, except when the sentence is entirely negative : do you know where the gentlemaii 
stays ? toom jante ho kuhan sahib ruhta hue .'' you do know where the gentleman stays, juhan sahib 
ruhta hue so toom jante ho, if properly accented, may be equivalent to the first question, as muen 
nuheen janta kuhan sahib ruhta, is to muen nuheen janta juhan sahib ruhta, / know not where the 
gentleman dwells. 

211. This reciprocity in a language possessed of such a complete series of antecedents, relatives, 
correlatives, subsequents, and interrogatives, as the Hindoostanee can produce, (uesa, wuesa, juesa, 
tuesa, kuesa, yuhan, wuhan, juhan, tuhan, kuhan,) is sometimes productive of much trouble 
to the students of that language, should they forget that by negation and circumlocution the above 
order may frequently be inverted, though apparently founded on a fundamental rule peculiar to 
the Hindoostanee tongue. 

212. It is very certain, that neither kya can occur before postpositions, nor its inflection kahe 
with nouns, from the following and many similar examples ; kya kya soolook oosne hum se kiye. 


what civilities he showed me ! kis kis (never kya nor kahe) soolook se oosne hum ko razee kiya, 
with tvhaf civility he gratified me. It is no easy matter to lay down unexceptionable rules for the 
use of these and many other troublesome pronominals in most languages, as well as the Hindoo-, 
stance ; the scholar will therefore do well to trust more on this head to his own experience and 
labours in this popular tongue, than to any rules that have yet been collected on the subject. 
- 213. Ek, ko,ee, upna, are all used pronominally for one, and the French mi, but this when plural 
is commonly expressed by log: log kuhte huen ki ek (kisec) no padshah se kuha ki moonasib 
nuheen jo ko,ee upnee jan yoon hee khowe, they relate that one said to the king, it is not proper for 
any one to lose one's life for nothing. 

214. The accurate discrimination of ko,ee and kojchh, can only be acquired by attentive study 
and great practice with the natives, in the various compounds formed by these vocables ; koochh 
occasionally must appear redundant to both us and the Persians, though they have the word hech 
very like it : / know not wliat he said, mtnjhe mu.iiloom nuheen kya kya (or kya koschh) oosne 
kuha, mura mu,uloom nest ki o chiha (or chi) gcoftu ; that is another thing, something else, or 
atwther affair, yih uor koochh hue, yih kcuchh uor, yih uor bat, c'est une autre chose. 

215. In koochh ek, a little ; koochh koochh, somewhat ; koochh se koochh, from one state to 
another; koochh is se koochh oos se, partly from this and partly from that ; kya is se kya cos se, 
what with this and what with that ; buhoot koochh, a great deal ; yih bhee koochh hue, what, is 
this any matter ? and many similar phrases, the application and meaning of koochh is clear enough, 
though the feminine noun, bat, a word, matter, affair, business, thing, circumstance, &c. is much 
used in its stead, and often like negotium, res, in Latin, it is either expressed or understood, which 
ought to account for many feminine adjectives and verbs, as kulam, joomlu, uhwal, and several 
others can for masculines, where the reverse might have been expected. 


216. The ordinary construction or syntax of the Hindoostanee exhibits the verb as the very last 
word of a sentence, or any of its several members, and it is thus that the sense of a long period is 
frequently connected and suspended till the verb closes the whole. 

217. When this order is adhered to in prose and. ordinary conversation, the nominative or pro- 
noun, followed by its attributes, precedes the adjective and accusative, while these are followed by 
the adverbial expressions immediately before the verb so, wooh mooshtunda fuqeer humare ghureeb 
chhote lurke ko humeshu fujr ko marta hue, lit. lie the (or that) sturdy beggar our poor little hov 
(to) always morning in heats. But in poetry and modulated prose, or in that higher style of com> 
position and language which deviates from the common conversation of the natives by the inversion 
and transposition of the various parts of speech, the learner should be prepared to meet with innu- 
merable deviations from the principles and examples here. 

218. On such occasions, by reducing the inverted construction as nearly as possible, cceteris part- 
bus, to the common standard, the scholar will soon perceive apparent difficulties vanishing entirely. 


especially if he will recollect that all the simple postpositions, as well as ka, ke, kee, the perfect 
active prefix ne, the emphatics ee, hee, bhee, with the cori-elatives to, so, tuesa, tuhan, are sequents 
to such a degree that they seldom, if ever, commence a period of any kind ; on the contrary, they 
almost as immediately follow their own leading words, as '« does our nouns in the genitive. 

219. The foregoing principle, if recollected, will in general so far prevent the confusion which 
sometimes occurs where the same words are postpositions, conjunctions, adverbs, nouns, &c. be- 
cause every simple postposition must follow in immediate contact the noun it governs, unless when. ' 
it is emphatic, the ee intervenes. 

220. Though ee, hee, come before postpositions, they may either precede or follow ne ; but this 
always takes the lead of bhee ; wooh Yu,uqoob hee ka luika tha, uor cos ne bhee pas malee ke ja- 
kur upne hath se coshee kee betee ke galon pur do do tumache mare, pur oos wuqt malee uor muea 
ne hee khoon sc baz rukha, peechhe Khoada jane lurke hee ne kya ghuzub kiya hue, lit. it was 
Jacob's boy and he also near gardener to having gone own hand with his daughter of cheeks on two two 
slaps struck, but then the gardener and I myself murder from prevented, afterwards God knows t/ie boy 
what mischief did. ki.'/I'' 

221. In such instances ee, hee, commonly express rather individuality than identity ; they can- 
not therefore well precede the particle of association bhee in the same member of a sentence, aU 
tliough they may do so when a disjunctive intervenes ; oos (tiever oosee) ne bhee mara, he also beat ; 
muenhee ja,oonga, chaho toom bhee chulo, / will go myself, if you like you also may go ; chahiye ki 
muen aphee ja,oon, uor tmm bhee aphee ja,o, I must go myself, and yoii yourself also must go. ^H!* 

222. A verb commonly agrees with its nominative in gender, number, and person ; hum bhee 
kuhte huen, ki jis roz eesa dar oos-sulam men puhooncha, beebee Muryum bhee wuhan thee, uor 
sath ooske ku,ee uorten uor bhee theen, toom jante ho ki Yuhood bhee is bat ke qa,il huen ki nu- 
heen, we likewise allege, that the day Jesus arrived at Jerusalem, the Virgin Mary also was there, and 
along with her ivere several other women ; do you know if the Jews allow this or not ? 

223. Numbers, considered collectively, and individuals respectfully, often require singular and 
plural verbs accordingly ; suo ghora aya (or ghore a,e), a hundred horses came ; huzrut eesa beebee' 
Muryum ke bete the, our Lord Jesus was the son of Mary. 

224. When the numbers apply to human beings, the plural verb seems necessary ; but when in- 
dividuals are honoured, those only of the second declension and in the nominative plural, or among 
the pronouns, are made plural, to agree as above with the verb in that number ; suo admce a,e the 
{never aya tha), a hundred persons came ; shuhzadee kul suwar hoo,a chahteen huen, the princess is 
nhoid to depart to-morrow ; jo oon beebee ne dekha in sir khoole buchon ko, when that lady saw 
these children bareheaded. 

22a. Every inflectible nominative (hut muen, tuen), before a complete perfect active verb, re- 
efuires ne, and is either with this expressed or understood ; when ne is expressed, the inflection must 
■"De used in lieu of the simple nominative ; gore ne ghore ko duoraya, the European ran the horse ; 
ghoron ne gofon ko kata, the horses bit the Europeans ; wooh do lurke dekhe, oos ne do lurke dekhe, 
dfeklie do lurke, or oos ne do lurkon ko dekha, he saw two boys. * '•■ --r 


226. From the above it will now be evident, that the complete' perfect tenses of active transitive 
verbs are seldom in concord with their nominative, although they or ne certainly throw such no- 
minatives, when practicable, into their inflections, as already illustrated. 

227. Except with luuen, hum, frecjuently, and tuen, loom, more rarely, ne is always exjiressed, 
unless in the corrupt dialect of the Hindoostanee, peculiar to Bungalu, of which, wooh do lurke 
dekhe, is an instance in point, but not to be imitated by the real Hindoostanee scholar. 

228. When numerals accompany these inflected nominatives, unless emphasis or totality be iitt- 
plied, the inflection is less necessary ; teen ne mare charon, three beat the four ; charon ne mara teen 
ko, the four beat three. 

229. The power which transitives have of prefixing ne by 26. is lost the momait they are conv- 
pounded with any neuter verb ; muen ne khana kliaya, / have eat my dinner ; rouen kha-chooka, / 
hane done eMinf^. 

230. Boliia, to speak ; lana, to bring; bhoolna, to forget ; duma, to fear ; chookna, to miss, end, 
&c. ; luma, to fight, and a few others, though apparently transitives, nevertheless do not atlmit ne ; 
tuen ne kuha, thou said ; tuen bola, thou spoke ; tcnm ne liya, you took ; we la,e the, (hey had 

231. Actives taken abstractly, or transitives considered intransitively, drop ne, a.nd r^ice versa ; 
wooh upnc jee men socha tha, he reflected in his mind ; sabir ueyoob upne dil men khoob bichara, 
the patient Job considered well in his own breast ; oos lurke ne mcxyh se ujub khel khela, tJie boy 
played me a pretty trick ; oon uorton ne bhula nach nacha, those women danced a capital dance. 

223. All transitive perfect preterites, where ne is either expressed or understood, agree in gender 
and number with their objects, when these have not the accusative signs, ko, ke tu,een, e, en ; 
wliere these occur, the verb is then so far in a neuter state, that it preserves no concord whatever 
with either its subject or object, even in the auxiliary, aorist, or future signs ; lurkon ne lurkiyan 
mareen huen, tlie boys beat the girls ; lurkiyon ne lurkon ko mara hue, the girls beat the boys ; oon 
murdon ne yihee bat kuhee hue, age kahe ko poochhte ho, tlwse men used this very ea/pression, why 
do ymi ask farther ? muen ne shurab ko piya hoga, I may have drmik the wine ,• jo tuen ne mara hue, 
if t/iou have beaten. 

233. When ko, &c. appear as dative signs, along with another object to tlie verb, they cannot 
then make it neuter for the most obvious reasons ; oos ne sub glwre padshah ko diye, he gave all the 
horses to tfie king. 

234. One ne placed after a string of inflections as nominatives, applies to them all generally or 
alternately ; oos shuhur ke murdon, uorton, lurkon, subhon nc Haroon ko dekha hue, lit. that city''s 
men, women, children, all Aaron {to) seen have. 

235. Neither tlie pluperfect participle, nor imperfect tenses, require ne, though the doubtful per- 
fect does ; oos wuqt ghur men puhoonchkur lurka khana khata tha, uor oos ka blia,ee pance peeta 
hoga, tubhee apus men nonhon ne yih bat kuhee hogee, the boy, after arriving at home, was eating 
his dinner, and his brother may have then been drinking water, whence they may have used such ane*" 
pression among theirselves. 


236. From the premises it follows, that the compound perfect tenses of active verbs, in which 
the preterite is the leading portion, admit of ne, while those which have the present there do not ; 
kuon likhta tha, who roas writing ? tcomhara beta likhta hoga, your son xvas probably writing ; is 
bunde ne likha hoga, this slave may have zoritten. 

237. Whenever ne appears depending on the pluperfect participle, it may in general be traced to 
some other form of the verb expressed or understood, kuliyon ne dekh shokhiye goolcheen ko, is 
qudur upna lohoo piya, ki huen poorkhoon-duhun hunoz, when the -buds beheld the impudence of the 
Jlorist, they became so inflamed leith anger, that to this day they are red with rage, 

238. That hum, we, though applicable to or assumed by one person for /, is as much a real plu- 
ral as toom, yov, which is bestowed on an individual in the Hindoostanee and all the modern lan- 
guages, must be evident to every scholar from the following and a thousand such examples ; muen 
padshah ka muskhuru boon, too kis ka, / am the Icing's biiffbon, whose art thou ? muen upne bap ka 
beta hoon, or hum upne bap ke bete huen toom kis ke, / am myjathers son, whose are you ? 

239. When the nominative of a verb is transformed completely from the feminine to the mascu- 
line state, or vice versa, the verb nevertheless does not agree with the result, whatever that may- 
pro tempore be : yih keera ek ghuree men mukhee hoja,ega, uor woohee mukhee ek roz ke urse 
men keera phir hogee, this maggot will become ajly in an hour, and in a day after, that veryjly will 
again become a worm. 

240. The licence of poetry, the completion of an event, or the application of logic, hath so far 
induced Suoda, and perhaps others, to reverse the above principle so completely, that we meet with 
such examples, ek ke ghur men beta pueda hoo,a cos ne fuqeer se zahir kiya ki ap ke furmane se 
lurka to hoo,a lekin beta, durwesh ne kuha bhula baba betee hee hogee, Khooda kee qoodrut se uor 
fuqeer kee zuban ke subub wooheen wooh lurka lurkee hogu,ee, a son was born in one's house, wlio 
told a monk, that as he had predicted a child was brought forth, but it was a male ; the sage observed, 
well, it shall be a girl ; and by the power of God and the blessing of his servant, the son became a daugh- 
ter. Dee thee Khooda ne ankh pur nasoor hoguya, instead of hogUiCe, agreeably to the practice of 
the present day. 

241. When the nominative is at some distance, and a relative intervenes, the last principle seems 
predominant ; but the requisite construction in such examples appears at best very dubious, since 
they can say, — kuneezuk padshah ke pas a,ee, kyoonki wooh oos ka mal ho chookee thee, the girl 
approached the Icing as she had become his property ; shah ne sipahee ko kuneezuk bukhshee, wojh to 
sipahee ka mal ho chooka, the Icing then gave tlie girl to a soldier, and she now became the soldier''s 

242. The negatives nuheen, nu, mut, are promiscuously used, either before or after verbs, but 
the last is generally restricted to the imperative forms, and nu is preferred to nuheen, where this 
would prove inconvenient or less melodious, as it is seldom, if ever, used imperatively, and in 
particular combinations nuheen may offend the ear with too may nasals, which nu so far pre- 


243. Nulieen may also be preferred as a more emphatic, and to prevent confusion witli ne ; mueii 
ne nuheen kuha ki nu ja,oonga (or muen nuheen) ja,oonga, / did not say that J won't go, (7 will not 


244. The present and mere past tenses of tlie auxiliary verbs are much intermixed with each 

other, nay, tha, was, is often expressed by lioon, am, &c. ; gurni panee Iiue, is there A*f water ? 
panee gurm hue, ts the water hot ? panee gurm hoo,a, is the water (yet made) hoi ? tram kud se wu- 
han niiokur lio, how long have you heen (are you) a servant there ? muen do burns sc lioon, 7 have 
been (am) so these two years ; cos sal yad rukhiyo wculi bhee Kulkutte men hue, recollect that he also 
was (is) at Calcutta that year. 

245. As boo,a commonly implies the change from one state to another, and hue the mere exist- 
ence of any thing, little sagacity is requisite to perceive, that these words ought in strict propriety 
to be frequently translated variously ; toom kuhan kc surdar ho, of what jilace are you the comman- 
der ? toom kuhan ke surdar hoo,c, o/" what place are you (become, made, appointed, Sec.) the comman- 
der? wooh upne kam men surgurm hue, he is zealous in his calling, if expressed by hoo,a, would im- 
ply, that he is now become so, but was not zealous before. <>J'>S"<uh 

246. The difference between toomhen kya hue, and hoo,a, may be explained thus : the first means 
what ails you ? what have you now to complain of? the second, wliat hath happened to you, what hath 
become of you ? &c. but to lay down rules for discriminating the almost imperceptible shades of 
difference between hoo.a and hue, or of some other tenses, on all occasions, would rather require 
the accuracy and subtilty of logic and metaphysics, than the circumscribed canons of Grammar. 

247. In various dialects of the Hindoostanee ba, bat, uch-chhe, chhe, may still be met with for 
hue, and bhuya for lioo.a, under circumstances and inflections, however, that cannot be stated here. 

248. When the present or perfect tense occurs as such, its regular signs are boon, &c, but in the 
capacity of a participle, it requires lioo,a; ugurchi wooh yuhan se hunsta hoo,a chula tha, lekin 
wuhan ub rota hue, though he went hence laughing, he is now weeping (or weeps, does tceep) there ; 
muen duora boon, 7 have run ; muon duora boo, a aya boon, 7 have come running. 

249. Hoo,a is often omitted or expressed, but sometimes with very different effects; muen cos 
ko buethe (with or without hoo,e) dekha, 7 saw him sitting; jo muen wuhan (with or without 
hoo,a) hota, had I been there ; is ne mara hue, he hath beaten ; wooh is ka mara hoo,a hue, he hath 
been beaten by him, or lit. he is his bealeii person, victim. Sec. as this is always rather the participle, 
than the perfect form. 

250. These auxiliary and other verbs assume an impersonal form which alone expresses our it, 
there, very effectually, as hue, it is ; huen, tliere are ; tha, it was ; hoga, it will do ; burusta hue, 
it rains. The real scholar need not here be told, that panee, water, and other words, are understood 
to all such apparent impersonals. ^ , j' 

-. 261. The auxiliary signs are seldom omitted in the present tense, to express this, as in our lan- 
guage, indefinitely ; as ubhee, or the frequentative form, denotes the definite and Indefinite, without 
any chance of confusion ; we lurke shurab peetc huen, these boys drink wine (indefinitely) ; we lurke 



ubhee shurab peete huen, the boys are dririldng wine ; we lurke shurab piya kurte, the hoys (are in 
the habit of drinking) drink wine. 

252. When the present tense drops its auxiharies, it often becomes subjunctive, and expresses, 
with the greatest simpHcity, all those conditional forms whose complex formation in our language 
makes them appear also formidable in Hindoostanee ; kyoon hum se poochhte ho kya hota jo toom 
wuhan jato, toom mooqurrur jan se mare jate be udubee ke liye, how can you ask me what would have 
fiappened if you had gone there, you certainly would have lost your life on account of your impertinence ? 

253. The _aorist and present tense assimilate so well, that they often say, wooh deewanu din o 
rat sare shuhur men phire bhagta hue, bhagta phira, or bhagta phirta hue, that madman keeps run- 
ning night and day about the whole town, whence the learner may see, and readily conceive the com- 
patibility of the aorist with the auxiliary signs hue and tha. 

254. The present and jierfect tenses or participles are often used, either absolutely or adjectively, 
though in some, otherwise ambiguous sentences, the latter be preferred; moDJhe cos wuqt khutt 
likhte pa,oge, you will find me then writing a letter ; muen ne ek uorut ko tusweer khuenchtee dekha, 
/ saw a woman drawing a jn'cture, to preserve this from the confusion that khuenchte would pro- 
duce, from its applicability to either the one or the other. 

^5. When the perfect is thus used, it very frequently conveys a present tense ; asman men 
wooh puree upne tukht ko oora,e hoo,e chulee jatee thee, that fairy was passing along through the 
air, steering her throne ; yih lurkee so^e lioo,e {or so,ee hO|ee, sole hoo,e, sotee hoo,ee) rat ko idhur 
oodhur phirtee hue, this girl walks about at night asleep. 

256. Both these participles occur as nouns of the first declension, of which e being the inflec- 
tion, we may probably find that some postposition, expressed or understood, is the cause of the ab- 
solute fcwm in question. From the same source we can perhaps deduce the verbal postpositions 
liye, mare, ruhte, bote, &c. which are of sMch constant use in the Hindoostanee. 

257. If in all such instances we understand the words, kee hahit men, this will not only account 
fully for the construction in every possible form, but for the name of this regimen also being 
hallyu ; muen oose kyoon kur likhte boloon, why should I speak to him writing, i. e. likhte hoo,e 
kee halut men, in the state of writing. Both languages are exposed in such examples to the same 
ambiguity, which a little transposition in Hindoostanee may probably prevent entirely, 254. 

258. As the Hindoostanees use suo gnora aya, or suo ghore a,e, indiscriminately, for a hundred 
horses came, but must always say, suo admee a.e, a hundred men came, one must suppose, that there 
is a greater latitude of speech when talking of irrational, than when speaking of rational animals. 

The student of the foregoing principles and practical observations on the Hindoostanee can have 
no conception of the immense labour and pains wnich have been bestowed upon them by the 
author, until he recollects, that they ought rather to have been the mature fruits collected by 
others from the philological tree, which he has planted, after many years' cultivation, than the 
forced productions of the stock that his own hands have set. Future writers and his immediate 


successors may find die whole more wortliy of attention ; and if tliey derive advantage from tliese 
principles, their compiler will rest satisfied, that he has not toiled entirely without an adequate 
recompence, though that portion of his life has been wasted on the mere collection and arrangement 
of materials for their use, wliich would otherwise have been devoted to tlie acquisition of a critical 
knowledge of tlie language. 

As most verbs in the Hindoostanee are formed by joining nouns, adjectives, &c. with tlie pliant 
auxiliaries, kurna, to do, make; bona or hojaiia, to be, become, grow; dena, to give; jana, to go^ 
be ; rukhna, to have, keej), khana, dalna, bandhna, marna. Sec. I have contracted this part of the 
work very considerably, not only with a view to keep it widiin due bounds, but also to accustom 
the reader to the formation of compounds, that occur in almost every sentence of the language. 

For a general example, take abated, and to any word opposite it, add bona, for the neuter, and 
kurna, for the active verb to abate; under which word, kumee kurna, (lit. to make abatement') 
will likewise be found. From this circumstance, it will in general be necessary, on referring to a 
verb, to consult also its correlative noun, adjective, or participle, widi whicli, and the commoa 
auxiUaries, a variety of compounds can easily be formed to express it. Thus, to abate, v. a. ghut- 
ana, kum kurna, mookhufFuf kurna, hulka kurna, dheema kurna, munda kurna, ghat kurna, Stc. ; 
V. n. ghutna, kum bona, moukhuftuf bona, hulka bona, dheema bona, ghat bona, munda bona. 
The reader will at once perceive, that if every verb were inserted in this manner at full length, the 
book would swell to a most enormous size, without any adequate advantage ; he will therefore 
forgive, and I trust comprehend the following and similar abbreviations. 

To abate, v. a. ghutana, kum- &c. -k. kumee- &c. -k.; v. n. ghutna, kum- &c. -h. as above. 
When an active verb is formed by a participle or adjective, with kurna, the object of the verb is 
put in the accusative ; as, qecniut kum kurna, to abate the price ; on the contrary, when the noun 
forms the compound, the object of the verb will be in the genitive. Thus, qeemut kee kiuntee 
kurna, lit. to make abatement of the price ; whence, agreeably to the Hindoostanee idiom, coskee 
tuwazco kurna, to make abatement, not onsko tuwazno kuma, to invite him. I shall only obsei've 
further, tliat when verbs occur, whose participles arc not inserted, or whose adjectives, &c. are 
not obvious and connected, I have constantly set down, under the verb itself, the words by which it 
is formed. Thus, to adapt, burabur- theek- moowafiq- dooroost- humwar- sumam-k. This mode 
is full as expressive as, burabur kurna, theek kurna, moowafiq kurna, dooroost kuma, humwar- 
kurna, suman kurna ; and has the advantage of being contained in half the room. Our English 
verbal nouns are commonly expressed by Hindoostanee infinitives or preterites, which are in fact 
nouns, and consequently declined as such. This will account for tlie frequent reference, on these 
occasions, to the verb. 'ja ,»'Mie 

Abolition, for instance, may be expressed by muo(joof kurna, or muoqoof-kiya ; tlius, by tlie abolition 
of this custom, is rusm ke muoqoof kurne se, or is rusm ke muoqoof kiye se. Formerly nouns of 
action were elegandy formed by adding wuya to the imperative singidar of their respective verbs. 
Thus, lur-wuya, a Jighter, from hima, to fght ; chul-wuya, a walker, from chulna, to walk; but 
this mode has long since given way in most instances to the compounds, lurne-wala, chulne-wala 

1 2 


&c. The formation of these last is so simple and easy, that I have seldom inserted them ; as the 
learner may form a noun of agency, when necessary, by adding to the inflected infinitive of its cor- 
responding verb, tlie inseparable particle wala ; thus, nachna, to dance ; nachne-wala, a dancer ; 
gana, to sing ; gane-wala, a singer, kc. The reader, on this account, will not be displeased should 
he find thcnouns of action generally omitted, as he can always supply the deficiency, by observing 
the above general rule ; for instance, abolisher, nasikh, moobtil; these are both Arabic words, and 
only used by authors and learned men ; to form, therefore, the Hindoostanee noun, it will be 
necessary to look back to the infinitive : there we shall find ootha dena, rudd kurna, &c. by inflecting 
these, and adding wala, the word required is formed ; as, ootha dene-wala, rudd kurne-wala, &c. 
an abolisher, and may be adopted accordingly. 

The reader will undoubtedly observe, by referring to English adverbs ending in ly, a remarkable 
deficiency in the Hindoostanee to express them. This defect is not perhaps peculiar to this lan- 
guage, as may be seen by consulting such words in Richardson's Dictionary. Thus, burabur, 
means equal or equalli/, as dono burabur huen, both are equal, and dono burabur rukho, place them 
both equally. 

Many words occur in the English Dictionary, which, with other Lexicographers, I have totally 
omitted ; and such words as they have inserted merely for reference, have been often disregarded. 
How far -I have acted properly, is the Public's business, not mine, to determine. Should the reader 
at any time be disappointed, when in search of a particular word to express an English one by, 
he may in that case turn to such English words as are synonymous, where it is more than probable 
he will find the vocable required. I shall at all times be happy to acknowledge and amend the 
errors I may have fallen into, and with particular satisfaction shall attend to whatever is commu- 
nicated to mc on this subject, by the friends of Oriental literature. Among many instances, how- 
ever, which I could adduce to show that the critic himself may be misled, I shall only mention 
two or three. 

E^'try body who has any acquaintance with the Hindoostanee, knows, that zor signifies strength, 
tumasha, diversion, and bhula, well; but few are aware that these very words signify admirable, 
comical, droll. Sic. This being the case, many of my readers will no doubt be surprised to find 
them inserted ^mder the above words: see the examples in tlie Dictionary under admirable, &c, 
from which we may learn that appearances are often deceitful ; because, however inapplicable or 
inexplicable words may seem in particxdar places, they are nevertheless the very reverse of being 
wrong, as a little practice and experience in the Hindoostanee will shortly establish, beyond the 
power of contradiction, in the minds of those scholars who can sufficiently apply to this study. 
The word buseer, for instance, signifies a person who can see ; yet in Hindoostanee it is more com- 
monly applied to the blind ; khusum, an enemy, is here a husband ; but as examples of this nature 
may be multiplied amazingly, I shall leave them to the reader's own sagacity and assiduity, 
since without a considerable portion of both, he cannot reap great benefit from any work of this 
kind. :'i )m'M\ 


Had I, in imitation of Richardson and others, filled half of this Dictionary with a fruitless 
repetition of kurna, &c. in the Roman, Nagree, and Persian characters at full length, and moreover 
rung the vaiious changes on words in their verbal, participial, adjective, substantive, and other 
forms, as he has too frequently done, under verbs and adverbs, the discerning impartial reader will 
immediately see, that the first Volume alone, instead of being comprised in one portable quarto, 
would have swelled to two ponderous folios, equal in size to either the English or Arabian Lexico- 
grapher's huge works. 

The judicious and obvious mode of intervening and final concatenation by parenthesis, and it» 
inclusive, as well as exclusive reference, which Richardson employs through the whole series of 
any one word and its various acceptations, I have certainly followed without much deviation or im- 
provement. I have tried nevertheless to extend the principle a little farther, by introducing more 
numerous references, at times, to accommodate my notions to other authors, when I did not see the 
meaning of a vocable in the same light with them, but more commonly with the design of obviat- 
ing unnecessary pleonasm or tautology. 

The few abbreviations which occur in this Volume are so evident, after the statement in page - 
lix. as hardly to require notice here, being common to every work of the kind, viz. a. for adjec- 
tive, v. for verb, v. a. verb active, q. v. quod vide ; and so on. 

In the first portion of the Dictionary, the words in parenthesis were often followed by q. v.- 
but this was afterwards omitted as unnecessary, because the reader, when requisite, can of his own 
accord refer to all those synonymous vocables, whenever such reference is expected to throw addi- 
tional light upon the leading word which has been consulted ; since, by looking elsewhere, one or 
more very appropriate Hindoostanee terms may probably be found, which have been accidentally 
omitted in their proper place. 'tn'^-iOBir. ' 

Though It certainly was intended to insert the most common Hindoostanee words progi-essively 
nearest the English one, still so many obstacles to this arrangement presented theirselves at every 
step, that I have often been forced, very reluctantly, to abandon it. 

In the Hindoostanee, as in all languages, there are a great number of inseparable particles used 
as prefixes, interfixes, and affixes, a knowledge of which becomes essential to the learner, who wishes 
to understand the real meaning of any compound word. The whole of the Hindoostanee particles 
vill be found in the second Volume of the Dictionary, explained at full length ; but in the meani 
time, we have selected the following small number, by way of exercise and example i viz. 

Prefixes. Examples. 

ghuer, other, kc. ghuer-suheeh, in-correct. 

khilaf, opposite. khilaf-iiql, un-reasonable. 

kum, less. kum-zor, pith-less. 

khcosh, pleasant. khoosh-tubii, good-humoured. 

na, dis, un, &c. na-khrash, dis-pleased. 



Interfixes. Examples 

a. ]ub a lub, brimful ; rung a (or bu) rung, various kind ; shub a shub, in one night, all night. 
o. gooft o goo, discourse ; bood o bash, residence ; ab o huwa, climate ; ab o khoord, a live- 
lihood ; rat o rat, in the night. 
dur bii diir, from door to door ; roo bu roo, face to face, opposite ; tazu bu tazu, fresh a7id 

fresh ; qism bu qism, different sorts ; roz bu roz, dailj/ ; ja bu ja, same where or other. 
gall be gall, wuqt be wuqt, now and then, occasionally ; ja be ja, here atid there. 
kudhee nu kudhee, some time or other ; koochh nu koochh, some thiTig or other ; kuheen nu 

kuheen, some where or other. 
khet ka khet, the whole field ; muedan ka muedaii, the entire plain ; jungul ka jungul, the 
complete wood. 







kurwa-hut, bitter-ness. 


buna-wut, manage-ment. 


bewa-puna, tcidoic-hood. 


nuzur-anu, a present. 


sal-eenu, yearly-pay. 


doodli-wala, a milk-man. 








lukur-liara, a wood-munger. 
kliidmut-gar, a waili>ig-serva7it. 
sliutrunj-baz, a chess-jilayer. 
gor-kun, a grave-digger. 
tuklit-nusheen, seated on a throne. 
rali-nooma, a conductor. 

See the British Indian Monitor, Vol. I. from page 93 to 103. 

 ♦Under the conjugation of the verbs, in pages xxxvii and xxxix, having inserted the Oriental 
names of the various tenses, along with their English designations, in order to facilitate the 
learner's colloquial intercourse on such a theme with his native teacher, it has been deemed expe- 
dient to subjoin also in this place those grammatical terms in common use among the Mcosulmans, 
although the whole (including the technical words used by the Hindoos) will in general be found 
under their respective heads in the first volume of the work, and must again occur in the second 
volume, more amplv explained than can well be done at present. 

Definite article, hurfi tu,ureef; indefinite article, hurfi tunkeer ; noun, ism; pronoun, zumeer ; 
adjective, sifut ; singular, wahid; dual, tusniyu ; plural, jumu; case, halut; number, seeghu ; 
masculine, tuzkecr ; feminine, tanees ; verb, fi,ul ; tense, zumanu or seeghu ; active verb, fi,ul moo- 
tUjUddee ; passive voice, seeghu,e mujhool ; neuter verb, fi,uli lazimee ; 1st person, mootukulhm ; 
2</, niookhatub or hazlr ; 3d, gha,ib. For nominative, dative, and interrogative, &c. see these 
■words in the Dictioiuiry. 

I cannot, in justice to my colleague, close the introductory part of this performance, without 
adverting once more to the able assistance which it has throughout received from the talents and 
assiduity of Mr. Roebuck, who has not only brought the English and Hindoostanee Dictionary to a 


successful issue, but has moreover proceeded so far in the plan and execution of the Hindooslanu 
and English Dictionary, that the Public may at last confidently expect its appearance in the course 
of the current year, provided the assistant, whom Mr. Roebuck has fully instructed for that pur- 
pose, continues to evince the same diligence, zeal, and ability, which his friend and instructor has 
80 successfully employed and cultivated in the short period of six months, that have been unremit- 
tingly devoted to this volume, botli by Mr. Roebuck* and his amanuensis or pupil. Should the 
literary exertions of a young East India Officer in this countrj', like the Editor of the Hindooslanec 
Philology, be found to merit and meet with adequate encouragement from his Honourable Masters, 
there can be no doubt of such patronage and protection hereafter producing the happiest effects at 
every one of our Establishments in British India ; and I shall most cheerfully leave all my hopes 
of remuneration for myself to the candour and judgment of that portion of my fellow-subjects, 
who are more immediately interested in, or connected with, our extensive empire in the East : 
because, if I have not unfortunately over-rated the value and general utility of my Oriental Pub- 
lications, their increasing sale will ultimately more than compensate for the money and time that 
have been sacrificed, during a series of years, to promote the progress and study of the most useful 
collocpiial tongue, at all the British settlements, on the continent of India. 

We had proceeded a considerable way in the Volume now before the Public, when Captain 
Joseph Taylor's valuable Hindoostanee and English Dictionary, edited and enlai^red by my learned 
friend Dr. William Hunter of Bengal, came to hand ; and since that period, as every thing useful, 
■which could be conveniently extracted from it, has been inserted in these sheets, it is but fair to 
acknowledge how much I deem myself obliged to the labours of those gentlemen, in the course of 
this volume and the next, for many important articles, which might otherwise have escaped me 
entirely. While it affords me heartfelt pleasure thus to notice with merited applause my contem- 
porary labourers in the same Oriental field, I owe it to them and myself to state distinctly here, 
that so far from our respective productions interfering with each other, they will rather tend to 
reciprocal support and advantage. 

To every beginner, and the many young men who cannot afford a heavy price for a ponderous 
lexicon in two or three volumes, and who perhaps never mean to go beyond a colloquial knowledge 
of, or fluency in the Hindoostanee, I have no hesitation in affirming, that my Dictionary will prove 
in every respect the most essential ; though it must, on the other hand, be candidly admitted, that 
Hunter's excellent Lexicon is better fitted for the few naturalists and scholars, or those opulent en- 
terprising orientalists, who are desirous of surpassing the natives of Hindoostan in natural history, 
as well as in that species of literature peculiar to their own country and tongue, connected at the 
same time with all the learned languages of the East. 

To yield the palm of voluminous erudition to my competitors for Oriental fame, is a concession 
which can easily be made, if, in return, I be permitted to claim for my Publications the humbler 
}nced of general utility ; more especially when the learner is here informed of the exact coincidence 
in the orthoepigrapliical system of Dr. Hunter's and my Dictionary, to which, I have no hesitation 
in believing, that the Doctor will do every justice in due time, he having succeeded me in tlie Hin- 



doostanee press at Calcutta, where the Oriental types, agreeahly to my scheme, were mostly all pre- 
pared to his hand, and have been doubtless found of the greatest service in the publication of Cap- 
tain Taylor's private Lexicon. 

Without any wish whatever to detract from the worth of a rival publication, I may with safety 
aver, that though it enters very diffusely into the classical lore of the Hlndoostanee tongue, by re- 
ference and long extracts, the reader will find a collection of words in general use much more co- 
pious in the present popular work, than the large and recondite volumes of the Hlndoostanee Lexi- 
con can possibly contain, if the whole be conducted on the same plan and extensive scale of quota- 
tion that prevails in those already submitted to the Public ; when it is moreover recollected, that 
the smallness of our type, and the close printing, are so well calculated to comprise almost every 
vocable which can well occur in the grand colloquial speech of the whole Indian peninsula, and^of 
the vast regions immediately connected with its northern confines. 

Having consulted Harris's Hlndoostanee Dictionary, Wilkins' excellent edition of Richardson, 
Kirkpatrick's Persian and Arabic Vocabulary, Gladwin's Persian Guide and Vocabulary, Will- 
met's Arabic Lexicon, Baretto's Persian and Arabic Dictionaries, and a very useful MS. Hinduwee 
Vocabulary, furnished by Major Lewis Ferdinand Smith, in the course of our studies, we embrace 
this opportunity of stating how much we owe to the above writers and friends of Oriental literature, 
for many particulars that cannot either now or hereafter be easily recollected »r otherwise acknow- 
ledged. ■•"> t>4; '' ' ■' '^■■"' •'■• ^' '.' r..,li''. 

Independent of the literary exertions of my friend Mr. Roebuck, already stated, he has completed 
the Second Volume of the British Indian Monitor, a second edition of the English and Hindoo- 
stance Dialogues, and has also collected such materials for the Third Volume of the British Indian 
Monitor, as will enable me, if duly assisted and encouraged by the intermediate sale of other publi- 
cations, to print it in the course of the current year, which will thus put it in my power to preform 
.a21 my engagements as an author, with credit to myself, and real advantage to the community. 





Oj has uniformly a broad sound, as in all. 

a, (or an) the indefinite article of unity, is either 
expressed by the numeral ek, 07ie, or found (as 
in Latin) in the simple noun ; thus, in Suoda, 

JSk dil mila ki jis men huen suekron mulole: 
I have found a heart in which there are many 

And again in this verse, 

Khoolta hue ubhee pul men tilismat juhan ka : 
Nowthecharm of this world in a »«o>»«n< dissolves. 

a, before participles, is either rendered by ko, 
to; they went a-swimming, puerne ko gu,e: 
or by the inflection of the verbal noun only ; 
thus, they went a-walking, phirne gu,e ; v. on. 

a, implying proportion, peechhe, sure, fee; thus, 
how much is his income w-year ? burus peech- 
he cos kee ketee amud hue? how much n- 
chair? sure chuokee keta? five rupees «-yard, 
fee guz pancli rnopu,e. Tliese particles are 
nevertheless often omitted. How much a-pair ? 
kete jora ? how much a-piece .' kete than ? 
y.for, per, kc. 


a, where it means any, every, each, is expressed 
by ko,ee, and the particles already enumerated, 
or by a repetition of the word; whence roz roz, 
admee admee, burus burus, are often found 
signifying a day, a man, a year, see each, &c. 
also British Indian Monitor, Vol. I. p. 139. 

abaft, pichhwara, v. behind, rear. 

to abandoti, chhorna, turk-k. v. to desert. 

abandoned, oojar, v. deserted; chuor chuoput, khwar, v. pr<iflignte ; (to be) goozur- 
jana, khwar-h. &c. v. graceless. 

to abase, puchharna, girana, v. to debase. 

abased, hulka, soobcok, upuman, v. degradation} 

to abash, shurmana; lujana, sookchana, chupana, 
panee panee-k. v. n. sookuchna, chupna, v. to 
blush, and the participle — 

abashed, shurmindu,pusheman,hijjit,v. ashamed. 

to abate, v. a. ghutana, kum-k. &c. kumee-k. 
&c. v. n. ghutna, boojhna, kuni-h. &c. pur- 
jana, v. to decrease. 

abated, kum, ghat, munda, dheema, kulka, moc- 
khufTuf, been. 




abatement, kumee or kumtee, ghutee or ghuttee, 
ghata, tukhfeef, heeiita, v. reduction. 

abbey, khanqah, da,iru, dhurum-sala, v. convent. 

abbot, muhunth, tukiyedar, da,iredar, v. chief. 

to abbreviate, abbreviated, v. to abridge. 

abbreviation, ikhtisar, kotahee, sunchhepun, tur- 
klieem, v. contraction. 

a, b, c, ulif be, ku khu, v. alphabet. 

to abdicate, clihorna, tyagna, turk-k. v. to resign. 

abdication, turk, tyag, (of a throtie) turki sul- 
tunut, V. resignation. 

abdicator, tarik, tyagee, v. deserter. 

abdomen, pet, shikum, oodur, kotha, (hypogas- 
trium) peroo, (hypochondrium) kokh, kokha, 
V. belly. 

a-bed, charpa,ee-pur, pulung-pur. 

aberration, aberrance, koo-puth, v. deviaiimi. 

to abet, puchh- mudud- himayut- suha,eta-k. 
suhara-d. poorchuk-d. ishti,aluk-d. hculkai'iia, 
ooksana or ooskana, ooshlooq-k. v. to encou- 

abettor, puchhee, hamee, janib-dar, dum-baz, 
poorchukee, v, to instigate. 

to abhor, chirhna, bhagna, nufrut-r. &c. v. ab- 
horrence, also to abominate. 

abhorrence, nufrut, gilan, goorez, ghinghinahut, 
kuchiyahut, ikrah, v. detestation and horror. 

abhorrer, mootunuffir. 

to abide, busna, thuliurna, v. to dwell, bear. 

abject, zuleel, klnyar, khurab, khufeef, tubab, 
be-wuqr, hulka, putit, v. base; (servile) chap- 
loos, jootee-khor, puezar-khor. 

abjectness, zillut, zulalut, muzuUut, khwaree, 
khurabee, doorgut; (servility) chaploosee, v. 

ability, t.aqut, muqdoor, bul, puhonch, suwad, 
dust-rus, V. capacity, genius ; bit, dukhul, pue- 
sar, V. power, means, &c. , , j 

abjuration, bur^ushtugee, v. apostacy. 

to abjure, budul-d. rudd-inhiraf-k. v. to apostatize, 
recant, hudees-k. v. to forswear. 

ablative, sumprudan, haluti nusbee yu,une mu- 

able qabil, v. capable, samurthee, ducbh, pruorb, 
V. adept, {in comp.) jog, pu/.eer, tulub ; thus, 
suwal-tulub, question«?//e, turbiyut-puzeer, 
tract«6fe, funa-puzeer, perishff6/e. See Bri- 
tish Indian Monitor, vol. i. p. 94, 100, 101, 

to be able, sukna, la,iq-h. taqut-r. &c. v. ability, 
busana, v, skill, &c. 

the spots dug for this purpose. 

able-bodied, khinga, bul-wunt, v. athletic. 

ablution, ghoosl, usnan, nuhan, tuharut, {of the 
hands, &c.) ab-dust, suoch, {previous to 
prayer, &c.) wuzoo, punch-usnanee, ungo- 
hul, uthul, tuwazzoo, tuyummoom, urus pu- 
rus, {nasal) istinshaq, {of the dead) mcordu- 
sho,ee, {place for) luhud, {of rice, &c.) 
sung-sho,ee, v. to wash, to bathe. 

aboard, pur, men, v. ship, boat, &c. also above, on, 
in, {in comp.) suwar, whence kishtee-suwar, 
aboard ship, a boat, &c. 

abode, mukan, deru, thikana, gulee, v. habita- 
tion, busobas, thuor, tha,on, ruha,o, ruha|ish, 
usthan, asrum, usthul, bood-bash, sookoonut, 
muskun, istiqamut, juguh, basa, mawa, mus- 
kunut, muhul, v. residence, &c. 

abodement, khutka, agum, khutru, v. to forebode. 

to alwlish, ootha-d. door-k. rudd-k. v. to expunge. 

abolished,muoqoo{, munsookh, muho,mu,vidoom, 
nast, nest-na-bood, batil, mutrook, chhue. 

abolisher, nasikh, moobtil, 

abolition, nuskh, ibtal, muhvviyut, inhidam, 
V. destruction. , • , .  -.^^ 




dbmmnaUe, mukrooh, nujis, ghulee?., kureeh, 
puleed, na-guwar, ghinuona, moostukruh, nuf- 

- rut-ungez, v. hateful, hueta^lmal, v. eavensive/y. 

to alx>minafe, door-bhagna, v. to abhor. 

abemination, udawut, &c. v. ahhorrewe, nufnit- 

•- ungezee,v.«6«centY</, defilement, &c. (inthepl.) 
mukroohat, v. orgies. 

aborigines, oosool, aduo, v. anrienf, primitive, &c. 

abortion, murancli, pet-girna, isqat i Inimul, 
gurbh-pat, bhroon, v. to mi^eamj, wu7,u- or 
suqoot-humul, gurbh-surwut, (^produce) suqtu, 
poitla, mujiya, v. mole, (in contempt) hueiee 
liitta, V. clout. 

almrtiwe, zayii,u, be-fa,idu, Ja-liasil, birtha, xm- 
urth, V. fiidtlesfi, (or apt to miscarry) pet- 

V -giruonee or -limionee, v. imperfect, &c. 

above, oopur (or ke oopur), pur (or pu), bur, 
fuoq, zubur, (whence the diacritical mark ' 

■from its being placed above letters), age, siwa, 

'. chhoot, barh, ugla, surus, ziyadu, u,ula, con- 
cha, boolund, V. beyond, high, and the other 
acceptations of this adverbial preposition. 

«?>oi'e 07ie anot/ier, tul-oopur, neeche-oopur, ek- 

from above, oopur-se. 

to be above any business, &c. khuench rukhna, 
V. to sCom. 

above cited, &c. murqoom, muzljoor, mrosharoon- 
ileh, moomuileh, muosoof, mumdooh, nam- 

•'^ Ijoordu, woohee. -^ -'•»'*- 

above all, puehle, uwwul or uwwulun, age or 
agoo, motKpiddiim, pirthum, sub se puehle. 

above hoard, hhfula-khonlee, pur-ghut, ulaniyu, 
ashkara, burniula, mule muedan, prikashit. 

above mentioned, muzfcoor, mustoor, v. aforesaid. 

above measure, buhoot, hudd-se-ziyadu, be-hudd. 

to abmtnd, pa>r- mu,umoor- bhurpoor- poorun- 
-h. V. ahtnidant, oomundna, bhurna, phoot- 

• .purna, v. to swarm. 

about, aspas, gird-pesh, gird-bu-gird or gird- 
a-gird, eedhur-oodhur, nuzdeek, pas, nikut, 
kihan, eehan, v. nearly, (indirect) plier, pher- 
kur, ghooin, v. mi, &c. ; all about, sub idhur 
ood hur, V. here, Sec. ; to come about, j)hirna, v. to 
return, pre pare, &c. {near, around, &c.) qureeb, 
lug bhug, ek; I have given him abo^tt ten ra- 
pees, COS ko nupUiC dus ek diye muen ne; (<ni) 
pur, ko, ke-waste ; I have come uhjut some 
business, kooclih kam ko aya boon ; (engaged 
in) men; what business is your master aixmt? 
toomhare sahib kis kam men huen.-' (with) 
sung, sath, pas, kune, tha,en, generally pre- 
ceded by ti)e particle ke ; there is not a hand- 
kerchief «/»7^< me, ek roomal mere pas nuheen 
hue; (onthej)mntof)(:^\ai\\i&, pur; this man 
is abfmt to die, yih admee mura chahta (or 
murne pur) hue. 

to abrade, v. a. rugurna, ghisna, [which signify 
also to be abraded^ khiyana. 

abrasion, rugur, ghisa,o, ghisawut, nigrawut. 

abreast, luge-luge, bur-a-bur, kurekur, puhloo 
bu puhloo, V. side, agai?isf. 

to abridge, ikhtisar- mookhtusur- kum- &c. -k. 
ghutana, v. abridged, also to diminish. 

abridged, mookhtusur, moontukhub, kotali, 
sunchhep.  •'■ -^'^ 

abridgement, ikhtisar, intikhab, sararth, suncbhe- 
pun, V. abstract. 

abroach, orhuk-pur, v. atilt: ?'•** o Aijsb Hh 

abroad, bahur, pur-des, bl-des, pur-bas, pur- 

' moolk, des-awur, pur-ghur, v. far, away, out; 
unte, be-wulun, wilayut, bahur-bheetur, v. af 
large, {on all sides) chuo-gird, v. around. 

to abrogate, ootha-d. muoqoof-k. &c. ' 

abrogation, v. to abolish, fiec. -^ioarti- 

abrupt, nisheb-furaz, neech-oonch (or oonch- 
neecli) behur, v. craggy, goostikh, na-hum- 
war, un-gurh, v. sudden, he. 
A 2 



abruptly, ek a ek, na-gah, un-chitte, ucbanuk 
or uchanchuk, nidhuruk, be-muoqu,u, be- 
imtiyazee-se, v. bluntly, unexpectedly, &c. 

abruptness, juldee, hur-buree, be-imtiyazee, na- 
humwaree, v. bluntness. 

abscess, phora, bultor, paka, v. imposthume. 

to abscond, duba- chhipa- bhaga- looka- poshee- 
du- rooposh-ruhna, v. to hide, Jlee. 

absence, hijr, hijrut, hijran,jaoda,ee, firaq, biyog, 
bichhoha, maofaruqut, firqut, moohajurut, doo- 
ree, pusgheebut, ghueivhazree, peechhe, {be- 
hind) which last is generally used in this 
sense, on common occasions ; the others being 
more applicable to the absence of lovers or 
friends. I cannot do this business in your ab- 
sence, toomhare peechhe mueii yih kam nuheen 
kur sukta boon; and in like manner, age, 6e- 
fore, often means in presence of, v. distant. 

absent, jooda, ghuer-hazir, gha,ib, bichhra, bi- 
yogee, door, muhjoor, (in mind) ghafil, doo- 
chitta, doo-dila or dodla. 

to be absent, bichhoorna, jooda- &c. -h. 

to absent, v. to abscond. 

to absolve, bukhshna, mu,af-mughfirut-k. chhor-d. 

absolved, mu,af, ufoo, chhima, v. remitted, azad, 
khulas, V. acquitted, kc. 

to be absolved, mookt- &c. -pana, v. absolution. 

absolute, (despotic) mookhtar, kool-mookhtar, sur 
i khood, montusullit, moolieet, qabiz-mootusur- 
rif, da,ir, o sa,ir, sootuntur, ap-bus, so-adheen, 
(complete) poora, surasur, muhz, mootluq, ni- 
put, kewul, moosullut, v. arbitrary. 

absolutely, (positively) ulbuttu,khwah mukh\yab, 
uwush, V. absolute, altogether. 

absolutely impossible, moohal mootluq, v. wholly. 

absoluteness, sur-khoodee, mookhtaree, tusuUoot^ 

absolution, nujat, mokh, oodhar, v. pardon. 

a A- 

to absorb, sokna, kheetichna, choosna, pee-lena, 
juzb-k. mama, moonjuzub-k. v. to sicallow. 

to be absorbed, sok-jana, juzb-h. puewust-ho- 
-jana, khupna, bhujna, murna; which last 
is restricted to water that may have lodged in a 
hollow, &c. (-in meditation) ghurq-h. doobna. 

absorbent, jazib. 

absorption, juzb, sok, v. the verb. 

to abstain, burana, iba-k. v. to forbear, purhez- 
&c. -k. v. abstinence, kinaru-puhloo tihee-k.- 
baz-ruhna, chhorna, door-bhagna, moonh- 
pherna or -r. tujna, hath-oothana, dust bur- 
dar-h. v. to refrain, avoid. 

abstemious, abstinent, purhez-gar, parsa, nemee, 
moottuqqee, riyazutee, bhugut, moohturiz, 
moortaz, kum-khorak, kum-khor, kum-ghiza, 
quleel ool ghiza, burtesree, v. temperate. ' 

abstemiously, riyazut- 8ec. -se. 

abstemiousness, riyazut, kum khorakee, v. the 
adj. tuqwa, tuqawut, purhez-garee, parsa,ee, 
bhugta,ee, v. abstinence. 

a&s^me«.ce,purhez, in,kar,goorez, ihtiraz, ijtinab, 
bura,o, nem, sunjum, y. fasting, &c. 

abstract, moojmul, loobbi loobab, v. abridgement, 
(accotinf) goshwaru, pueta (epitome) khoolasu, 
(idea) nrz. 

to abstract, intikhab- &c. -k. (to separate, q. v.) 
ek kinar-k. qutu nuzur-k. nikal-rukhna, v. to 
subtract, extract. , j^ij 

abstracted, qutu-nuzur, chhoot, (absent^ muho, 
bhurumbhor, gharutghor, be khubur. 

abstraction, muhvviyut, qutu-nuzree, v. supra. 

abstruse, abstracted, duqeeq, mooghluq, bareek, 
ghamiz, lahul, nazcok, goorh, sookhim. 

abstruseness, diqqut, ighlaq, bareekee, goorhta. 

absurd, na-mu,viqool, be-fa,idu, hurzu, ubus, ya- 
wu, un-urth, usungut, phikuoriya, yawu-go, 
v. nonsensical, kham-khiyal, birtha, bad hu- 
WBiCe, khoorafatee, be-ja, v. silly, also stupidly. 



almirdUy, nbsurdtiess, yawu-go,ee, khoorafat, su- 
tur-putur, luput-suput, bootlan, v. nonsense, 
be-hoodu-gee, wahee-tubahee, oot-putank, 7V. 
wahiyat, moohmulat, poochiyat, phikuoriyat, 
V. impropriety. Sec. - 

abwndance, boohtat, if rat, kusnit, ufza,ish, bur- 
hotree, sursa,ee, udhika,ee, ziyadutee, ufzoo- 
nee, umbar, firawanee, bisiyaree, poonj, su- 
mooh, bisesta, bistar, furakhee, furagluit, bur- 
kut, wufoor, tuoghiyanee, pelmel, lunk, moolk, 
bhurdul, v. &i?M6erance.'"*'-»''rt'''.<,nfi'"''''-'i' 

in (Sundance, bu-sbiddut, v. completely, &c. 

abu7id(inf, bulirot, buhootera, iiksiir, v. plenty, 
rel-pel, ghunera. malanial, wafir, ziyadu, ku- 
tJ^-seer, be-shoomar, firawan, bisiyar, uiieg, bi- 
- sekh, udhik, surus, dher, wafee, upel, bhur- 
dul, V. ample, to abound. 

abundantly, buhoat-sa, v. the adj. 

abuse, {rude) galee, zuban-durazee, dooshnam, 
la-scokhun, la-zuban, sukht, bhog, bud-zuban, 
lam-kaf, doorbuchun, be-uda,ee, bud-soolookee, 
V. contumely, (reciprocal abuse) galee-guluqj, 
phukkur, (unjust censxire) toohmut, tuotiya, 
iftira, lim, kulunk, dhansa, toofan, (blame) 
gilu, shikwu, sliikayut, v. imposition, (misuse) 
khilaf isti.umalee, bud-isti,umalee, koo-sudh- 

' nee, kooJjurt, v. corruption, bud-amilee, bud- 
-**^rusmee, koo-reet or -chal, v. innovation, bud- 
{'' rahee, koo-kunim, seductioji, 

to abuse, galee- &c. -d. (to cheat) thugna, but- 
paree-k. bigarna, chherna, v. to injure, nunraz- 
na, guliyana, bud-kuhna, v. to reproach, (to 
treat ill) bud zatee- bud soolookee- 
huram zadugee-k. (to beat) zudokob-k. (to 
defile) bhurusht-k. behoormut-khurab-k. ab 

V "Too-zat-hoormut-lena, v. to violate, (peedicare) 

'' gand-marna, thook-lugana, v. sodomy, &c. ; to 
abuse the ear of a person, kan-phoonkna, v. to 

abusive, abuser, dureedu-duhun, bud-zuban, gu- 

lenhda, j Ibhara, mookhara, zuban-duraz, sukht- 

go, V. obscene, 
abyss, ghar, duhuk, khoh, gurha, kound, oomq, 

acacia, uqaqiya, (the tree) mwgheelan, bubool, 

keekur. '^It iv>.t&ti->itnt 

academical, mudrusanu, v. student, &c. 
academy, mudrusu, muktub, chut-sal, v. college, 
acajow, (cashew nut) hijlee-kejoo or furungee- 

badam, (the fruit) kejoo? .■wsiwvstawft ./ 
acanthus, (holly-leaved) hurkut, har-joora. 
to accede, razee-li. manna, v. to agree, &c. 
to accelerate, chulana, juld-k. v. to expedite, 
acceleration, v. the verb, 
accent, (tone) luhju, soor, dhurun, zurb, dhukka, 

hurkut, mat, v. jioint, &c. jhiruk, v. emphasis, 

(pronunciation) mukhruj, qira,ut. 
to accent, zurb-lugana, (to protwunce) mukhruj 

uda-k. >f"i!':4 ^'''•«f*!*'!» .'ii'^'^rrii}!! 

to accept, qubool- pusund-k. lena, le-lena, rukh- 

na, manna, v. to receive (a bill) sukarna. . 
acceptable, khn>sh, khoob, bihtur, uchchha, bhula, ' 

mun-bha,ona, muqbool, moubaruk, uhsun, mut- 

boo,n, V. agreeable, mcDstujab, (in comp.) pu- 

sund, puzeer, khwa, v. grateful. x&~\»^ .> 
to be acceptable, khrosh- &c. -ana or -lugna, 

bhana, v. to please, 
acceptance, pusund, qubooliyut, or rather a deed 

of acceptance, v. choice. - ta^nahuif^ww - 
acceptation, acception, (of a word) mu,unee, urth, 

the received acceptation of a zcord, istilahee- 

mu,unee, opposed to loghwee-muunee, the 

literal meaning, v. reception, 
access, rusa,ee, goozara, goozur, rah, dur-amud, 

bar, puhoonch, pueth, ghoos pueth, dukhl, bar- 

yabec, ((f a fever) nuobut, baree, churhao. 
to have access, nisa,ee-h. or -pana, v. admission, 

to arrive, go, come, kc. 



Mcessary, sathee, sungee, sunghatee, rufeeq, hum- 

• rah, V. accomplice. 

occewiW^, puhoonchunlla^,churlla,oo,mcDmkinood- 
. dookhool, churhne jog, jane jog, milunhar, 
V. affable. :A>fi-uv)v. 

accession, y. access, (/'oa</wone)jooloos, ubishekh, 
raj-buethna, v. to accede, {()fa jii'ince) raj-tiluk 
or teeka, tukht- or musnud-nusheenee, v. coro- 

: nation, {to a person) amudruft, v. admission. 

■accidence, amud-namu, surf, saruswut, meezan, 
V. grammar. 

accident, ittifaq, arizu, halut, majura, nuobut, 
roo-dad, sur-goozusht, sun-jog, (calamity, q. v.) 
hadisu, duebee, waqu,u, bitha, beeta, qissu, 
V. circumstance, pi. arize, ittifaqat, waridat, 

, halat, sudumat, waqi,at, uwariz, huvvadisat, 
V. occurrence. 

accidental, ittifaqee, arizee, na-guhanee, ghue- 

i bee, sunjogee, ukusmat, bhabee, duewagut, 
Bumawee, asmanee, kurnia dhurmee, v. casual, 
{meeting) bata ghatee, v. hazard, he. 

accidentally, ittifaqun, ukusmat, v. suddenly, ari- 
zun, uz-ghueb, yoonhee, be-pryas. 

acclivity, churha,o, churha,ee, v. declivity. 

acclamation, afreen, tuhseen, juejue, jue juekar, 
V. applause. 

to accommodate, puhoonchana, khidmut-k. kliu- 
bur geeree-k. sewa-k. tuwazco,u-k. khubur- 

.' lena, bundugee buja-lana, (to adapt) hum- 
war-k. moosawat-k. suman-k. ; (one'« self to 
the times) zumanu sazee-k. v. to adjust. 

accommodation, goonja,ish, suma,ee, khupa,o, thi- 
kana, luwazimu, usbab, sumaj, soobihta, (in 
the/)^.) zurooriyat, v. room, conveniency, mi- 
lap, smlh, mmsaluhu, ashtee, v. adjustment, &c. 

to accompany, sath-sung- humrah-ana or -jana, 
ril'aqut- humrahee-k. lug-chulna, v. to asso- 
ciate, along with, to Join, &c. 

accomplice, shureek,dukheel, \. partner, associate^ 
assistant, &c. 

to accomplish, nibahna, puhooncliana, hasil- &c. 
-k. V. to finish, par-sidh- surburah-k. busur- 
lejana, v. to fulfil. .314 ,v>"'»wttf«<i»i -^ 

accomplished, mcukummul, pooirun, sooseel, v. 
courteous, insiram, v. covtplete, (elegant, &c.) 
kamil, mahir, purbeen, sooghur, goon-wunt, 
arastu, qabil, sahib-hconur, joggyu. loom 

accomplishment, tumamee, unjam, unt, akhirut, 
itmam, insiram, sur-unjam, sumapt, whdu bu- 
ra,ee, ijra,e-karee, surburahee, nibah, parun, 
V. per/ictimi, (ornament) juohur, goon, khoo- 
bee, lioonur, wusf, qabiliyut, purbeenta. i ,' 

accord, accordance, mila,o, iilaqu, moonasubut, 
nisbut, V. agreement; of his own accord, a^hee- 
ap, ap-se, apliee-se, khood-bu-khmd ; of one 
accord, ek-jihut, v. unanimous, also spontane- 
ously.u ^■)'»s8-i»iv;fHwfjjs ^'iitt^ (-jWh) isa»sv\:i 

to accord, milana, burabur-k. v. to adjust, v. n. 
lugna, V. to agree, coincide, &c. 

according to, according as, accordingly, moowafiq, 
bu-quol, bur-husb, husbool hookm, mooqtuza, 
bu-qudr ; according to custom, bu-dustoor, v. 
agreeably to, as, &c. .i»"si 

to accost, tokna, sulani-k. v. to address.  

account, accompt, hisab or hisab kitab, lekha 
or lekha jokha, moohasubu, shcomar, (of ba- 
lances) buqaya-tuojeeh, (of current demands) 
hal-tuojeeh, (current) jumu,u wasil baqee, 
jumu,u khurch ; also of various kinds, viz. 
cliilha, khurcha, teruj, khusra, tuk-duma, 
ursutha, jumu,u moofussul, amdunee, nizdat, 
huwalat, muojoodat, akliiree nikas, huqeequt 
jumU|U, kuefiyut jumu,u, bariz, abwab ool 
mal, abwab, mi tuhseel, v. invoice, (sketch) 
burawcord, (of lands) moowazinu, ruqbubun- 
dee, V. ledger, book, Sjc. ; to call to account. 



(•^p*,e hisaWana, moihiisibu, Sec. -lena, v. to 
investigate; to settle accounts, hisab sal-k. lek- 
ha phurchha-k. ; to state an account, wa.sil ba- 
qee-k. ; to diaio out an acfowni, jumu,u kliurj- 
likhlana ;. to give an account^ ulul hisab dena ; 
to keep accounts, hisab-rukhna ; to take an ac- 
.\Wunt {of clotlies. Sic.) siyabu-k {statement, 
q. V.) wazkliatn, jinswaree, v. partictdai: 

cu^Qunt, {iiifitrmation , q. v.) huqeeciut, burnun, 
v. TUtr ration, {value) i,utibar, qudr, rooiyut, 
purteet, {sake) subub, ba,is, jiiiut, kax"un, 
mare, pree,yojun, hetoo, babut, v.Jbr, advan- 

. tage, estimation, S;c. 

it> account, janna, ginna, boojhna; to account Jbr, 
sumjhana, jutana, butlana, thikana-k. dula- 
luUk. V. to answer Jbr, count, &c. , jr^j,;^,., 

accountable, zaraiii, moohasibu-dar or tulub, v. 

accountant, accomptant, mootusuddee, moohurrir, 
nuwee-sindu, lekhuk, deewan, unkuk, kagli- 
uzee, hisab-nuwees, v. arithmetician, cashier, 

account-book, duftur, buhee, tubluq. 

to accoutre, sujawut-k. sujna, v. to dress. 

accoutrement, posliak, libas, saz-saman, saj-sumaj, 
surinjam, saz-iraq, saz-baz, v. armed, dress. 

accretion, juma,o, v. to concrete. '.wKtii* 

to accrue, oopujna, phulna, fa,idu-hasilJi. v. to 
result, hoaa, luhaa, v. to get. 

to accumulate, furalium-k. jorna, butorna, v. to 
collect., ■nt)fmA . -!*,3*» 

accumulation, kusrut, bcoUtat, v. coUecticm. 

accuracy, accuraleness, sihhut, diqqut, udd, soort, 
V. exactness. 

accurate, {person) chuokus, soorta, kliura, chut- 
oora, Looshiyar, u-chook, {book, &c.) suheeh, 
theek, v. right. >»si»U>m> 

accurately, sihhut-se, soort-se. 

accursed, randu, niuloon, lu,cen, v. damned. 

accusation, du,uwa, buramud, mulamut, t.u.unu, | 

tu,unu-zunee, ittiham, toofan, ninda, v. cluirge^ 
calumny, expostulation, complaint, &c. ., 

accusative case, mufiwl, kurum karuk. 

to accuse, du,iiwa-k. Sec. niiiottuhim-k. v. to cri- 
minate, thuhrana, lugana, {to blame) oolahna- 
-tl. dosna, clhansa-d. v. to complain. 

accuser, niooddu,ec, badee, {Jig.) gculoogeer, da- 
mun-geer, gure-ban-geer, v. complainant. 

to accustom, udut-dalna, inu,umool-bandhna ; to 
be accustomed, adee-b. Stc. v. to Jiabituate, 
sikhana, duorana, Uolana, Una, tnoostu,umil-k. 
V. to train, use, &c. „ooit -v* nuA .A-'Ainl 

accustomed, adee, kho-gur, kho-pizeer, ubbhya- 
see, mu.uloof, umulee ; to be accustomed (in, 
a bad sense) purukna. 

ace, {of cards) ekka, ekloo, {figurative) rutee, 
v.Jot, {of dice) puo, v. unit. 

acetous, accescent, acidulous, khutta-sa, sirka-sa, 
tc»rshee-ma,il, v, sour. 

ache, dke, durd, dooh, peer, bedun. ^ 

to ache, pirana, dookhna, durd-k. ^ ^^n»bi oJ-.V 

to achieve, mar-ootarna, sur-rast-k, v. to acccmu^ ' 
plish. , 

achievement, jokhini, v. the verb, also exploit, 

achiever, surburah-kar. ^ 

acid, khutta, toorsh, umul. ,« ^\t^ \^^ - 

acidity, acidness, khuta,ee, toorshee. Jjv oi t 

to acidulate, khuUa-k. 

to acknowledge, iqrar-iutiraf-k. qa,il-h. v. to al- 
low, {a Javour) ihsan-manna, shookr gooja^ 

acknowledgment, i,utiraf^ munuotee, munut, v, 
confession, present, (gratitude) shooki'-gfozaree, 
shcukranu, gcunabad, (ofliomage in kind) pe^ih^ 
kush, nuzr. 

acnw, dhion, v. lieigJU, &c. ^Wiwl 

acorn, buloot. 

to acquaint, khubur-iuilu,u-d. suniacbar-kuboaf 
ngah-k. v. to advise, inform, &c. : ,;;> 




acquaintance, ashna,ee,chinha, o,cIieena, poorchha, 
V. knowledge, rubt, tu.aroof, waqifiyut, rooshi- 
nasee, deed-shineed, {the person) ashna, roo- 
shinas, soorut-ashna, chinharee, \. friend. 

acquainted, muhrum, muhrum-kar, v. conversant, 
{slightly) soorut-ashna or -sliinas, {with the 
temper of) mizaj-dan. 

to be acquainted, ashna-agah-waqif-moottulu,u, 
gyanee-h. janna, puhchanna, ashna,ee- &c. 
-rukhna, v. acquaintance. 

to acquiesce, khmsh- ruzamund- pursun-h. are- 
bule-k. han or boon han-k. ruwadar-h. v. to 
I agree, to consent. 

acquiescence, ruz.amundee, khwsh-noodee, istirza, 
pursunta, murzee, v. approbation. 

acquirable, milun-jog, mooyussur, kusubee, milne- 
&c. -jog, pane-jog, v. attainable. 

to acquire, kumana, hasil-k. pueda-k. istifadu-k. 
ooparjun-k. khutana, v. to attain. >«f>H« J<?. . 

acquired, kusbee, ooparjit, moostufad, amokhtu, 
V. to learn, &c. 

acquisition, acquirement, tuhseel, iktisab, kusb, 
ooparjun, purapt, mahusul, v. gain, advantage, 
attainment, &c. iai^J-HV^aSTM- 

to acquit, soorkh roo-k. be goonah-thubrana ; {to 
act on.e's part) upnee-nibahna, busur-lejana, 
V. to absolve, quit, &c. niuoburra-k. paksaf-k. 
purgutee-k. buree oozzimmu-k. v. to dis- 

acquittal, acquitment, soorkb-roo,ee, ibra, purgut, 
V. the verb. 

acquittance, la-du,uwa, v. release. 

acquitted, soorkh-roo, buree, suchcha, nir-dokliee. 

acre, the land in India is computed by the bis- 
wausa, twenty of which make a biswa or 
kutha, which last is the twentieth part of a 
beegha, about the third of an acre. 
. acrid, chirpii-a, tez, kurwa, hadd, tulkh, teeta, 
churchura.- ' «-.-.,'- «»i-- -j^ * : •- -itiii-u.- 

acrim.onious, v, acrid, tosnd, kutoo, fasid {severe) 

acrimony, jhal, chirpirahut, jhurup, tezee, toon- 
dee, purpurahut, kurwahut, tulkhee, hiddut, 
julturungee, v. the acljcctive, churchurahut, 
V. sharp, he. 

across, ara, benda, {over) par, warpar, v. beyond; 
to go across, par-jana, v. to cross. 

to act, kurna, hurukut-k. chetna-k. &c. {ac- 
tuate) duorana, v. to operate, {wrong from the 
•very first act ofonis government. Sic.) puehlee 
bismillah ghulut-h. or -k. v. action, {to con- 
duct one''s self) upnee-nibahna, (to affect) byap- 
na, usur-k. kar-k. kurana, v. to actuate, (a 
play) nuql-k. suwang-k. v. to do, move, &c. 

action, act, fi,vil, umul, kurtub, kurtoot, kurdu, 
alum, V. state, kiya, kurnee, kam, kaj, kriya, 
kirdar, {opposed to rest) chetna, tuhreek, {of 
a play) durju, {decree) hc»km, a,een, dustoor, 
(ivritten decree) hcokm-namu, {gesticulation) 
bha,o, (iw law) du,uwa, quziyu, {fight) lu- 
ra,ee, (to be slain in action) khet-ruhna, kam- 
ana, joojhna, v. agency, kurum, kuothuk, uda, 
V. gesture, {fight) zud-o-boord, v. exploit, {vir- 
tuous) suwab, {in the pi.) hurkat suknat, v. 

actionable, iidalutee, v. punishable. -^ *•'"' 

active, chalak, churphura, mun-chula, ugmuna, 
V. brisk, {as a medicine) suree,u col usur, su- 
ree,u-oot-taseer, kargur, v. agile ; mihnutee, 
kam-kajee, chalak, v. busy; {not at rest) tnoa- 
tuhurrik, junghum ; active verb, so,adheen ; 
an active transitive verb, fi.uli mootu,uddfee ; 
an active intransitive verb, fi,uli lazimee ; the 
active voice of a verb, mU|Uroof, niu,uIoom ; 

actively, chalakee-se, phoort-se. 

activity, activeness, choostee, phcort, cliurpurahut, 
V. agility. ' ««i>ii«i ,1ie«p»t>^> 



actor, bhand, suwangee, buliroopiya, nuqqal, 
Ay. agent. sJin^^.^-^^  

actress, bhandin, suwangin,bhanmutee,niiqqalin. 

actwil,nrtualli/,mroq\iTrur, theek, sucli, siit, rast, 

• yuqeenee, tuhqeeq, waqu,ee, dnjroost, nufsaul- 

umr, filhuqeequt, ulhuqq, uwusli, nishchue, 

to actuate, mootuhurrik-k. hurkut- tuhreek-d. 
V. to act. 

actcte, zukee, zuheen, zeeruk, chutror, sooita, 
boorran, v. sharp ; nok-dar, r. pointed ; (vio- 
lent) shudeed, kuthin, juolan, tichhum, (pe- 
netrating) tez-tiibii,ii or iiql, (severe) bura, v. 

acjiteness, zukawut, zihn, juodut, zcoka, zeeru- 
kee, scort, chutoura,ee, juolanee, tez-fuhmee, 
(of a disease, &c.) sliiddiit, sukhtee, kiislit, 
 ^sharpness) tezee, toondee, nok-daree. 

adage, muqoolu, kuhawut, v. proverb. 

adamant, heera, ulmas, v. magnet, &c. 

Adani's apple, (iw anatomy) kunth, ghantee. 

to adapt, humwar- suman- theek- dooroost-k. v. 

to add, jorna, lugana, milana, puewimd-k. wusl-, 
izafu- zum-k. (figures) jumu,u-k. guthree-k. 
theek-d. meezau-d. v. to augment. 

adder, surp, v. snake. 

to addict, adee-k. &c. kho-dalna, v. addicted, to 
devote, &c. 

addicted, adee, ainil, kho-gur, ubbhyasee, lut- 
zudu, mooqueyud, goodiya, utnulee, v. devoted. 

addition, v. the verb, (in arithmetic) theek, 

.i-meezan, (additament) jor, puewund, ilhaq, 
, -4i.iv. angmentatioii, increase, &c. (to breed, &c.) 
salun, alun. 

additional, ziyadu, eezad, muzeed, udhik, ilhaq- 
ee, (allowance) bhata. 

addle, gundu, khakee, (-pated) gimdu mugliz, 

; khakee buezu. ^^..' i"- .^ 

address, iltimas, nibedun, v. petition, suleequ, 
joogut, hikmut, undaz, v. behavkntr, dexterity, 
(of a letter) sur-namu, ulqab, (where to find 
one) piita, thikana, nam o nishan, unooswar, 
V. direction, (rompUmeJitary) adab ulqab,mun- 
gulachar, v. skill, bolee bailee, stokhun-sazee, 
V. delivery, (title) khitab, turz, v. manner. "' 

to address, kuhna, soikhun saz-h. bat-k. (respect- 
fully) iirz-k. nibedun-k. bolna, mookha*ib-k. 
khitab-k. zuban-kholna, v. to speak ; (us a 
stiitor) durkh\yast-k. 

addressed, mukhatub. 

to adduce, butlana, kuhna, izhar-k. 

adept, kamil, sa,ir, hadiq,,v. perfect, mahir, 
oostad, banee, banee-kar, poora, pukka, pur- 
been, pookhtu, muzboot, mcostu,id, jami ool 
kumalat, nuqqad, naqid, mmbussir, beena, 
V. clever, (in literature) iillamu, moohuqqiq, 

adequate, burabur, suman, kafee, bus, poora, 
qabil, joga ; to be adequate, kifayut- wufa-k. 
kafee- &c. -h. v. correspondent, &c. fii'.*5£^1 

adequately, undaze-se, v. proportionably, &c. 

to adhere, chipukna, ehipchipana, v. to stick, 
lugna, liputna, chimurna, chimutna, piluchna, 
(to a person, &c.) sabit- gutha- Uiga-nihna. 

adherence, v. adhesion, wufa-daree, rifaqut, sabit- 
qudumee, gurwcedugee, luga,o, gutha,o, dhee- 
ruj, istiqlal, isti{)amut. 

adherent, adherer, rufeeq, sathee, sungee, wa- 
bustu, (vulg. awabust) mootu.ulliq, mootuwus- 
sul, ulaqu-dar, pichh-luga, higa-lipta, rolfutee- 
bundu, V. dependent. 

adhesion, adherency, lipta,o, chipka,o, puewustu- 
gee, V. tenacity. 

adhesive, hislusa, chipchipa, lus-dar, lubluba, 
loo,ab-dar, luzij. • ■",» 

adieu, ul\vida,u, ullah-belee, khooda-hafiz, ees- 




hoor ko sonpa, sulam, sulamoon uluekoom, nu- 

mus kar, v. salutation, 
adit, soorung, v. mine, 
adjacent, \}xg!i, danda menda, v. contiguous, near, 

&c. mooliiiq, niaolsiq. 
adjacency, qoorb, ittisal, nuzdeekee, juwar. 
adjective, (jioitn) sifut, bishesliun ; an adjective 

with its noun, sifut-muosoof, i. e. qualified ; 

a simple {unqualified) noun being called, ism, 

V. the Monitdr, vol. ii. p. 521 and 527. 
to adjoin, mila-luga-joota-h. mcottusil-h, pue- 

wustu-h. V. to join. 
to adjourn, naghu- muoqoof- untur-k. 
adjournment, tu,uteel, naghu, untur. 
to adjudge, hookm-k. v. to award, 
adjunct, adjunction, adjtmctive, ilhaq, racolhuq. 
to adjure, qusum- suogund- kiriya- suonli-d. or 

to adjust, chookana, fiiesulu-k. dooraost-k. &c. 

suhejna, jumkana, suentna, bunana, v. to settle, 

phurcha-k. v. to terminate, {scales) dhura- 

bandjina, v. to regulate; to fie.^c(/ws^edjtCU«ok- 

na, fuesul-h. &c. ■.^^.,„h,.,, ,.Uvi.»»i<Wi. 

adjusted, dooroost, arastu, burabur, theek, mcorut- 

tub, sijil, suheeh, saf, fuesul, koorsee-nisheen, 

do-took, phurchha, roo-burah, sur-burah, 

moonqutU|U, nistok. 
adjttstment, fuesulu, infisal, chookuota, nistara, 

inqita,ii,, tusfiyu, buna,o, surburahee, 

sihhut, V. arrangement, 
adjutant, ekka, nuqeeb, nusukh-chee, meer- 

toozuk, qor-chee, {bird) guroor, khuges, liur- 

geela, v. Richardson's Dictionary, 
to administer, puhoonchana, kurna, chulana, v. to 

perform, give, {as agent) niyabut- wikalut-k. 
{^justice) udl-k, udalut-k. insaf-k. nya,o-k. 
(a?i oath) qusum- &c. -dena,. -dilana or -khi- 

admitiistration, v. the 'cerb, {of a country) inti- 

zam, nuzra o nusq, zubt o rubtj umul-dukhl, 
raj-kaj, raj-pat, udul-goosturee, uzl o nusb, 
V. government, nuzarut, wusiyut, v. will. 

administrator, {to a will) wusee, fern, wusiyu, 
{of justice) udul-gcDstur, v. magistrate, nazir, 
V. guardian, minister. 

admirable, iijeeb, unoop, udbhoot, upoorb, zor, 
tcorfu ; the English have an admirable govern- 
ment, ungrez ka zor intizam hue; admirable 
abilities, zihi wuqoof, ujub shu,oor, v. extra- 
ordinary, amazing, excellent, he. j 

admirable ! wall w^ah ! kya khoob ! v**t 

admirably, ujub turuh-se, khassee turuh-se^w' 

admiral, umeer ool buhr, meer buhr. 

admiration, ujub, uchruj, udbhoot, wujd, v. the 
verb, also ivonder, &c. 

to admire, tu,iijjoab- wujd-k. Sec. nigran-h.dekhna, 
nuzaru- mai'na, v. to behold, mootuhueyiir-h. 
bhuchuk-ruhna, {to love) chahna, jshq-rugh- 
but- shuoq- moohubbut- pyar- rukhna or -k. 

admirer, muftoon, sha,iq, shuoqeen, fureeftujlut- 
too, sunehee, v. lover. 

«dff2iA.si6Ze,wajibee,musmoo,u, munzoor, prlnian, 
{into the women'' s apartments) muhrum, which 
includes their brothers, other relatives, and 
their dependents. 

admission, admittance, goozur, dur-amud, mooda- 
khulut, pueth, goonja.ish, puesar, muhrumi- 
yut, v. cojicession, access, assent, &c. .■i^^ 

to admit, ane-dena, puethne-dena, umana, le-Iena, 
nigulna, pee-jana, v. to receive, soonna,. v. to al- 
low, {to take in) khana. 

to admotiish, nuseehut-d. or -k. &c. surzunish-k. 
datna, kan-kholna, dantsans-k. iiql-d. sumjh- 
ana, v. to team, tell. .:■.:.,, .:..jj;- 

admoms/ier, nasih, wa,iz. 'v '■ •'- '■'■■' • 

admonitimi, nuseehut, {pi. nusayeh) wu,uz, seech- 
ha, tumbeeh, mulamut, v. reproof, advice, &c. 

ado, duor-dhoop, sur mughzun, duwa-duwish. 




-tug-duo, khoon i jigur, v. difficulty; with much 
ado, ro rokur, mur kur, oflan khezan, girte 
purte, lushtum pushtum, lutukte putukte, khoo- 
da khooda kur ; it was settled with much ado, 
Tchcoda khoada Jctir fuesul hoo,a, v. to toil, &c. 

adolescence, booloogh, boolooghut, juwanee, jobun, 

adolescent, putha, na baligh, syana, v. youth, &c. 

Adonis {of the east) yoosoof, viz. Joseph v. Cupid. 

to adopt, le-palna, beta-kurlena, furzund-k. ras-, 
buethalna, pospoot-L (a custom, &c.) ukhz-, 
ikhtiyar-k. le-lena, nuql-kurlana, sumpadun- 
-k. V. to follow. 

adopted, lootfee, (child) le-paluk, mootubunna, 
pisur-kh\yandu, pospoot, pootrela, dhurum- 
beta, chela, v. slave, &c. ; {by eunuchs, &c.) 
buchganu, i/em. buchganee); an adopted word, 
munqool, dukheel, ukhuzee; adopted father, 
dhurum-bap, \. godfather, nominal, &c. 

adorable, pooja-jog, wajib-oot-tu,uzeein, v. lovely, 

adoration, bundugee, punistish, pooja, archa, 
ibadut, sijdu, bhujun, numuskar. 

to adore, poojna, jbadut-k. &c. 

adorer, sajid, v. worshipper, zahid, bhujneek, 
V. admirer. 

to adorn, sunwarna, sojdhama, mojruttub-k. ara- 
ish-k. singar- buna,o-k. bunana, zeenut-d. 
moozueyun- moozueyud-k. v. embellisliment, &c. 

to be adrift, buhna, mara mara-pjiirna, buha- 
buha-phirna, dawandol-phima, khoolna, chhoot- 
na ; to turn adrift, buhana, putta-katna, door- 
-k. V. tojloat. 

adroit, tagur, dhoort, v. clever. 

to advance, v. a. ana, v. to reach, age-lana, age- 
rukhna, chulana, churhana, ugwana, burhana, 
tidkalna, bura,ee-d. &c. v. to rise, {arms) umul- 
daree hath-k. (to propose) izhar-k. kuhna, 
{money) peshgee-d. ulul hisab-d. agaree-d. 
V. n. age-ana, age-jana, bujhna, tuniqqee-k. 

&c. dub-ana, nikul-ana, nikulna, chulna, v. to 
aggrandize, expedite, &c. 

advanced, {in years) booddha, v. aged. 

tlie advanced guard, hurawul, peshwa. 

advancement, advance, burha,o, churha,o, corooj, 
roz-bihee, v. preferment. 

advances, mudud, v. aid, {far disbursement) 
khurch, (on mortgage) buyi-sulum, {money) 
dadnee, tuqawee, ugoree, puttun, {for work) 
sa,ee, v. the verb, {invitation) iqdam, surwa, 
V. anticipation. 

advantage, {superiority, q. v.)ghulbu, jeet, churh- 
tee, {gain, q. v. &c.) goon, phul, sumuru, pue- 
da,ish, labh, intifa,ii, raunfu,ut, munafu,u, yaft, 
tumuttaD,u, kifayut, bat, khoobee, tu.ureef, la- 
lia, istifadu, fulah, fulahiyut, goonja,ish, la,o, 
ta,o, lah o lala, v. welfare, opportunity, benefit; 
to take advantage of, qaboo-chulana,fitrut-lura- 
na, chot-k. ghat- guon- da,on- chulana; to have 
the advantage, jeetna, wur-ruhna, ghalib-ruh- 
na ; to reap an advantage, hasil-k. phul-pana, 
V. to gain.  ' 

advantageous, fa,idu-muhd, moofeed, goon-karee, 
labhee, khuta.oo, gooDJa,ishee, v. pi-qfitable. 

adventitious, arizee, chund-rozu, usar, unit, v. a£- 

adventure, majura, siu--grozuslit, birtant, roo-dad, 
sudmu, hadisu, v. venture. 

adventurer, mootulashee, oodiyogee, sueyah, bi- 
yogee, v. trader, &c. 

adventurotis, jan-baz, ug-muna, dil-chula, mun- 
chula, sir-klnip, v. bold. 

adverb, hurf, zurf, tumeez. 

adversary, dooshmun, bueree, hureef, mooddu,ee, 
udoo, mookhalif, bud-kh\vah, birodhee, doosht, 
badee, bipuchhee, ghuneem, v. enemy. 

adverse, mookhalif, na-moowafiq, bur-uks, oolta. . 

adversMy, bud-bukhtee, kum-bukhtee, idbar, 
shuqawut, shamut, ubhag, nukbut, fulakut, 
B 2 




dalidr, sukhtee, kusha kush, kush mu kush, 
tubahee, aseb, khurabee, doorgut, biput, v. ca- 
lamity, aJp,iction. 

to adveit, sochna, dhyan-k. ghuor-moolahuzu-, 
lihaz- fikr-k. v. to r«^c<. iX«>'i'>»^'.«««85ni 

advertence, advertency, ghuor, &c. v. attention. 

to advertise, zahir-izhar-sha,i,u-k. v. to advise. 

advertisement, ishtihar, v. advice, ishtiliar-namu. 

advertiser, mookhbir, khubiir-dar, shuhr-khubra ; 
the last is a public officer in cities, towns, &c. 

advice, musluhut, sulah, muntur, mushwurut, 
tudbeer, suwab-deed, kuha, kingash, v. coun- 
sel, instruction, (intelligence) khubur, pi. ukh- 
bar, ittila,ii, sumachar, v. iiiformation. 

to advise, v. a. nuseehut-d. &c. (to infoi-m) khu- 
bur-d. khuburdar-k. chitana, butlana, kuhna, 
niutna, soonana, v. to persuade, v. n. muslu- 
hut- &c. -lena, (to he informed) khuburdar-h. 

advisable, la,iq, mu,uqool, moonasib, unsub, 
usluh, inoostuhsun, joga, bihtur, sulah-wuqt, 
V. proper. 

adviser, wa,iz, kuleed-uql, v. counsellor, monitor. 

adulation, khrosh-amud, chaploosee, lujajut, su- 
majut, luUo putto. 

adidator, khoosh-amudee, v. flatterer, &c. 

adult, baligh, juwan, turoon, bura. 

to adulterate, khonta- miluonee- &c. -k. v. to mix. 

adulterated, kbonta, kurra, qulb, mekkee, ghi- 
lafee, umulee, tugliulloobee, v. corrupt. 

adulteration, khonta,ee, kuput, tughuUoob, v. the 

adulterer, zina-kar, fajir, swuerun, in the Jem. 
swuerunee, moohsiiiu, v. fornicator. 

adulteress, chhinal, zaniyu, fasiqu, fajiru, fahi- 
shu, V. wliore. 

adultery, chhinala, zina, fisq-foojoor, zina-karee; 
to commit adultery, chhinala-k. 

adultness, brolooghut, v. adult, and maturity. 

advocate, hamee, shufee,u, oree, puchhee, v. pU' 
tron, izc. 'iiji.i ^'iiiAxH vi^it,\ 

adz, busoola, teshu. ^idiaq mnisl-ti' t'lhiKj 

aerial, huwa,ee, V. airy. j'taa isf.-.ij^' eL 

q/ar, dooT-se, V. Jar. fjftaHl,-»i',i*ii»iS«iA ia^.. :.••.•;, 

a Jew, ku,ee-ek, do-teen, ek-adh, do-ek, thhore- 
se, luDZvvee, koochh-ek, bU|Uz.i-ek, bu,uzee- 
ko,ee, V.Jew. 

affability, aff'ableness, mooruwwut, moolayimut, 
hilm, hoosn i khoolq, lootf, v. civility. ' ,S(.pIj« o\ 

affable, sahib-mojruwwut, mooruwuttee, ba-nioo- 
ruvvwut, also affably, v. courteous, huleem, 

affair, mooquddumu, umr, tumashu, qissu, quz--, 
ee,u, majiru, roodad, v. concern, &c. bat, karuj, 
babut, ma3,amilut, maddu. ,r^.u' ,.'i-;'j:i 

affairs, len-den, dena-pana, dadsitud, kamkaj, 
V. matter; worldly affairs, oomoorat i dooniyu- 

affect, usur, taseer, umul, kar, khassiyut, hookm, , 

to affect, usur- &c. -k. or -rukhna, khojbhna, 
buethna, lugna, gurna, churhna, byapna, 
beendhna, ruclina, turashna, v. to penetrate, 
(to assume) ukhz- ikhtiyar-k. (tojeign) heelu-, 
mis-k. In Arabic there is a particular conju- 
gation to express this by ; thus, tujahool-kurna, 
to affect ignorance, {youth when o/J)boorbhus-k. 
V. to arrogate, to ape, pretend, &c. 

affectation, {sham, q. v.) mukr, heelu, riya, buha- 
nu, fureb, suwang, dimbh, bhugul, nukhru, 
uent-muror, un-gun, thun-gun, naz-nukhru, 
nukhru-bazee, v. airs, (in speaking) zuban- 
turashee, v. pretence, (ostentation) fukhr, fukh- 
riyu, nooma,ish, bunawut, chhulawa. 

affected, {grieved, q. v.) mughmoom, mulool, 
ghumgeen, durd-nak, dookhee •,Jidl of affecta- 
tion, mukkar, nukhre-baz,bhoor-bhooriya,boor- 
bhusiya, y.Jastidious, conceited, &c. 




qffectiotiately, durd-se, pyar-se. jjwasb tW'Jiai 

affection, {love) isliq, jee, v. heaH, moohubbut, 
t»Ifut, mihr, lag, hit, neh, suneh, prem, chholi, 
lugun, lar, doolar, preet, v. desire, {maternal) 
pet kee ag, {of a parent) durd, kii-pa, tupak, 
V. passion, quality, pity, &c. arizu, v. disorder. 

affecting, durd-ungez, jan-soz, v. moving. 

affectionate, shufeeq, moohib, colfutee, chahuk, 
chhohee, v. benevolent, niooturuhliini,murohee, 
muya-wunt, duya-sheel, \.fond,tender,warm. 

affidavit, dibbi, zuban-bundee, v. declaration, 

affinity, nisbut, moonasubut, ulaqu, luga,o, mel, 
sum-bundh, {liy marriage) byaha dhuree, v. al- 

to affirm, iqrar- bacha-k. kuhna, buchun-harna 
or -dena. 

affirmation, qurar, iqrar, i,iitiraf, qupj, bacha, 
bachuk, buchun, dU|Uwa. ,:", 

affirmative, mccsbit, moojibu, khuburee, v. indi- 
cative, assertion. .\i.,'it>AuL&^,^ 

affirmer, mooqir, maD,u,uturif. 

to affiw, jorna, lugana, pue^vund-k. 

to afflict, sutana, tukleef- &c. -d, runjeedu- S:c. 
-k. mama, torna, v. to torment. 

affiicted, sogwar, ghum-nak, piireshan, durd- 
mund, ufsoordu, runjoor, mookuddur, diqq, 
racDzturib, miihzoon, dil-sokhtu, v. grieved, 
ulum- ghum- situm- zudu- or -ruseedu, afut- 
-mara or -zudu, dil- or jigur-jula, dookhiya, 
dookhiyara, dookh-mara, kulesee, shoreedu- 
-khatir or hal, dil-tupeedu, dil-khustu, moot- 
tila, V. dejected. 

to be affiicted, koorhna, kulupna, dookh- azar- 
&c. -pana. 

affliction, tukleef, tusdee.n, eeza, uziyut, zuh- 
mut, runj, runjeedugee, undoli, azaordugee, 
dil-geeree, dil-sokhtugee, bitha, mulola, mus- 
osa, ghum, saD.oobut, koodoorut, ghoobar, ku- 

n '(Balu, apda, bules, hcozn, mulal, husrut, tu,ug- 

scof, durd, durmandugee, ashob, diqqut, azar, 

sogwaree, &c. v. supra, sog, juluii, soz, run- 

jish, musliu(}qut, mulalut, shiddut, v. utiguish, 

grief, also misery, 
affiuertce, furaghut, asoodu-halee, asoodugee, 

dhunwuntee, v. wealth, opulence, he. 
afflueni, asoodu-hal, ghunee, moorufruh, maitum- 

uwwil, dhunee, bhagiwan, mal a mal, ughana, 

V. rich, opulent, 
affiux, buha,o, ijtimu,u, v. concourse, flotving. 
to affitrd, dena, bukhshna, oothana, dustrus-h. 

hatli-puhonchna, v. to bear, &c. ; to he able to 

give, de-sukna ; to be able to sell, bech-sukna, 

V. to produce, &c. 
affront, khiffut, hiqarut, ihanut, hulka-pun, un- 

adur, zuk, zillut, v. disgrace, insult; to take 

as an affront, ueb-janna, boora-manna. 
to affront, khufeef- huqeer- hulka- soobook-k. 

lutarna, v. to insult, 
affronted, khufeef, huqeer, soobook, hulka, upu- 

manee, v. disgraced, 
to be affronted, khufeef- hulka- &c. -h. 
afloat, ootrata, tuerta, {from ootrana and tuerna) 

buhta, bhusan pur, v. to float, 
afoot, puedul, panw panw, piyadu-pa, pueroa; 

to set on foot, oothana, burpa-k. jaree-k. chul- 

ana, v. to commence, 
aforesaid, aforenamed, muzkoor, v. above cited ; 

this, and similar expressions, seldom occur in 

afraid, kha,if, duhshut-nak, khuof-nak, shush- 

dur, bhue-man. 
to be afraid, durna, suhumna, duhshut-nak- &c. 

-ruhna, duhshut-rukhna, bichukna, v. to fear, 
frighten, &c. 
afresh, pher-kur, v. anew, 
after, peechhe, bu,ud, uqub, gnozusht, pur, mim- 

bu,ud, guye-se, v. behind, {in comp.) bu, pus, 




V. on, 8tc. ; year after year, sal bu sal ; afier 
this month, yih muheena guye se; the day after 
to-morrow, pus furda ; one after another, luga 
lug, V. successive, &c. ; after twelve o'clock, do 
puhur goozusht ; man after mt^n, admee pur 
admee, (according to) bur-hookm, v. like, &c. 
(the adj.) pichhla. 

after ages, after time, plchhle-wuqt, pichhie-log. 
In these, and such expressions, ugla, before, 
is often confounded with pichhla, behind. 

after all, akhirush, nidan, akhir, unt. 

after-birth, hul, jur, jer, uoiir, lijhree, potree, 
kheree, pooruen, chhor, gubhelun. 

afternoon, si-puhur, akhir i roz, bu,ud-do puhur, 
din dhule, bikal, zoohur. 

after-thought, after-wit, puch-mut, pus-undeshee, 
pus-iiqlee, pus-fikree, pus-fitrut. 

afterward, bu,ud-iskej iske-peechhe, akhir, bU|Ud 
uzan, ooprant. 

aga, from agha, aqa, v. master. 

again, pher, pher-kur, uor-wuqt, doosra-kur, 
dohrake, do baru, pultake, v. another, hack ; 
as much again, doogna, do-chund, mooza,uf ; 
again and again, ber ber, pher pher, mookur- 
rur, sikurrur, pulut pulut. HKf'nBf.iuid jsnli, 

against, khilaf ; over against, sun-niookh, (up) 
oojan, y.for, moonh pur, pur, v. face, contrary, 
opposite, &c. 

agape, (to stand) moonh-bana, kuwwa-bunna,v. 

agaric, ghareeqoon. 

agate, yushm, yushb, sung-sooluemanee. 

age, cpmr, sinn, ayoorbul, ayoo, a,yoorda, hues, 
V. life, mature, (time) duor, zumanu, tisr, uhd, 
joog, V. century, &c. ; old age, boorhapa, pee- 
ree ; the age of discretion, sinn i tumeez. 

aged, bcoddha, peer, v. old. 

agency, (i7i business) goomashtugee, wukeelee, 
wukeelgeeree, niyabut, wikalut, pesh-karee. 

taseer, deewanee, karpurdazee, fa,iliyut, v. 
steward, action. 

agept, goomashtu, juwab-suwalee, \. factor, depu- 
ty, (actor) fa,il, amil, kurta. 

to aggrandise, burhana, surfuraz-k. jila-dena, y, 
to raise, to embellish. s\V^J>»»V. fSw»*iA»q .v 

aggrandisement, uzmut, burhtee, v. exaUatioh. 

to aggravate, budtur- quwee-ziyadu- udhik- do 

aggregate, mujmoou, joomlu, guthree, sumooddh, 
V. collected. •M^.i-.^ni\l^i,^^MM^i^ tiiu-^vyi-^f 

to aggress, puhul- subqut- See. -k. v. to begin. 

aggression, pesh-dustee, pesh-qudmee, subqut, 
tuqdeem, puhul, chher, chhera,o, iqdam,surwa. 

aggressor; tuqseer-war, mubnee-fusad, chherun- 
har, V. beginner. A«io.i"y.>u -v«.j.. ^>v,■vl^,_,. »j\ 

aghast, huerut-zudu, huebut-zudu, hukkfi-bok- 
ka, bhuochuka. 

agile (in arabic ajeel) juld-baz, shitab-kar,choost- 
chabook, kurkeela, turphuriya, v. nimble. Sec. 

agility, chalakee, chabookee, kuruk, juld-bazee, 
soor|Ut, V. quickness. 

to agitate, (to shake) hurakut-d. doolana, ulthana, 
luhrana, hilkorna, tulmulana, chutputana, c»th- 
lana, kulbulana, oomdana, oobalna, duhlana, 
thurthurana, duldulana, dugdugana, v. to dis- 
tract, to discuss, (to controvert) rud o buddul- 
-k. ; to be agitated, hUna, dcolna, v. to alarm, 
move, &c. -iiwiix - I'-i \ 

agitated, (in mind) moozturib, betab, ghabra, 
byakool, (as the sea) muoj-zun, ulthana; to be 
agitated, moozturib-h. &c. uklana, dhurukna, 
oobhna, turupna. 

agitation, hila,o, doola,o, kilkor, hurkut, joom- 
bish, oothla,o, oobal, chutputahut, tuhurrook, 
tulatoon, haladola, v. the verb, (jperturbation) 
bhunik, ghubrahut, ukla,ee, josh, iztirab, hur- 
burahut, (discussion) rudo buddul. 

agnus castus, sumbhaloo, punj-ungoosht. o 




tffOy {past) aeihnff ago, mooddut-se, chirkal-sc, 
kubhee-se, jubhee-se, age, agoo, peslitnr, hoo,e, 
goozre, V. q/ler ; he died long ago, buhoot roz 
hoo,e, or buhoot mooddut goozree murguya. 

to set a-gog, sliuoq-turglieeb- chuonp- pjioolasra-, 
-d. tursana, kan-goidgoodana, kan k_hure-k. to 
he agog, choulbcBlana, turusna. 

to agonise, d(xikhna. durd-k, siyasut men-hona. 

agony, jan-kundun, nuzu,u, unt-kal, ghurra, si- 
yasut, tuhlooku, oordji, sukiat, uzab, v. gasp, 
pang, torture, 

to agree, razee- moqir-h. qubool- ijabut-k. qu- 
boolna, hamee-hoon karee-bhurna, v. to pro- 
mise ; roochna, v. agreeable ; bunna, v. to Jit, 
cliime ; saf-ruhna, purkhur-ruhna, v. to settle, 
allow, (to stipulate) shurt- &c. bandhna, iqrar- 
buchun-k. v. to consent, (to accord) burabur- 
eksan- moowafiq- mrottufiq- ekdil-h. guwara- 
sazgar-h. v. to answer, suit, he. 

agreeable, moowafiq, v. consistent, pizeera, mun- 
zoor, murghoob, murkooz, dil-pusund, mun- 
manfa, chaheeta, khoosh a,ind, dil-kush, dil- 
khwah, sohana, pusundeedu, luteef, nufees, 
guwara, muleeh, v. pleasing, (to he agreeahle) 
khmsh-ana, bhana, uchha-lugna, sohna. 

agrecableness, bhula,ee, \. pleasantness, &c. 

agreeably, bur-hookm, bu-moqjib, husb, (plea- 
santly) uesh-se, ushrut-se, v. conformably, &c. 

agreed, qubool, moosuUum, mu,uliood, \.the verb, 
also very well. 

agreement, (compact) shurt, qurar, xihd, buchun, 
wuidu, (in writing) qubalu, qubooliyut, tuo- 
hud, muqawilu, nuwisht-khand, likhtung, qur- 
ai'-namu, razee-oamu, v. contract, (concord) 
mojshabuhut, rubt, luga,o, tuwafooq, ittifaq, 
saz-garee, soolh, ashtee, v. Jtarmony. 

agriculture, seer, kisht-karee,chuen,vxii/iif a^iow. 

aground, ura, utka, zumeen-pur, khura, chur- 
pur, phunsa. 

ague, tup i lurzu, jooree, tup i nuobut, (a quar- 
tan) hooma,e ribu,ce, tijaree ; this last, as its 
etymology implies, ought to be restricted to 
tertians, which are indefinitely called unturiya, 
V. intermittent. 

ah! ah, ha,e, wa,e, wawuela, of, ukh. 

aha! aha, wachhre. : ,iu| .hhJo (ii«) .m'wj 

a-head, age, agoo, v. before. 

did, yaree, koomuk,' dust-geeree, yawuree, sath , 
suha,e, suhara, i,anut, mco,awuuut, gohar, ta- 
yeed, uon, musadu, v. Jielp. 'tv- :' 

to aid, raudud- sath- koomuk- mududgaree-k. 

aid-de-camp, moosahib, nuqeeb. 

aider, sathee, suhaiCe, v. ally, assisfajit. 

aigulet, lutkun. 

ail, ailment, dookh, tukleef, ul, byadh, bikar, v. 

distemper, disease..,, mi^nliLdi ,8^u« ,itWU 

to ail, (to trouble) tukleef- dookh-d. manna, lug- 
na, sutana, hona ; what ails you ? toomhen kya 
hoo,a ? ghora panw men koochh manta hue. 

ailing, mandu, kusul-mund, bCiadhee, bikaree, 
V. sick, indisposed. Sec. •,,iv 

aim, shust, clut, clhookkee, nishanu, (design) ghat, 
da,on, chot, bhed, mutlub, nuzur-undaz, hud- 
uf, tak, V. object, purpose. 

to aim, shust- &c. -bandhna, tukana, dutna, v. 
aim, also to design. [ ,j,|^ taiij^rniiij 

ai?; huwa, ba,o, piiwun, butas, byar, (with re- 
gard to health) ab o huwa, panee, (in music) 
nuwa, ahung, dhurun, ilhan, v. song, zephyr, 
&c. (mien) wuzu,u, duol, dhu}, dial, v. vent, 
fume; sumeer, v. sky, symphony, &c. jubu-shu- 
bu, V. appearance. 

to air, (clothes, &c.) huwa-d. huwa-khilana, 
dhoop-d. V. to warm, Ssc. to take the air, hu- 
wa-kliana, bahur-phirna, tuhulna, v. recrea- 
tion ; tojire in tlte air, asmanec golee-chula- 
na ; to take air, (become puMic) huwa-h. to give 
one's jf//^ajV5,ukurna,lunturanee-k. orhankna. 




air-built, bad-huwa,ee, pooch padur huwa, boo- 

air-hole, rund, v. vent. 

airiness, huwa-daree, {of manner) choolbcolahut, 
uclipulee, ulbela pun, v. gaiety, &c. 

airing, suer ; to take an airing, suer-k. phirna. 

airs, (assumed) ukur, lunturanee, v. affectation, 
jlnimukka, ukur-bazee, shekhee,nazan, tuning, 
muchla,een, ukren, tukren, uda,en, bhoor bhoo- 
ree, v. ostentation, &c. &c. {of youth in old age) 
shootr-ghumzu, boorha nukhra, v. coquetry, 
boorhee g^oree lu,ul lugam, is said of an old 
woman assuming the airs of a girl. 

airy, huwa-dar, huwa,ee, (vain) soobook, hulka, 
eetur, ochha, cbhiclihora, (gay) choolbcola, 
rungeela, v. giddy, &c. 

a-kin, suga, rishtu-dar, nate-dar, (similar) moo- 

' shabih, moovvafiq, suman, v. same. 

alack-a-day, &c. liuehat huehat, hue hue, bap re 
bap, moo,a re moO|a, wa raooseebuta, wa hus- 
ruta. '''^^^ (Ubflflirt ■^•^Yt-^s 

alacrity, bushashut, dil-dihee, hoolas, chuonp, 
zuoq, dil-gurmee, tun-mun, jee-jan, v. plea- 
sure, ardour. 

alarm, (tumult, q. v.) hoollur, hungamu, ruola, 
bulvva, gohar, hushrat, ghuogha, ghooloo, shor- 
ghuogha, ghool-ghupara, hurburee, khulbulee, 
V. apprehensian, shorshar, hunkar, rooka-thoo- 
ka, V. cry, jag, v. preparation. 

to alarm, khubur dar-k. moosullah-k. chitana, 
(tojrighten) durana, bhurkana, dhurkana, (to 
sound the alarm) nuqqaru-kurna, (to make a 
noise) pokarna, gohar-k. &c. v. to disturb, &c. 
chuokunna-k. v. to rouse, (an army) kumur- 
bund-kurana, v. to arw, bhuchhkana,jubdana, 
dubdubana, v. to agitate ; to give an alarm, 
rooka-marna, roorkaree-k. kupre ko jhol dena. 

alarming, duruona, duhshut-nak, bhyanuk. 

alas! wa wuela! wa,e! huef! uewa,e! ahi hae 

ha,e ! ufsos ! duregha .''•j-oar,d»'[ .2? sartdnst- 
albugo, phoolee gool. 

akhymist, moohuvTwis, keemiya gur, rusa,enee. 
alchymy. Am i keemiya, rusa,en, v. philosophers 

stone, &c. 
alcohol, Ji-om — koohul, w. antimony. ^''^ 

alcoran, qooran, foorqan, kitab ooUah, hima,il, 

mooS|huf, V. bible, 
alcove, probably from qoobbu, khilwut-khanu, 

mundha, mundwa, v. dome. Vu>t ^stsK^ 
ale, bozu. ji-TCiwsu -c"j^s« tsi«^% oV 

alembic, qunimbeeq, bhubka. 
alert, hoshiyar, chuokus, phoorteela, char-bank, 

tez-ruo, V. brisk, shub-khoon, rut-waliee, v. 

attack. n\fW. oJ) .tJofiii . 

alertness, hoshiyaree, chuoksa,ee, phoort, 

ness, he. 
alexipharmic, zuhr-mar, v. antidote, 
algebra, uljubur, . jubr mooqabulu, abikt gu- 

nut. itsftv.q-ilh tX«oArn« t«(<K>f«f^^iJi(; cioo.v > 
aliaa, 00 rf. 

alien, oopree, v. foreign, 
to alienate, (to give away) huwalu- hibu-k. bukhsh- 

na, de-dalna, (to estrange) puraya- be gaiiu-k. 

pher-dalna. OiHUiM fUwt^iitmY^.. 

alienation, (estrangement) moofaruqut, jooda|ee, 

V. the verb, {oj" the faculties) bekhoodee. 
to alight, ootur-purna, v. to dismount, to light, 
alike, burabur, eksan, mooshabih, mcnmasil, shu- 

beeh, ekhee, suman, sudrish, sureeka, hum-, 

-rung, -soorut, -shubeeh, -shukl, -qudum, or 

fi,ul, ulahazul-qiyas, sumgum, niootushabih, 

mootushukkil, humta, v. similar, like, 
aliment, (food) khorak, udhar, qoot, khana, rizq, 

ghiza, V. nourishment. ,39'iiig ^:; 
alimental, alimentary, mosquwwee, poosht. -"^^ 
alimony, muhr. .. , ■■•^^ 




alive, jeeta, zindu, jan-dar, v. living, cheerful, 
jeete jee, v. lifetime. 

alkali, juwa khar, ufyoos, v. salt, khar; whence 
perhaps, khara, salt, brackish. 

alkaline salt, lota sujjec. • 

alkanet, ulcjuna. 

all, sub, konl, tumam, sugra, sara, bll-koDlliyu. 
durobust, joozokoil, sukul, bhiir, v. the whole; 
all the night, rat bhur ; all at once, ck a ek, uch- 
anuk,unchite, dufu.utun, ek bargee, ek mcnsht, 
V. suddenly, huma, v. every ; all alone, tuni 
tiinha, ek ukela, ukelahee ; all one, ekhcc, 
V. same ; all or every thing, sub koochh, koolo- 
hojm ; also alliri all, konl kcolaii, \. favourite; 
by all means, bu hur-soorut or -hal ; from all 
sides, hur-turuf se, charon or se, chuogird se; 
all along, puehle se, burabur se, \. first. All, 
used emphatically, is expressed by hee, bhee, 
niput, mootluq; thus, /scrirf nothing at aZ/,mueii 
koochh hee [or bhee] nu kuha, or muen koochh 
bola hee nuheen ; / did not heat him at all, 
muen cose mootluq nuheen mora. 

all-conquering, kool glialib. 

all-devouring, surb bhuchhee. 

all-fours, chuopayu, kubkooriya, ghontnon, god- 
riyon, v. quadruped. 

all-hail, moobarulc, afreen, jue, khoosha, (among 
bearers) sukul punch ke ram ram. 

all-knotvmg, &c. vileem, v. om/niscient. Sic. 

all-seeing, buseer-mootluq, huma-been, sukul- 

to allay, tukhfcef-d. thundha- dheema-k. ghut- 
ana, v. to ease. 

allegation, quol, bat, du,uwa, iqrar, nniqoolu, 

buchun, bachuk, (plea) hoojjut, huth. 
to allege, iqrar- &c. -k. subub-d. kuhna, bacha- 

-d. (to plead) hoojjut- &c. -k. v. to affirm, 
allegiance, furmau-burdaree, fidwiyut, y. fidelity, 
obedience. Sec. 

allegorical, moostu,ar, v. figurative. 

to allegorise, tumscel-lana. 

allegory, tumseel, eeliam, v. metaphor, simile. 

allehijah, ul humdmlillali, v. praise. 

to allei-iafe, furo-k. tukhibef-d. v. to extenuate. 

alleviation, tukhfeef, kunitee, ghuttee, lieenta, 
V. the verb, &c. 

alley, koochu, v. avenue, khuc,aban, ruwun, 
V. u-alk, guliyara, khorec, kolkee, (covered) 
chliutta, V. lane. 

alliance, qurabut, nata,blraduree, rishtu, kheshec, 
nata gota,, koorumbu,ee, upna,et, rish- 
tu-daree, v. union, marriage, &c. (of states) 
rali-ruwish, moowafuqut, rah reet, buna,o, v. 

alligator, mugur, ghuriyal, naka, kcomheer, ni- 
hung, sher-abee, mugur-muchh, v. crocodile. 

alliteration, sun-ut suja, tujnees, rudeef, uchhur- 

allodium, milk, v. pension, &c. 

to allot, mukhsoos-k. bukhra-k. v, to share, grant. 

allotment, bhag, butwara, v. share. 

to allow, manna, pusund-k. etna, ruwadar-h. 
dcorcost- 5:c. -r. v. allowable, to agree, mun- 
zoor-k. or -r. moujra-d. v. to permit, (to give) 
dilana, dena, khubur geeree-k. khubur-lena, 
(to suffer) burdasht-k. suhna, (to discount) 
ghutana, tukhfeef-k. ghum-kliana. 

allowable, allowed, wajibec, nui,af, priman, juw- 
waz, nia)jra,ee, manneek, v. lawful. 

allowaiwe, v. allotment, buklira, ratib, moo,utad, 
bundhej, v. share, nankar, malikanu, aloofu, 
udhar, V. dose, (additional) bhata, khorakee, 
V. pe7ision, ri,ayut, puchh, chhoot, (also deduc- 
tion) higar, julun, khad, sookhun, — all of va- 
rious kinds, v. tret, (income, pay, &c.) amud, 
tulub, shurh, mooshahuru, muwajib, v. conces- 
sion, (maintenance, q. \.)hhan^ee,v, provisioti, 




allowing that, furz kur ki, bu-shurtiki, v. to 
a/to«/,chashnee, pooth, {diminution, q. v.) nooqsan, 

to alloy, {metals) chashnee-d. 
to allude, dulalut-k. ki naiyu- &c. -r. v. allusion, 

jana, ana, dhulna, jhoDkna, duorna, roojoovi-k. 

V. to apply, 
to allure, fureb- &c. -d. mohna, bilbhana, 

kheencbna, loobliana, v. to tempt, rijhana, larh- 

na, V. to seduce. .ij'jj;'«'ijf>. 

allurement, fureb, v. attraction', enticement, &c. 
alluring, allurer, dil-fureb, dll-kush, dil-chusp, 

mohnee, mun-hurun, dil-rooba, dil-fiza, dil- 

awez, mun-choi", v. tempter, 
allusion, isharu, bhed, munsha, kinayu, eema, 

koonh, lucorad. 
allusive, mooradee, v. allegorical, 
alluvion, alluvious, turee, chhor, door, gunga- 

•yvoord, dyara, v. inning, 
ally, kcomukee, shureek, rufeeq, gohariya, pru- 

bhoot, V. auxiliary. 
to ally, rah ruwish-k. rah rubt-r. qurabut-k. 
ulmacanter, ulmuquntur. 
almanack, tuqweem, putra. 
almighty, qadir i mootluq, purm burhm, purmes- 

wur, khojda.e tU|ala, v. God, &c. and, as with 

us, apphed to God only. 
tlie Almighty, i. e. the Most High, huqq-tu,ala, 

eeshoor, v. God. 
almond, badam, luoz, {the kernel) mughz i badam, 

{oil) ruoghun i badam ; almonds of the throat, 

giltiyan, pi. of giltee, v. tonsil, {wild) kuth 

badam, adj. luozeenu. 
almoner, bihlu-burdar. 
almonry, bara, bhundara. 
almost, qureeb, un-qureeb, nuzdeek, lug bhug, 

V. nearly. 

alms, khuerat, bheekh, dan, bara, ugwun, aa, ^ 
lungur, zukat, sudqu, tusuddooq, suda-burt, 
duchhna, rusoolee, punsala. byvI;(_ ,:,\(i-iV^ 

alms-house, lungur-khanu, dhurum-sala, (man) 
purpal, khuerat-khor, v. charity. 

aloes, elwa, sibr, moosubbur, {wood) ood, ugur, 
{tree) gheekwar, {plant) putha, wilayutee^ 


aloft, bala, v. aboi^e. 

alone, ukela, ekla, tunha, aphee, aphee-ap, ke- 
wul, uhokha, jureedu, eksur, usp o qumchee, 
chhura, v. single ; let me alone for that, 
poochho or bolo mut ; when you and I are alone, ' 
jub hum toom apliee-ap ho wen; to let alone, 
chhorna, jane-d. bus-k. gu,ee-k. dur goozur- 
-k. V. to desert. 

along, {at length) lumba lumba, lumban men, 
lumba,ee-men, v. straight, {fonvard) age, 
chule; go along, chule ja^o, {away) goom ; 
going along, chulte chuke ; go along, sirrah ! 
ube goom ho ; along with, sath sath, durmane 
or durmiyani, is ke beech, viz. besides, bumu,i, 
hum-rah, ba-lium, sung sung, ghula,e, ke mel, 
V. with ; to lay along, sola-d. leta-d. v. to lie, 
{together) sumet, sooddhan ; throw it away 
along with the water, panee sumet oose phenk- 
do, V. on, &e. .vW-iV^',*.-, 

aloof, door, ulug, nyara, nirala, moo.ulhiq, biluw 
phutka, /rom bilugna «wrfphutukna, to stand 
or keep aloof, v. aside, also to shun, {to keep 
aloof) ulug-kut-phoot-ruhna. 

aloud, pookar ke, boolund awaz-se, bu awaz i 
boolund ; speak aloud, prokar ke bolo, v. loud. 

alphabet, uhf be, hooroof, burun, kukhara, hoo- 
roofi-tuhjee, v. letter. 

alphabetical, buqa.jdu tuhjee, kukhara dhub. 

already, ubhee ; / have already told you three 
times, ubhee muen toom se teen bar kuha; 




tphat ! already? wall ubhcc? chouka, [when 
affixed to the imper. sing, of any verb] ; I kace 
told him already, cos sc kuh chaoka, v. before. 

also, bhee, sathee, v. besides, uor, v. likewise. 

altar, qoorban-gal), muzblh, bedee, ugunhot.-, 
sara, koond, chuok, v. shrine, grave, &c. also 

to alter, v. a. budul- pher-dahia, v. n. budulna, 
budul-j. tugheer- 8?c. -li. mootubuddul- &c. 
-h. budul baz-k. v. to vary, altered. 

alterable, moomkin cot tubdccl, v. changeable. 

alteration, tugheer, tubuddo^l, v. the verb, also 
budul, kat koot, moolkat, v. variation. 

altercation, tukrar, tunta, hoojjut, khuta putee, 
kuha kuhce, puh put, ruendha, rar, purkhash, 
V. cmitest, huft husht, choona choonce, bola- 
chalee, kuh-poochh, ooghta pucnchee, moonh- 
a-moonhee, roka-tokee, jhuora-jhuoree, Jung 
o judul, rudd o kudd, judd o kudd, ojksa ook- 
see, ufcsa uksee, buhsa buhsee, chukha cliu- 
khee, tuhuttook, uesa wucsa, v. to wrangle, 

altered, mootubuddul, mootughueyur. 

alternate, mootubuddil. 

to alternate, baree baree-se ana. 

alternately/, bara baree, para paree, baree baree-se, 
nuobut-se, v. reciprocal. 

alternation, pher phar, udul budul, eree pheree, 
V. change. 

alternative, bat, ilaj, charu, halut, rah, wuzu, 
turuh, soorut, wuju, v. clmice. 

althea, khutmee, khuera, khubbazee, khueree. 

aWioiigh, ugurchi, hurchund ki, bur uks is ke, 
is bat ke bote, gurchi, v. though, notwithstand- 
ing, he. 
altitude, oonchas, irtifa.u, churha,o, cDnti,ums, 
rufU|Ut, V. height; to take the altitude, bcolun- 
dee undazu-k. 

altogether, (completely) incxsthiq, muhz, niput, 
nidan, poora, nira, v. totally, sara, peera, 
sir sc panw tiik, v. entirely. 

alum, phitkuree, zak sufed, zaj sufed. 

always, humeshu, suda, da|im, nit, hur wuqt, 
moodaiTi, v. constantly, ](x>g]aig, jawed, v. ever. 

am, \\oon, from bona, to he, v. the Monitor. 

amain, be-tuhasha, nidhuruk, sir ke bhul, nioon- 
cliyake,/rom moondiyana, to run headjbremost, 
V. violently. 

amalgam, peetee, lachee, bookruotee. 

amannensis,mn<\v\i-nuv,'QCii, pulekhuk,v. copier. 

amaranth, jutadharee, kulga, taj i khuros, gool- 
kes, gool-mukhmul, gool-khueroo, bostan- 

to amass, jorna, butorna, jumu^\-k. sumetna. 

amassment, guthree, v. collection. 

amatory, ishq-ungez, buskurun, v. philter, 

amaurosis, teemur, trimiree, v. dimness. 

amaze, amazement, surgurdanee, moorchha, ghiu 
brahut, chuondhiyahut, v. astonishment, won- 

to amaze, ghubrana, bhuchkana, hueran- &c. 
-k. V. to astonish ,• to stand in amaze, dant tule 
unglee dabna. 

amazed, huei-an, sur-gurdan, pureshan, hueruU 
-zudu, huwas bakhtu, niootuhueyur, mootu,uj- 
jib, suraseemu, dung, bismue, bhuochuka, 
mubhoot, V. confused, astonished. 

amazement, chukrit, v. amaze, surprise, &e. 

amazing, uchumbha, ujeeb o ghureeb, huerut- 
ungez, V. astonishing, wonderful. 

amazingly, (extremely) buhoot, nihayut. 

amazon, treej, [their country, &c, triya-rajl 
singhnee, oordu-begunee, v. virago. 

ambassador, elchee; the person of an ambassador 
is inviolable, elchee be-zuwal hue, v. messen- 
ger, dhuwuniya, v. envoy, [in the fern. dha. 
winee] dhootnee, elchin, v. embassy. 
C 2 




amber, kuh-rooba; amber-coloured, kuh-rooba|ee- 

ambergris, umbur. 

ambidexter, do-hutha, do-bhooju, do-dustce, v. 

ambigiiify, ambigtioiisness, mmgbalutu, pech,lu- 
pet, V. doubt, pher, bhurum, dhokha, sliiq, 
do-urth, rumz, v. equivocation. 

ambiguous, moohtumul, moobhum, mushkook, 
inoozubz.ub, pech-dar, gol-gol, bliurmeela, 
zoomvi,unnen, mooshtubuh, do-urtha, rumza- 
mez, V. doubtfid. 

amiiguoiisly, pech-se, ibham-se. 

ambition, ambitiousness, huosilu, daiyu, iizm, 
oomung, tuntunu, huwus, dhoon, himmut, 
hirs, tumu,u, laluch, dum, v. desire, luluk, 
ubhilak,h, ghucrut, ootung, trishna, nam-J0|ee, 
boDlund been-ee, bcnlund purwaz-ee, hoobijah, 
munish, tubee.ut, mughz, dilo dimagh, v. avi- 

ambitious, huosilu-mvind, sahib huosilu, sahib da- 
iyu, ooliluzm, boolund-nuzr, oomiingee, dhoo- 
nee, alee munish, jah-jo, ubhelakhee, v. soar- 
ing, also the substantive here. 

amble, yurghu, ebiya, rtngrcogee. 

to amble, yurghu-chulna, ebiya-chulna. 

ambler, ruh-war, roogroogee. 

ambrosia, parjat, (the tree) tooba, v. nectar. 

ambuscade, ambush, kumeen-gah, kumeen, gara, 
dubba, ghat, da,on; to lie in ambush, gara- &c. 
buethna ; to lay an ambush, gara-buethalna. 

ambush, &c. dara, daba, dubkee, chhipkee, dhoo- 
ka, V, snare. 

amen, ameen, uesa-ho, ho,e, juthast. 

amenable, juwabee, zer-umui, v. under ; to be 
amenable, juwab-d. nishan-k. v. responsible. 

to amend, dooroost-k. sumbhalna, rast-k. islah-d. 
V. n. bunna, sumbhulna, v. to mend, 

amendment, dooroostee, arustugee, v. reformation. 

amends, tawan, dand, v. atonement. 

amethyst, murtees, yaqoot, jubluqoom, manik. 

amiable, hurdil-vizecz, muhboob-oolqcoloob, sha- 
istu, nek-nihad, nek-bukht, v. agreeable, love- 
ly, zat busufat, khoobiyan sath, v. excellent ; 
an amiable person, gcol-admee. 

amiableness, muqbooliyut, khoobee, lutafut, sha- 
istugee, nek-bukhtee. 

amicable, hila mila, mila joola. 

amicably, khuer khoobee-se, v. friendly. 

amid, amidst, beech, bheetur, mudh, v. amongst, 
manjh, v. half. 

amiss, boara, tufawut, v. wrong; bud, na-la,iq; 
to take amiss, boora-manna, ueb-jannaj v. imr- 
proper. t*;**^' 'v >'» jVi'k 

amity, ikhlas, v. friendship, &c. 

ammoniac, (gum) suniugh humama, oshuq, (sal) 

ammunition, saman j ungee, usbab j ungee, baroot- 
golee, V. stores. 

amnesty, rnu,afee-namu, uman-namu, tussullee- 
namu, v. pardon, general. 

amomum, humama, ela. 

among, amongst, beechmen, durmiyan, men, 
beech, v. within, ke eenhan, nuzdeek, dheeg, 
sumeep, v. with, &c. 

amorist, &c. ashiq-mizaj, hoosn purust, shuoqeen, 
ruswunt, v. lover. 'lofisi 

amorous, ashiq-tun, ishq-baz, rusik, rusiya, tu- 
mash-been, kamee, ueyash, v. lewd. 

amorously, ashiqanu. 

amorozisness, ishq-bazee, ruskaiCe, ashiq-tunee, 
tumash-beenee, v. fondness. 

amow?i^, jcnmlu, jumu,u, guthree, mujmoo,u, mot, 
ti.iidad, hasil, v. product, (sum) mublugh, v. 
total; toomar 'jumu^u, registei'ed amount, usul 
jumu,ii, the original amount, distinguished from 
the ubwab jumU|ii, or adventitious amount, v 
account. ii— -:-; -.,i-i-:u,-u ,j-..;_:. ... . 




to amount, burlina, puhoonchna, turuqqee-k. ho- 

amour, jshq-bazee, lugga, sutta butta, yaree, ash- 

iqee, ashna,ee, yar-bazee, luga,et, mel, niilap, 

mun-munuwul, urus-purus, v. intrigue, 
amphibious, lium-khooshkee-hum-abee, do-qonsii- 

ree, do-tutee. 
amphisbeena, thoothoor, luwa-sankhur, do raoonha- 

ample, (large) bura, buhoot, v. abundance (wide, 

q. V.) phuela, musee.u, bisal, puhnawur, v. 


la,o, V. largeness, 
amplification, moobalughu. 
to amplify, burhana, chund dur chund-k. v. to 

amply, buhoot-sa, ziyadutee-se, ifrat-se. 
to amputate, kat-daliia, qutu,u-qulum-k. v. to cut 

amputation, inqita^u, bliungta, v. to cut. 
amulet, hirz, juntur, gunda, v. spell; the science 

of amulets, &c. tukseer, v. charm, 
to amuse, buhlana, mushgliool-k. tufrech-d.tala-, 
- tal mutol- heelu huwalu- luetoolu,ul-k. luga- 

-r. khilana, purchana^ phirana, bhoolana, oo- 

rana, dum-d. v. to beguile, to delude, &c. 
amusement, tuniasha, mushghoolu, bazee, buh- 

la,o, deed, shosghl, furhut, tufreeh, luzzut, v, 

am,using,amusive,c\i\t-\\ig\xn, mun-lugun, dil-lu- 
i gun,dil-chusp, moofurruh, furhut-ungez, mun- 

bha,ona, v. recreation, &c. 
an, ek, v. any, &c. 
anacardium, bhilawa, biladoor, bhela, bhillat, 

(seeds) bhiluonjee. 
anachronism, ikhtilaf wuqtee, kalbirodh, 
anagram, tuhreef", raudjiilapa. 

analogical, analogous, moosliabih, shubeeh, moo- 

masfil, nioowafiq, v. similar, 
analogy, moasliabuhut, moonasubut, nisbut, moo- 
' wafiqut, rutabooq, qureenii; by analogy, quree- 

to analyse, tufreeq- &c. -k. v. to separate. 
a}ialysis, tushreeh, tufreeq, tufseel, tujuzzee, tu- 

joozzee, tuozeeh, tufseer, turteel, sumas, bi- 

analytical, tushreehee, tufrceqee, sumasee, bi- 

anarchy, ghudur, und,her,undhadhoondh,d,heen- 

ga dhangee, asbob, hulchul, khoon-khurabu, 

h u rbhong, bullo karaj ,besurdaree,bud-umulee, 

be bundobustee, dhoonkala, jihalut, codhum. 
anasarca, istisqa,! zuq(jee, soth, zuhurbad, the 

adj. sothee. 
anathema, lu,unut, dhirkar, v. curse, 
anatomical, tushreehee. 
anatomist, tuslireeh-dan, v. skeleton, 
ajiatomy, tushreeh. 
ancestor, judd, poorkha, boozoorg, pooratum, moo- 

ris, bap-dada, ugla, pitr, sulf, pi. uslaf ; an- 
cestors, uba-ujdad, bure, poarkhe,^ boozoorg, 

ancestry, juddiyut, suliiyut, poorkha,ee, v. lU 

anchor, lungur. 
to anchor, lungur-dalna ; to weigh anchor, lun- 

gur-oothana ; to be at anchor, lungur pur-h. 
atichorage, lungur-wara. 
anchorite, tari kood dconiya, bun-basee, tyagee, 

V. hermit. .^ 

ancient,qudeem, dereenu, purachcen,ugla, aduo, 

bursuen, jooga-ada, pesheen, v. old, pi. uslaf, 

anciently, age, uwwul, puehle, qudeem-men, 
andentness, qudamut, v. age, oldness. iiT^M» " 




ancients, mcotuc[ud\meen, prorane^ooratum, qoo- 
duma, uwa,il ke log, suluf ke log. 

and, uo, uor, o; and so forth, wughueru, ghuer- 
zalik, V. again. 

andiron, qoolabu. 

anecdote, nooktu, chootkoola, raz, baz, kuthnee, 
V. story, secret. 

anemone, ^uqa,iq, noou,uinan. 

anew, pher, sur i iiuo, uz nuo, nue sir se, v. 

" again, newly. -'i^-' t^ 'v  ■■-!■ 

angel, firishtu, muluk, de,ota, soor, doot, v. mes- 
senger; therecordingaoigels,\iiraitiVLnkaiiheer\, 
chitrgoopta; the angel of death, muluk col muot, 
qabiz ool urwah, jue bi jue, izra,eel, jum ; ,(a 
beautiful ivoman) pviree, hoor, puree-zad, pud- 
minee ; the two angels who are supposed to exa- 
mine the dead, moonkir, nukeer. 

angelica, unjulik. 

angelical, angelic, firishtu-kho,puree-rooor-pue- 
kur, firishtu-sa, v. beautiful. 

angelot, pongee. ' •'' 

anger, ghoossu, kliufgee, ris, ghuzub, jhul, itab, 
krodh, gurmee, tuesh, tamus, v. passion. 

to anger, risana, koorhana, khufu- &c. -k. v. to 
provoke, enrage, &c. 

angle, kona, goshu, nok, khoont, zawiyu ; (a 
right) zawiyu qa,imu, sutn-kon ; (acute) ne- 
oon kon ; {obtuse) udhik kon ; (ajishing-rod) 
bunsee, shust ; {of the mouth) bachh, gulphu- 
ra ; {of the eye) ko,a, kor. 

to angle, bunsee-lugana, shust-phenkna, v. tojish. 

angler, bunsee-baz, v. tojish. 

angrily, ghoosse- jhirkee-se. 

flwg-rj/, ghojsse, khufu, khushm-nakjbud-dumagh, 
durhum, gurum, burhum, quhr nak, v. dis- 

to be angry, ghcosse-h. ghoossu-k. risana, koorhna. 

anguish, syasut, uzab, uium, kusht, sukhtee, 

■byadh, zeeq, koft, sokbt, julun, ag, jigur- 

sozee, V. torture, pang, distress. 
angular, kone-dar, goshe-dar, nokeela, nokdar, 

anil, .{first year) nuodho, {secotid year) peree, 

{third year) tilinga, v. indigo, 
animadversion, tu,unu, tu,unu-zunee, surzunjsh, 

bat, hurf, hurfgeeree, tok tak, v. censure. ^~, 
to animadvert, ilzam- &c. -d. tan-tor na, dokhna. 
animadverter, khoordu-geer, ueb-jo. 
animal, janwur, jiya junt, jandar, zir-rooh, hue- 
wan, pusoj, jee,oo dharee, keera, v. life, &c. 

a rational animal, huewan i natiq; an irrational 

animal, huewan i mootluq. iMi>i'»pJ ,-/ ^ i,( • 
animal, adj. huewanee; animal heat, hurarut 

animalcule, keera, pi. kere mukore, hushrat ool 

urz, kirmuk, keeree. 
to anim ate, }i\ana., zindu-k. jan-d. lulkarna, barh- 

chuonp- poorchuk-dum- tusullee- dharus- ist- 

iqlal- -dena, jee-d. or -d. tliarh-bundhana, 

himmut-bundhana, v. to encourage. .,» 

animated, murdanu, diler, (a* langtiage,&cc.)tm- 

raru, numkeen, v. lively, bold, 
animating, shcxjja.iit-ufza, rooh-ufza, dileranu, 

animatimi, jandaree, zindu-dilee, turraree, num- 

uk, chohul, V. mettle, spirit, life, 
animator, jan-buklish, jan-afreen. 
animosity, khoons, nifaq, udawut, nuqz, buer, v. 

anise, uneesoon, suonf, suonph, sonf, sonp, ku- 

moon hulloo, v. cumin. : ^nO|i;(i.". .. 

ankle, {joint) tukhna, gutta, ku,ub, ghbothee, 

shitalung, pong. 
anklet, pa,e-zeb, khulkhal, pa.el, goojuree, v. bell, 
annalist, moowurrikh, rawee. >iv"i,^j|^ 

annals, tuwareekh, v. history. xiruujj j~'.^ , ;j*M|il» 
to anneal, ta,ona, v. to temper. 




to annex, jonia, luga-d. wiisl- &c. -k. 
anneied, jora, mooz^, puewund, sumbund, moK 

tu,uHiq, moolhuq, v. to joint &c. 
to annihilate, mu,udoom- &c. -k. metna, nabood- 

napueda-k. binasna, v, n. binusna, murbilana, 

V. to destroy, 
annihilated, mu,udoom, funa, nest-nabood, nast, 

binas, mufqook, le,ee pur le,ee, mcokt, gut, 

binascc, from binas the noun. 
annihilatioti, udura, nestee, funa, nas, v. the verb, 
anniversary, \. day, bursee, bursecnec, burkhee, 

V. birth-day. 
anwo^o^iwi, tufseer,shurh,hashiyu, teeka, tippun, 

biburn, v. e.vplanation , note, S:c. 
annotator, raoofussir, sliai'ih, racohushshee, tee- 

' to announce, zakir-k. khubur-d. jutana, v. to 

annoy, annoyance, dcokh, tukleef, tu3dee,u, eeza, 

zuhmut, V. jilague. 
to annoy, khijhana, bhinna-dena, bhimana, bhin- 
, kana, sunkrana, hulak-zich-k. v. to harass, 

incommode, vex. 
annual, hur sal, hur biu-us, bursa,en, hursalu, 

sumbutee, v. yearly, 
annually, sal bu sal. 
annuitant, saliyanu-dar. 
annuity, a}i7iteal pay, saliyanu. 
to annul, rudd- muoqoof- munsookh- batil-k. 

ootha^d. metna. 
annular, chhuUe-dar, chhula-sa, hulqu-sa or 

annulet, chhullya, nuthnee, nu^iya, kuknee, 

mendree, v. ring, 
anodyne, moosukkin, doukh-hurun, tuskeen- 

bukhsh, mcDsubbit. 
to anoint, choopunia, tila-k. oobtun- tudheen-k. 

V. ointment {the eyes) unjna, v. to smear, ap- 
ply, rub, 8tc. 

anomaly, khilaf-qiyasee, khoorchalee, be-turtee- 
bec, V. deriation, . exception. 

anon,]n\Aw, ubhee, yiiiec, v. quiekly, soon ,• ever 
and anon, liumeslui inunesli, v. sometimes, 

anonymous, gcnm-nanijbe-nani nislian, g(x>ptnam,> 
la-yu,ulum, v. unknown. 

anorexy, mund-agun, z.a),af-mi,adu. 

another, uor, ek-uor, doosra, (i. e. a second, by, 
which Europeans generally express another, 
often improperly) an, uor-ek, ko.oe-ghuer, 
doosra-ek, doosra^, ugla-ko,ee, v. mie, 
l| o^Acr, &c.birana, wstrange; another time,uor- 
bar, anber, mio i deegur, v. anew; one another, 
apoos, ek deegur, babum ; another (opposed to 
self) ghuer, puraya, ugia; another time, uor 
Aviiqt, pher, bari deegur, sanee-un-hal; another 
thing, uor cheez. 

answer, juwab, oottur, ooUira, bukcor, v. rejobu^ 
der; anansicertothepurpose, juwah ba suwab; 
a definitive answer, .saf juwab, juwab i shafee. 

to answer, juwab- cottur-d. kuhna, v. to speak, 
awaz-d. v. to reply, luhna, chulua, lugna, v. 
to suit, &c (to correspond to) juwab-mcnqabil- 
burabur- mootabiq-h. {to succeed) rast-ana, 
theek-ana, soodhurua, sudhna, nibhna, bunna, 
bona 4 this will not answer, yib nu hoga, v. to 
do, &c. 

answerable, {as surety, &c.) juwabee, zamin, 
{equal) burabur, moowafiq. 

answerer, juwabee, juwab-dih. 

ant, {large) che,oonta, {small) cheentee, choom- 
tee, {red) benboot, {white, &c.) deemuk or 
deewuk, pipr-a or -ee, khonta, mata, mukuora, 
keeree, mor, morchu, nunud, gundhee. 

antagonist, hureef, mooqabll, v. adversary, &c. 

ante, in comp. is expressed by pesh, &c. v. pre, 

to antecede, age-ana, v. to precede. . i„^ 

ff «tecerf('«i', mooquddum,agc,qubl, uwwul,puehle, 
{in grammar) murju,ii, nioozmur ; the antece- 




dent and consequent, scoghra o koobra,mooqud- 
dum o talee, v. preceding, &c. 

to antedate, age kurke tareekh-d. 

antelope, hurun, chikaru, v. deer, &c. 

anterior, mojquddum, age, v. antecedent. 

anthelmintic, kirm-nasik, v. vermifuge. 

anthem, munqubut, ustoot. 

Anthony's fire, soorkh-bada, bimb. 

anthill, dhehoor, diya, bumbee. 

anti, dafi, dooshmun, shikun, mar, hurun, nasik, 
khilaf, &c. V. counter, and such examples as 
may occur here. 

antihilious, sufru-shikun, pit-nasik. 

antic, bundurchal, muskhuranu, bhukwasa, v. 
droll, buffoon, &c. 

antichamber, de,orhee, yutush khanu, pesh-dalan, 

antichrist, dujjal, museeh-kizzab, khur-dujjal. 

to anticipate, peshdustee- &c. -k. tusuwwoor-k. 

anticipation, pesh-dustee, pesh-qudumee, subqut, 
ugmuna,ee, {preconception') tusuwwoor, pesh- 
tundee, pesh-bundish, ugwahee, ugoree, (of 
reveniie) hal-buqayu, hal-bhunjit, v. to fore- 
taste, &c. 

antidote, dafu, tiriyaq, zuhr-moohru, fa-zuhr, 
pa-zuhr, marug, marun, bismar, punah. 

antifebrile, joor-nasik. 

antimony, soormu, itnjun, kojhul, sungisoormu, 
(Jbox) soorniu-danee, kujluotee, {stained with) 
soormu-aloodu, (or colour of) soormu, ee. 

antipathy, chirh, nufrut, ghin, gmrez, hut, bhi- 
nuk, zid, hur-buer, v. dislike, aversion, &c. ; 
a natural antipathy, nufrut i zatee. 
antiqtie, qudeem, poDrana, v. old, &c. 
antiquity, uwa,il, qudeem, ugle-wuqt, proranee- 
wuqt, sulf, mootuquddoom, (ancientness) quda- 
antithesis, moo.arizu, v. opposition, 
antivenereal, hup nasik. 

ajitler, jhankh, jhunkhar, v. horn. 

anvil, niha,ee, uhrun, sundan, {to he on the) 
durpesh-h. v. carpet. 

anxiety, undeshu, turuddcod, fikr, soch, purwa, 
{depression) oodasee, ufsoordugee, v. solicitude, 
apprehension, hutasa, tushuwwoosh, bhuona, 
sunse, intizaree,bequraree, iztirab, v.suspence. 

anxious, undeshu-nak, fikr-mund, mcoturiiddid, 
mcotufukkir, fikree, moozturrib, be-qurar, 
V. uneasy ; to be anxious, ghum-rukhna. 

anxiousness, undeshu-nakee, fikr-mundee, tufuk- 
koor, V. anmety, Szc. 

anus,gand,marag,v.fimdame7iti Jnti prociden- 
tia, is expressed by kanch-nikulna. 

any, ko,ee, ko,oo, koochh, ko,ee-sa, jo-krochh, 
ko,ee-jo, juonsa, v. whoever, &c. ; any one, 
ko,ee ek ; any body, ko,ee admee ; any where, 
kuheen ; a?iy how, kisoo turuh ; a?iy thing 
strange,]i.cochh uor; have you heard any thing? 
koochh uor soona ? This phrase generally pre- 
cedes a discovery, v. so7ne, &c. 

aorist, udes, moozaru, v. indefinite. 

apace, juldee, durbur, v. quickly. 

apart, jooda, ulahidu, {vulg. alueda) ulug, bilug, 
V. aloof, bhin, nyara, ek turuf, ek kinar, dur 
kinar, ek ulung, ek ant, ba,eb, ek bughul ; 
jesting apart, this will not do, thutha dur kinar 
yih bat nu hogee. 

apartment, kothree, kumra, [perhaps from ca- 
mara, Port.] ; women''s apartment, zunanu, 
muhul sura, untuh poor ; meti's apartment, 

apathy, be-purvva,ee, mujhoolee, be-khubree, jur- 
ta, moordu-dilee, kahilee, mujhooliyut, mud- 
hoshee, tujahrol, v. indifference. 

ape, bundur, {fem. bundree) boznu, v. monkey. 

to ape, hiska- tuqleed-k. v. to imitate, 
aperient, aperitive, moolueyin, v. laxative. 




aperture, chhed, soorakh, an,ana,rund,teerkush, 

mokha, v. opening, hole, kc. 
ape.v, nok, iinee, (of a hill) chontee. 
aphorism, apophthegm, muqoolu, v. maxim, 
a-pieee, ek ek, hur ek. 
apish, muemoon-khuslut, ectur, v. playful, 
apocope, huzuf, lop, v. contraction, 
apogee, boo.udi shums, v. opposition, 
apologist, wzr-baz, cp7.r-khwali, [whence cnzr- 

khwaliee-k. to apologise^ tU|Uzzc»r-k. 
to apologize, qozr- &c. -k. v. supra, 
apologue, kuhanee, musul, v. moral, fable, 
apology, co7.r, moo,uzurut, bintee, v. e,vcuse. 
apoplevy, suktu, parussool. 
apostacy, burgushtugee, irtidad, inhiraf, ilhad, 

dhurum-nusht, roogurdanee. 
apostate, burguslitu, moortud, moonhurif, phira, 

mconkiri deen, moolhid, dhurum-nushtee. 
to apostatise, moortud- &c. -h. phirna, irtidad- 

&c. -k. digna, jat-d. roogurdan-h. 
apostle, rusool, (of Christ) huwaree, v. prophet, 
apostrophe, (in rhetoric) iltifat, goorez, v. digres- 
sion, ulaniut hurfee, v. contraction, 
apothecary, uttar, (properly a perfumer) punsa- 

ree : the latter sells spices, &c. also ; duwa- 

furosh, duwa-saz, uokhudhiya, (shop) duwa- 

to appal, (Jurana, huebut-dikhlana, v. to terrify, 
apparatus, saz o saman, luwazim, sumaj, sami- 

gree, kul-kanta, kuree kanta, kar-khanu, saz- 

baz, alat, v. furniture. 
apparel,\ihas, kupre,busun, puehrawa, mulboos, 

V. garb, dress, 
to apparel, poshak-puhirna, v. to attire, &c. 
apparent, zahir, sureeh, u.uyan, fash, prikash, 

purghut, wazih, budeehee, (indubitable) yu- 

qeen, be-shuk, be-shrobhu, tuhqecq, v. clear, 

certain, mu,uroof, prigulbh, v. evident ; very 

apparent, uzhur. 

apparently, zahira, dekhiie men, v. apparent. 

apparition, bhoot, chhaya, soorut, wuhmee, v. 
spectre, ghost. 

appeal, rcojix),ii, moorafu, istirja,u, oothan, v. re- 
ference, pokar, yad, v. call, (place of) murju ; 
court of appeals, sudur udalut. 

to appeal, ro)joO|U-k. lejana, ootha-lejana, v. to 
transfer, (to a witness, &c.) rukhna, v. to re- 

to appear, soojhna, nuzur-ana, dikhla,ee-dena, 
zahir- &c. -h. deesna, bahur-ana, oobhurna, 
ooghurna, nikulna, khoolna, nuniood-h. v. to 
come, bona, oothna, ookhurna, v. to rise, t9 
attend, apparetit, (to seem) jan-purna, mu,u. 

appearance, v. the verb, soorut, shukl, roop, wu- 
jahut, zahir, nooma,ish, nuniood, luqa, huesi- 
yut, V. 7nien, (sig7i,q.v.) usur, ulunkar, (pre- 
sence) zuhoor, prikash, v. probability, counte- 
nance. Sec huyut,dekhawut,dekha,o,nooina,ee, 
izhar,zahircc, v. sight, dookan-daree, dekhawa, 
V. show, rung, v. figure, oobhar, v. eruption, 
(outward) zahir-usbab, v. outside, hazirec, 
roDJoo,at, V. attendance. 

to appease thumlha- surd- nurm- sant^k. tuskeen- 
aram-tl. v. to pacify, boojhana, dheema-k. v. to 

appellatit, raji, mcnsturjee, v. accuser. 

appellation, nam, ism, luqub, pi. ulqab, (from a 
son) kooniyut, v. name, address. 

appellative, pudbee, zatee, luqbee, jinsee, v. titu- 
lar, (notui) ism i jins. 

to append, lutkana, tang-d. v. to add, 8cc. 

appendage, lahiq, ilhaq, luhcoq, lutkun, jlaqu, 
ilsaq, awezu,doom-guzu,d(r)mbala, soomumee. 

appendix; tutimmu,moolhuq,tukmilu,sekh, zuel, 
troot, V. postscript. 

to appertain, lugna, tu,ullooq-ulaqu-r. v. to be- 





appertainmenf, appertenarwe, luwaziin,mootu,ul- 
Xv\,pl. luwazimat,mootu,ulluqat,v. appendage. 

appetite, rukhbut, sliuliwut, {for food) bhookh, 
ishtiha, v. desire, inclination. 

to applaud, surahna, afreen- wah wah-k. v. to 

ajiplause, afreen, wah wah, ustcot, murhuba, 
V. approbation, praise, &c. 

apple, seb, se,o, (of the eije) pcotlee, dela, v. hall, 
murdoom i chusm, v. pupil. 

applicable, suza-war, dooroost, theek, la,iq, moo- 
nasib, mcxjntubiq, shamil, kcnrsee-nusheen, 
lugne-jog, V. to Jit, &c. 

application, {attention, q. v.) tundihee, kudd- 
kawish, mihnut, jihd, mcnzawulut, shooghl, 
diqqut, \. study, (mtA suwal, v. petition, luga,o, 
phenka,o, jhooka,o, nishust, v. the verb, {de- 
sire) Istida, {of a word) itlaq, siingiya, {to a 
sore, &c.) lep, zumad, tila, v. reference, Sjc. 

to apply, V. a. lugana, rukhna, dhurna, dena, 
V. to allude, chepna, chipkana, joma, milana, 
V. to stick, &c. buethana, phenkna, jhookana, 
lejana, lana, dalna, duorana, chulana, dhalna, 
nishust-khilana, v. to Ji,r, suit, &c. {to use) 
umul-k. (to study) mootalu.u- &c. -k. v. ap- 
plication, dilJugana or -dena, {to address) 
kuhna, virz-k. v. n. lugna, buethna, theek- 
&c. -ana, v. applicable. 

to appoint, thiihrana, buethalna, mooqurrur-, 
moOjUeyun- mojshukhkhiis- tu,eenat-k. kuma, 
nam zud-k. tu.een- mcotu,ueyaDn- munsoob-k. 
V. to place, &c. tujweez-k. ; to appoint a time, 
wu,udu-k. V. to establish, &c. 

appointment, {office) qohdu, tu,u!looqu,tu,eenatee, 
buda,o, budan, tu,iieyoon, v. direction, {pro- 
mise) huth-mar, bacha, v. assignation, mojtu- 
ucyunu, v. establishment, &c. {stipulation, 
q. V.) wu,ndu, uwudh, v. allowance, &c. 

apposite, moonasib, la,iq, theek, joga, doorodst, 
sha,istu, bur-muhul. '^i 

apposition, nooqtu mooqabil. 

toappraise, mol- qeemut- nirkh-thuhrana,ankna, 
kootna, tushkhces-k. v. to estimate. 

appraisement, anka.o, dullalee, v. estimate. 

appraiser, nirkhee, mooqeem, dullal, unkwueya, 
kootunhar, kuniha, v. estimator. 

to apprehend, {to seize, q. v.) pukur-lana, dhur- 
lana, giriftar-k. khuench-Iana, giriftu geer-k. 
V. to secure, {to conceive, q. v.) siimujhna, tar- 
na, churuchna, bat-pana, v. to comprehend, {to 
dread, q. v.) sukoochna, undeshu- &c. -ana. 

apprehension, {conception, q. v.) boojh, utkul, 
bichar, khiyal, danist, tu,uqqool, v. judgment, 
khudshu, weave, pukrahut, v. seisure, {dread, 
q. V.) khutru, sundeh, sunsa, tushweesh, huo- 
ka, bhurum, v. anxiety, doubt, comprehension, 

apprehensive, {fearful) wuswasee, wuhmee, moo- 
shuwwish, bhurmee, biswasee, wuhshee, moo- 
tiihhim, rumeedu mizaj, v. timid, {acute, q. v.) 
tez-fuhm, v. anxious, sharp, &c. 

apprentice shagird, sikh, chela, {girl) chelee, 

apprenticeship, sikhee, shagirdee, chela-pun, sikh- 

appricot, zurd-aloo, khoobancc, shah-aloo, v. 

April, buesakh, madho, ragho, (or Wi month) ru- 
bee,u oDji sanec, peer dustugeer, meeranjee ka- 
chand, v. the Monitor, p. 210. also month, sea- 

to apprize, jutana, chitana, mcDttulu,u-k. khubur- 
ittilu.u-d. V. to inform, &c. 

approach, uwaiCe, amud amud, nugcha,ee, nuo-. 
chiyahut, v. approximation, pl.Taorchsl, \. bat- 
tery, also the verb. 

to approach, nuzdeek- qureeb- pas-ana or -pu- 




honchna,apuhonchna,nugclnyana,v. to arrive, 
(sUly) dhookna, v. to adoance, &tc. milna, ana, 
jana, a- or ja-lugna, bhinia, v. to join. 

approbation, approval, qubool, tuhseen, suwab- 
deed, pusund, sulah, istiswab, v. the verb, also 
ungikar, izun, v. desire, &c. 

to appropriate, thuhrana, mouqurrur- mooshukh- 
klms- mukhsoos-k. iipnana, tukhsees- khas- 
nirala-k. v. to apply. 

appropriation, tush ukhkh cos, tuqurroor, v. the 

to approve, surahna, pusund-pizccra^ tuhseen- 
moostujab-k. moostuhsun-janna, inunzoor-k. 
khatir puzeer-k. v. to like, to prove. 

approaimate, nuzdeek, qureeb, v. near, &c. 

approximation, nuzdeekee, ittisal, qiraii, v. ap- 
proach, &c. tuqurroub, mcxjqarunut, nicnqaru- 
but, sumeepta, v. vicinity. 

apropos, bur-wuqt, bur-muhul. 

apron, pootlee, tuh-bund, {string) kurguda, kur- 
dhuree, kurdunee, v. cover,' 

appulsc, tukkur, thokur, sudmu. 

apt, {inclined) ina,il, sha,iq, shuoqeen, hazir, 
tueyar, (j^Y, q. v.) theek, (ready) tez-fulim, 
V. acute, &c. luoleen, mxirghoob, v. prone. 

aptitude,aptness,Taue], shuoq,llyaqut, isti,udad, 
suleequ, sha,istugee, jogita, v. amteness, &c. 

aptly, suleeqe-se, mu,uqool turuh, v. justly. 

aqziafortis, tez-ab. 

aqnarhis, dulo, koombh. 

aquatic, abee, diiriyaiCe, julchur, puniha. 

aqtM vltcB, gooligoolab, v. spirit. 

aqueduct, nabdan, nuhr, niaohree, purnala, v. ca- 
nal, pipe. 

aqueous) murtoob, abee. 

aquiline, (nose) tote kee aee-nak, v. parrot. 

Arabic gum, bubool ka gond, sumgh i urubcc. 

arable, qabil i zira,ut, jueyud, jota,oo, khetce- 

jog, khetihur, zu^,utee, zira,ut-puzeer, v. cul^ 

arbitrary, moukhtar, qadir, da,ir o sa,ir, v. despO' 

tic, absolute, {tuilhout rM/«)be-qa,idu,be-thuor, 

V. uncertain, Sjc i 

to arbitrate, salisee- puncha,ct-k. ' 
arbitratioti, arbitrenient, salisee, puiicha,et,v. der 

arbitrator, arbiter, salis, hukum, moonsif, puncli. 
arboreous, slmjree. 
arborist, shujur-shinas. 
arbour, koonj, bure.o, v. bower, 
arch, arc, mihrab, taq, goambuz, dhuncokh, ku- 

man, v. bote, kiira, nubh, (frame of) ludan, 

bhursalia, (of a circle) quos. 
arch, adj. zureef, kho3sh-tubu,u, thuthe-baz, 

thuthol, hunsor, muha, bura, v. arrant, wagr 

gish, &c. 
to arch, mihrab-bunana, kura-marna, v. vault, 
archangel, muluk niooqurrub, mulia-doot. 
arched, mihrab-dar, mihrabee, gcombuz-dar, lu- 

da,oo, dhunookhee, goombuzee, taqee, quosee, 

kumanee, y. convex ; having three arclies, &c. 

si-taqu, piich-taqu. 
archer, tcer-undaz, kuman-dar, kumnuet, .dhu- 

nookh-dhur, kumthuet, dhunoohar, teer-zun, 

(-8 green ) purtab-gah, v. arrow, 
archery, teer-undazec, kuman-daree, kumnuetee. 
archeus, Imm-nam, v. spirit, 
architect, mi,umar, thuwu,ee, raj, meer-jmarut, 

tu,umeer-dan, ghurkaree, silpsasturee, v. 

architecture, mi,umaree, ilni 1 tu,iimeer, thuwue- 

pun, ghurkar, silpsastur, khund meroo, v. su- 
architrave, kugur, murghol. 
architype, iisl, huqeeqee, mu.ukoos, mU|Vilool. 
archives, duftur-khanu, duftur. 

arcuatimi, (in gardening) daba. 
D 2 




- ardent, {jiery) gurm, har, teechhun, {fervent) 
dil-soz, {as a fener) mcohriq, v. violent, 
ardour, gurmee, sozish, duhuk, dah, ihtiraq, 

hurarut, dil-sozee, humlyut, v. fervour, &c. 
arduous, mooslikil, sukht, ushkal, sunglakh, v. 

lofty, hard, &c. 
ardnousness, dooshvvaree, sukhtee, ishkal. 
are, huen, ho, frorfi hona, to he, q. v. 
, - area, ursu, muedan, kcorsee, mooliat, munjhiya, 
dawa, duor, khoontee, v. space, {court) suhn, 
areea nut, soopyaree, v. beetle nut. 
to argue, buhs- &c. -k. buhsna, bajna, bad-k. 

V. to dispute, argument, 
arguer, buhhas, churchik, tukraree, badee, du- 

leelee, tuqreeree, jhugraloo. 
argument, {controversy, q. v.) buhs, moonazuru, 
tuqreeb, churcha, {reason, q. v.) wastu, hooj- 
jut, karun, {proof, q. v.) sunud, istidlal, {sid)- 
ject) niubhus. 
argumentation, tubuhhcos, buhhasee, churcha, ee, 

V. discussion, 
arid, yabis, sokhtu, jula, v. dry, &c. 
aries, humul, mekh. 

to arise, oothna, tooloo,u-h. oodue-h. goozurna, 
ana, v. to come, {to originate) shcDroo,u-h. {to 
be produced) nikulna, hasil-sadir-h. v. to rise, 
so-oothna, v. to awake, muchna, v. to begin, 
arithmetic, funn i siyaq, jlm i hisab, gunit, hin- 
dusu, {book of) leelawutee, v. accountant. 
. arithmetician, moohasib, siyaq-dan, hisab-dan, 
aright, theek, dooroost, v. right, 
aristocracy, oomra,ee hookoomut. 
aristocrate, oomra-dost. 
ark, {of the covenant) taboot sukeenu, v. boat, 

{of Noah) kishtee nooK kee. 
arm, banh, hath, dust, kur, kula,ee, v. branch, 
{from the shoulder to the elbow) bazoo, bhooj, 

dund, {from the elbow to the wrist) puhooncha, 
{of the sea) sota, kondhee, kuchhar, khal, 
kharee, v. power, {of a tree) duhla, dal ; at 
arms length, hath tule, dhuppe pur, do qudum, 

to arm, moosulluh-k. kumur bundee-k. kutnur- 
bandhna, huthiyar-b. -pukurna or bundhana, 
kumur bustu-h. or -k. v. to coat, to defend. 

armament, dul butor, fuoj-bundee, {by tvater) 

armed, mcosulluh, kumur-bund, huthiyar-bund, 
tueyar, dust bu qubzu, opchee, ziruh-posh, 
silah-posh, buktir-posli, duwal-bund, utur- 
dharee, kusa-kusaya, {i7i comp.) bund, bustu, 
whence sipur-bund, armed with a shield ; khar- 
bustu, armed with spurs as a cock. 

armsnian bole, mooltanee-muttee. 

armful, kuola, gopha, unkwar, punju-bhur. 

armour, silah, ziruh, buktur, juoshun, jhilum, 
charajnu, v. helmet, {for a horse) pakhur, v. 

armour-bearer, silah-burdar, utur bohee. 

armourer, {a cleaner of arms) suequl-gur, vulg. 
sikleegur, silah-saz, utur-sirjuk, v. furbisher. 

armoury, silah-khanu, qor-khanu, jubbu-khanu. 

armlet, bank, v. bracelet, &c. 

armpit, bughul, kukhree, kakh, mogcha, (disease 
of) bughul gund, v. smell ; to carry any thing 
under the arm, bughul-marna. 

arms, huthiyar, hurbe, alat i jung, dhal tulwar, 
saz-silah, utur, kul kanta, halhuthiyar, saz- 
bundooq, v. hostility, weapmi, &c. god, godee, 
jupphee, V. embrace, {armorial bearing) khan- 
dan kee ulamut, nishan, tughma, v. escut- 

army, lushkur, fuoj, kutuk, sipah, suena, dul, 
dhara, uskur, pi. ufwaj, fuoj fuoj, {numerous) 
lushkur-reg ruwan, or -mor mulukh; the right 
awdZe/ifwJ«^,dahinajbayan; thejlaiik, bughul, 




kumur ; the front and rear, ugarec pichharce ; 
the main body, ghol ; the centre, qulb. 

aromatic, khoish-bo-dar, moo.uttur, oosun, soo- 
gund, V. fragrant, pi. gurm musaluh, v, spice. 

around, aspas, gird, hur turuf, pueramoon, chuo- 
gird, chuopher, chuhcodis, v. about. 

to arouse, jugana, oothana, bedar-k. v. to excite. 

arrack, this is perhaps corrupted from the Ara- 
bic word iiruq, spirit, juice, &c. indefinitely. 

to arraign, du,uwa-k. v. to accJise, 

arraignment, du,uwa, v. accusation. 

to arrange, turteeb- &c. -d. suwarna, sowlharna, 
choonna, jumana, thikana-lugana, sarna, ju- 
tun-k. V. to adjust, to regulate. 

arranged, bund o bust, doorcnst, arastu, bilu- 
bund, mooruttub, sijil, v. to adjust, buna choo- 
na, soodhura, moontuzum, moohueya, v. to pre- 

arrangement, turteeb, sijil, intizam, dooroostee, 
arastugee, bund o bust, bilu bundee, Ihtimam, 
suenta,o, choona,o, tcozuk, just o bust, tudbeer, 
nuzm o nusq, v. settlement, also the verb, 

arranger, bund o bustee, ihtimam-chee. 

arrant, banka, poora, niput, muhz, qiyamut, 
bula, badee, ghalec, usl, ekka, kutta, v. rogue ; 
an arrant thief, banka chor, v. atrocious. 

array, pura-bundee, \. order, (6a^^/e)qor-bundee, 
V. dress, {military) suf-ara,ee. 

to array, sufara,ee-k. pura-b. 

arrayer, qor-chee, v. to deck. 

arrear, arrears, baqee, baqiyat, tutimmu ; to be 
in arrears, tulub-churhna; lamnitiemmithsin 
arrears, meree nuo muheene kee tulub churhce 

arrest, bund, qued, hubs, nuziir-bundee, khanu- 

to arrest, qued- &c. -k. khanu bund-k. chhenk- 
na, khuenchna, v. to imprison, seixe, attract. 

arrested, bundee, quedee, muhboos, nu/.ur-bund. 

arrival, dur-amud, qoodoom, wurood, puhonch, 
ootar, amud, amudunee, rusced, noozool, isdar, 
awun awun, a,ee, v. the verb, 

to arrive, puhconchna, ajana, dakhil-waqi-h. a- or 
ja-puhoonchna, ooturna, a-ruhna, (respectfully) 
ruonuq ufza-li. v. to come, 

arrogance, arrogancy, arrogantness, ghumund, 
unaniyut, kibr, gooman, ba,e, gcnstakhee, ru- 
qonut, ghurra, uhhiman, dimbh, ukra tukree, 
khood turashee, firuonee, v. pride. 

arrogant, mootukubbir, mughroor, gurdun-kush, 
ahunkaree, firuon, v. assuming,vain, haughty. 

arrogantly, tukubboor- 8:c. -se, uenthke, v. 

to arrogate, upnee tu,een door khuenchna, tu- 
rashna, du,uwa-k. thurana, kheechna, v. to as- 

arrow, teer, ban, sur, khudung, v. dart, (blunt) 
suree, nawuk, (or rather the tube from which 
it is discharged) ; the point of an arrow, pue- 
kan, gansee ; the notch of an arrow, soofar, 
phonk ; the shaft of an arrow, qulum, suree; 
the wings of an arrow, purgeeree ; an arrow 
without the point, thotha; aharhedarrow,vk- 
re-dar teer ; a practising arrow, tookku, kha- 
kec, dil-moorgh ; a broad pointed arrow, khup- 
ra; an arrow'' sjlight, purtab; an arrow maker, 
teer-gur ; to shoot an arrow, teer-chulana, &c. 
V. to shoot. 

arse, chootur, soorecn, v. buttock, (to hang an) 
doom-dubana, chootur-sikorna, lendiyana, 
(clout) lungotee, koopeen, v. wrapper, also 

arsenal, top-khanii, qor-khanu, silah-khanu, jub- 
bu-khanu, v. magazine. 

arsenic, sum ml far, sumbool-khar, sunkhiya, 
hurtal, zurncekh, v. zarnich, gopunt hurtal, 
sungi dcnrma. 

arson, shuhur-sozee, ungundah, v. incendiary. 




art, ilm, hoonur, funn, gcon, sunut, muharut, 
jcDgut, dust-gah, dust-karee, oostadee, huthuo- 
tee, biddiya, ulungkar, totka, lutka, chutuk, 
kurtub, V. knack, (trade, q. v.) hlrfu, kam, 
V. artfulness, &c.; the arts and sciences, ilm o 

artery, shiriyan, pi. shura.een, rug, (also any 
Hood-vessel, sinew, &c.) naree ; but gener^y 
applied to the pulse of an artery, nubz. 

artful, ueyaru, rinda, hurraf, chhulee, mukkar, 
zoofcnnoon, huft-rungee, hikmutee, jcngtee, fu- 
rebee, phoolasre-baz, sooghur-syan, v. shrewd, 
artificial, cunning, &c. ji;,; ^<^- 

artfully, funn-fureb- &c. -se, v. artfulness. 

artfulness, ueyarugee, fuelsoofee, syan-pun, nut- 
khutee, rindee, phoolasre-bazee, dum-bazee, 
heelu-bazee, robuh-bazee, mukkaree, hirfut, 
hurafut, fureb, chhul, v. art, cunning, &c. 

arthritis, jhunuk ba,ee. 

article, (clause, q.v.) babut, maddu, (particular) 
' bat, kliand, v. stipulation, &c. (of trade) ruq- 
um, jins, cheez, bab, bana, v. commodity, (of 
religion, &c.) hookm, a,'een, musulu, ruwa,it, 
(the definite) hurf i tu,urcef, kumphoo, (indefi- 
nite) hnxi i tunkeer, ibh, (articles of peace, ca- 
pitulation, &c.) quol-namu, uhd-naiT)u. 

articulate, saf, shosstu, khcola, v. distinct. 

to articulate, bolna, uda-k. oocharna. 

articulation, mukhruj,oochar, (joint) girih,bund, 
ganth, poree. 

artifice, funn, fitrut, mukr, heelu, buhanu, bund- 
ish, bunawut, tliuga,ee, chhul, dugha, kutku- 
na, V. art. 

artificer, artisan, kareegur, kusbee, peshuwur, 
uhl i hirfu, uhl i pcshu, v. artist. 
, artificial, hoonuree, umulee, turkeebee, musnoo- 
ee, (fictitious, q. v.) nuqlee, jhootha, bunawu- 
ree, kusubee, moosunnvi, funnee, sakhtu, v. 
false, artful. -. •  , ^ , , ; ,i 

artificially, dust karee-se, hoonur-se, x. artfully. 

artillery, top-khanu, v. piece, ban, tear kuman, 
V. shot; great guns, topen, v. cannon. 

artist, dust-kar, hoonur-mund, dust-qabil, oostad, 
sooghur, V. artificer, adept, biddiyaman, goonee, 
sani, uhli sunut, -hcnnur o?' -peshu, sunut-kar, 
hoonur-baz, v, ah'mtir .•m.^^ta .,\ 

artless, unaree, moorukh, v. unskilful, (guileless, 
q. V.) bhola, be-sakhtu, moo.urra, modhoo, 
(injiocent, q. v.) bhondoo, bodla, guo, be lu- 
ga,o, nek-bukht, ghureeb, v. ignorant. 

as, juesa, jis turuh, (opposed to their correla- 
tives, wuesa, tuesa, tis turuh, cos turuh, so, 
thus, &c.) kur, kurke, ho ; as, (like) moowa- 
fiq, manind, chinanchi, goya, jyon, sa, (while) 
Jul), jud, jis wuqt, jo,ee ; he was famous as a 
doctoo; hukeem kur mushhoor tha ; (because) 
lee^e, waste ; as if, jano, mano ; as many, as 
much, ]\ine, jeta, jyon jyon, jis qudur, (oppos* 
ed to their correlatives, ootne, titna, ota, teta, 
tyon tyon, tis qudur, cos qudur, so many, so 
much) ; as yet, ubtuk, ubhee, ubhoon, ujhoon, 
V. still; as for, as to, huqq men, pur, yu.une, 
V. because; as far as, juhan tuk, (correl. tuhan 
tuk, wuhan tuk) dhoor, toree, le, v. to; as 
long as, jub tuk, (correl. tub tuk); as it ought, 
juesa chahiye, ba,id o sha,id, kuma huqquhoo, 
kuma yumbughee ; as usual, budustoor, ulan- 
kumakan, wuesahee, wucse kc wuesahee, jue- 
sa ka tuesa; as 6e/bre, ugla-sa; asoftenas,]vie- 
ber, (correl. tueber, so often) ; as if, juncuk, 
juesaki, (-that) tyonkur, v.just; as well as, 
kya kya, v. both. 

asaruhacea, usaroon, tugur. 

ascarides, choonne, si7ig. choonna. 

to ascend, churhna, oothna, bilungna, su,ood-k. 

ascendancy, ascendant, ghulbu, jeet, duba.o, tur- 
jeeh, fuoqiyut, ziyadutee, v. superiority. 




ascent, ascension, churha,o, oothan, qorooj, sii,ood, 
' {height, q. v.) oonchan, irtifa,u; the ascension 

of a prophet, miuraj. 
to ascertain, thuhrana, janchna, mcoqurrur- &c. 

-k. tushkhees- &c. -k. kootna, suhejna, ju- 

mogna, sawun-k. v. to prove. "i ^o *> 
ascertained, mcoqurrur, mmshukhkhus, moo,ue- 

yun, sabit, ninotuliuqqiq, theek, nishchue. 
ascertainment, tuhqeeq, tuhuqqooq, tunqeeh, 

tushkhees, isbat, v. the verb, sawunta, usht- 

pusht, V. establishment, 
ascetic, tupussik, tupsee, abidanu, fuqecranu, 

V. hermit, Sec. 
ascites, julundhur, istisqa. 
to ascribe, lugana, thuhrana, muhmool-munsoob- 

-k. nisbut-huml-k. rukhna, muklisoos-k. v. to 

rtsAffwerfjShurmindu, zurd-roo, roo-siyah, khujil, 

mcDnfu.jl, naditn, v. bashful, shurm-aloodu, 

-nak or -sar, surnigoon, v. abashed, 
to be ashamed, shurmana, lujana, shurm-khana, 

ab-hona, ar-rukhna. 
ashes, rakh, chhar, bhusum, cliha|ee, bhoohee, 

bhus, khakistur, banee, tunoo, issiyo, khak, 

{pit for) khak-dan, {of a hooqqu) kulgeo, 

V. to smoke, {colour of) khakisturee or khakee- 

rung,; ashes of the dead, musan; 

ashes which the fuqeers use, bhubhoot ; hot 

ashes, bhuok, bhoobjiul ; to reduce to ashes, 

rakh-k. mam. 

ashore, kinare-pur, khooshkee-pur, {or simply) 

kinare, {to come or go) ootur-ana, -jana, or 

-purna, v. to light, {to rtui) kinare-churhna, 
 V. to strand, 
aside, uluq, ekant, ek uluTig,ekturuf,ek bughul, 

kinare, jooda, ek lug, furuq, {to take) ukela- 

-k. V. apart, 
to ask, pooclihna, istifsar- ponrsish-k. poochh- 

mungwana, khuburJena, v. to question, {to 

heg, q. V.) durkhwast- istida- sookhun-zuban- 
-d. V. to require, want, &c. 

asker, sa,il, poochhwueya, talib. 

aslant, askance, askaunt, tirchha; to look aslant, 

asleep, sota, from sona,to sleep, q. v. soon, v. sense- 

aslope, askeir, aslant, dhaloo, v. oblique, &c. • 

asp, aspic, balislitiya sanp, ufu,ee. 

asparagus, nagduon, marchobu. 

aspect, shukl, wujahut, roop, hueyut, munzur, 
puekur, seema, nuzur, rlrisht, v. countenance, 
apjiearanre, position, &c. 

asperity, kuruklitugee, khojshoonut, doorooshtee, 
suklitoe, V. roughness. 

to asperse, toohmut- &c. -lugana, ueb-higana, 
aloodu-k. bat- hurf-lana, v. to traduce, to ca- 

aspersion, trohmut, bcohtan, kulunk, v. censure. 

aspirate, hukar, bisurg. 

to aspirate, zahir-k. uda-k. hukama, v. to pro- 

aspirated, hukaree, bisurgee. 

aspiration, v. desire, also to aspirate, aspire, &c. 

to aspire, lulchana, arzoo- nigah- tak-r. nuzur-, 
shust-b. sans-bhurna or -marna, takna,chushni- 
dokhtu-h. V. to desire, soar, &c. 

aspiring, bcnlund-nu/Air, virmanee, v. ambitious. 

asphodel, birwaq, giyah sures, v. lily. 

asquint, kunkhee-so, tirchhee nuzur-se. 

ass, gudha, {fern, gudhee) khur,himar, gudihra, 
also a blockhead; a wild ass, gor-khur; an nss''s 
colt, chhuona, bacha, kliur-buchu, khotra, 
{driver) gudhela. 

assafastida, heeng, ungoozu, hultcet or hultees, 
pich ; gudhe ke kan kee muel, [a ludicrous 
expression like devifs dung.'\  

to assail, hiunlu- chot-k. marna, v. to assatUt. 




assassin, qatil, suffak, thug, luokiya, v. cut- 
throat, murderer. 

to assassinate, qutl- klioori-k. mar-dalna, thikane- 
lugana, kuta-k. kat-karhna, v. to stab, tomur- 

assassination, qut], v. the verb. 

assault, hunilu, cliot, war, churhnee, churha,ee, 
duor, rela, takht, v. alert, (personal), ziyadu- 
tee, V. violence, (storm) hullu, dhawa ; he took 
the castle by storm, qulu,u huUe se liya; a night 
assault, shub-khoon; to assault at night, shub 
khoon mama. 

to assault, humlu- &c. -k. marna, durera- &c. 
-k. hoojoom-lana, hcDmukna, duorna, churh- 
buethna, v. to attack. 

assay, (of metals) uyar, kus, ta,o, khura,ee. 

to assay, uyar-k. kusna, v. to essay, try, &c. 

assayer, sahib uyar, uyar-shinas, purkiya, chash- 
neegeer, nuqqad. 

assemblage, juma,u, kusrut, bheer, mujmoo,u, 
ijtima,u, hoojoom, umboh, v. assembly. 

to assemble, v. a. jumii,u- furahum-k. jorna, 
joomana, v. to collect, v. n. joomna, jumU|U- &c. 
-h. joorna. 

assembly, mujlis, subha,mundulee, muhfil, buzm, 
unjoomun, j uma,ut, dhara, j umueyut, miijmu,u, 
jumghut,, puncha,et, punch, ukhara, 
guhgut, V. concourse. 

assent, ruza, istirza, pizeeraiCe, v. consent. 

to assent, qubool-k. manna, han-k. ban heen- 
bhurna, ruza- &c. -d. hoon-karna, v. to agree, 
moond-dolana, also to deny, v, to nod. 

to assert, iqrar- &c. -k. buda budee-kuhna, kuh- 
na, rutna, v. to insist. 

assertion, bat, quo], muqoolu, iqrar, buchun, 

- bacha, bad, du,uwa, v. the verb. 

assertor, qa,il, mooqir, badee, v. to vindicate. 

to assess, khiraj- &c. -lugana, churhana, bueth- 
alna, tushkees- &c. -k. 

assessment, khiraj, muhsool, bihree, lugta, baj, 
damee, damasahee, hissu-rusud, tushkhees, 
bundobust, duel, v. scheme, ghur duwaree, 
barja,ee, bachh, v. contribution, also the verb. 

assessor, the amil or hakim is generally the as- 
sessor of his own district. 

assets, ja.edad, muojoodat, jumu,u, roonjee poon- 
jee, V. effects. 

to asseverate, assever, du,uwa- &c. -k. v. to affirm, 

asseveration, du,uwa, bad, v. affirmation. 

assiduity, assiduousness, koshish, su,ee, jihd, tu- 
queyud, mushuqqut, kudd o kawish, v. dili- 
gence, zeal, &c. 

assiduous, raoostuqll, musroof, mihnutee, build, 
dhoonee, sa,ee, v. xealous. 

assiduously, koshish- &c. -se. 

to assign, thuhrana, mukhsoos-k. dena, lana, 
V. to appoint, (a reason, &c.) butlana, jutana, 
dilana, v. to consign. 

assignation, wu,udu, uwudh, wu,udu wusl, mel- 
budan, sa,ee sootee, v. conveyance. 

assig7iee, mcoqam, v. deputy, &c. 

assignment, burat, (of land) ja^egeer, moor kut- 
tee, (on the revenues, &c.) tunkhwah, (of land, 
for the maintenance of troops) ja,edad, v. order, 

to assimilate, v. a. milana, eksan-burabur- moo- 
wafiq-k. V. to digest. 

assimilation, mila,o, moowafuqut, v. the verb. 

to assist, mudud- &c. -d. thamna, mududgaree- 
&c. -k. sumbhalna, kandha-d. v. hand, assis- 
tance, help, &c. 

assistance, mudud, yaree, sath, turuf-daree,dust- 
geeree, yawuree, suhara, i,anut, tayeed, istim- 
dad, nusrut, mu,oonut, v. help, protection, sup- 

assistant, mudud-gar, yar, moomid, moo,awin, 
kcomukee, nasir, pooshtee-ban, v. auxiliary, 
helper, &c. (iii office) pesh-dust, pesh-kar. 




r- pirdhan/chhota'sahib, (in singing, &c.) bazoo, 

V. seco7id. 
assize, (a court of justice) udalut, muhkumu, 

kuchuhree, butchhupee, {rate) nirkli, bha,o. 
to assize, nirkh-nikalna. 
assizer, nirkhee, buys. 

associate, rufeeq, moosahib, shamll, sajhee, sun- 
ghatee, v. partJier, companion. Sec. 

to associate, soohbut- mel-r. sath- mila-nihna, 
moottufiq-h. ittifaq-k. milna, hum kunar-h. 
mushturik-h. manoos-h. v. to accompany, to 
join, &c. 

associatioji, ittifaq, mel, sliurakut, sajha, moDsha- 
rukut, shirkut, milan, muiyut, v. confedera- 
cy, conspiracy. 

to assort, soodharna, turteeb-sijil-d. thuon theek-, 

. . bacliha-tufreeq-k. v. to separate. 

assorter, juchunhar, janchundar, bachhik, buchh- 
wuya, V. arranger. 

assortment, v. the verb, khep, v. cargo, &c. 

to assuage, tukhfeef-d. thundha-k. pughlana, 
dilasa-aram-d. thumbhana, v. to lay, mitigate. 

asstiasive, tuskeen-buklish, ghum-goodaz. 
. to assume, lena, lelena, ukhz-ikhtiyar-k. furz-k. 
manna, v. to grant, to presume; to assuTueairs, 
fukhr-k. itrana, shekhee-k. v. to arrogate, &c. 

assti/mer, assuming, mughroor, sir-churha, v. 

assumption, qurar-i,utibaree or -furzee, v. postu- 

assurance, {certainty) yuqeen, munuotee, i,utibar, 
bburosa, {confidence, q. v.) dum,, ghu- 
mund, {Jirttmess) dileree, {impudence, q. v.) 
dhith|aee, mugra,ee, gosstakhee, shokhee, 
shekhee; assurance in God, tuwukkool, v. trust, 
security, &c. 

to assure, tusullee-tushuffee-d. sumjhana, iqrar- 
-k. qa,im.k. boojhana, peeth thonkna, v. to 
satisfy, persuade, secure, &c. 

assured, mooqir, qa|il, moo.utuqid ; to he assured, 

qa,il- &c. -h. yuqeen-janna. 
assuredly, ulbuttu, mooqurrur, be-shuk, be-shoo- 

bhu, ulhuq, nuls-oolumr, v. certainly, 
asterisk, khariju, nishanee, v. mark, 
astern, peechhe ; keep astern, peechhe ruho. 
asthma, sank, duma, zeeq-oonnufus, oopur-diima, 

kasuswas, v. the adj. 
asthmatic, asthmatical, sunkuha. 
to astotiish, ghiibrana, hueran- &c. -k. uklana, 
chuondhyana, jhubkana, bhukwana, bhondh- 
lana, v. to confound, 
astonished, ghabra, mootughueyur, be-hiiwas, 
sursan, chukit, mud-hosh, surgushtu, ashooflu, 
shoreedu, huka buka, v. amazed, 
astonishing, ujeeb, ujoobu, uchruj, toorfu, bichu- 
khin, chumutkaree, zor, tumasha, nuo-turz, 
budiyu, v. wonderful; an astmiishing fellow, 
astonishment, ujub, tuhueyur, be-huwasee, chu- 

mutkar, v. wonder, 
astray, bhutka, goom-rah, bud-rah, be-rah, v. to 
stray; to go astray, bhutukna, gccm rah- 
astride, tang pusarke, (a horse) tang lutkake, 

churha, suwar, v. inminted. 
astringency, qubziyut, bundhej,buksahut,kusa,o, 

astringent, ufis, qabiz, bundhejee, buktha, sumet, 

tan, sikra,oo, v. austere, 
astrolabe, oostrorlab. 
astrologer, moonujjim, nonjoomee, jotikee, rum- 

mal, sitaru-shinas, gunutkaree, gunukee. 
astrology, ilm i noojoom, noojoom, jotik, tunjeem, 

rumul, gunutkar. 
astronomer, uhl i huyut, huyut-dan, siddhantee, 

russad, V. astrologer, 
astronomical, {tables) zeej, z^ech. 
astronomy, huyut, ilm i huyut, siddhant 




munder, jooda, ekant, ulug, v. separate. 

asylum, mamun, mulja, dar col umaii, uman, 
punah, surun, mulas, v. reftige. 

at, {near) pas, {in, &c.) men, uen, ko, pur, 
se, kc-tu,een, e, v. in ; rat e or rat ke-tii,een 
a,o, come at night, often expressed by rat alone; 
(o7i) oopur, kune, ihan, teer, v. near, side, &c. 
at once, ek-lukht, ek-qulum, v. stiddenly ; at 
worst, at most, siwaiC iske nulieen, buhoot, bu- 
humu jihut, ugur khurabee ho, v. extremity ; 
at worst, hecan take my life o?ily, huhcot kurega 
sirf humaree jan lega, v. best, whole; at all, bil- 
kooll, V. totally, also present, &c.; at war, lura- 
ee-pur; at work, kam men; he was angry at his 
going, oaske jane pur khufu hooa; why are you 
angry at me ? toom moojji se kyoon khufu ho ? 
she frowns at me, moojh pur ghajruktee hue ; he 
knocked at the door, keway ko tlionka ; at how 
mucli ? kete pur ? kete ko ? at all, mootluq, 
niput, koochh, tunuk, zurru. [These are all 
used negatively.] / don''t knoio this langttage 
at all, is zuban ko mucn kooclih nuheen janta ; 
at length, at last, akhirush, bare, nidan, unt, 
akhir rol umr ; at yu II length, moofussul, v. 
fully ; at least, thore se thora ; at most, buhoot 
se buhoot ; at hand, sur i dust, hazir ; at all 
times, hur -wuqt ; at jjrese^it, is wuqt, ubhee, 
fil-hal, ul-hal, bil fi,u] ; at first, uwwul, 
puehle, ad ; at home, ghur men ; at all events, 
khwah mu khwah ; at times, kubhee kubhec, 
gah gab ; at sight, dursunee, {applicable to hills, 
&c.) The above words will be found, in 
general, sufficiently expressive of the various 
meanings of the prep, at, v. near, in, &c. 

atabal, tub!, tubla, pukhawuj, v. drutn. 

nie {preterite of eat), khaya, from khana, to 
eat, q. v. 
. atheism, duhriya-pun, ilhad, duhr, nastik, in,kar, 
kuolik, V. disbelief. 

atheist, duhriya, nastukee, kuolikee, soogut, 
V. infidel. ^ ^^ ' 

atheistical, moolhid, moon,kir. 

athletic, chaq-chuobund, mooshtunda, koongra, 
dhuokur, bul-wunt, kurkura, zor-awur, zubur- 
dust, kutta, shuh-zor, puhluwan, dundpel, 
bulee, surUiCen, fivm surUiCe, exercise, q. v. 
also wrestler, &c. 

athwart, ara, benda. 

atilt, pucnture pur, v. to tilt, (abroach) oojkoon- 
or orhuk-pur.  ""^ jd4j!C't;t;^()ic .ii /.hititl."- 

atlas, {a rich silk) utlus, v. map. 

atmosphere, huwa, butas, ba|0 bokha, V. crar. 

atom, zurru, unoo, jooz la yutujuzzu. 

to atone, v. a. {to expiate, q. v.) metna, purash- 
chit-k. kufaru-d. v. n. kufaru- &c. -h. 

atonement, jwuz, jureemanu, budlu, kufaru, 
purashchit, v. &rpiation. 

a-top, pur, oopur, siripur. 

atrocious, sukht, kurra, ushud, shudeed, ushur, 
muha^papee, ughee, v. horrid, arrant. 

atrocimisness, atrocity, shiddut, sukhtee, muha- 
pap, goonah-vizeem or -kubeeru, ugh. 

atrophy, sookha, sookh-chhuree, sookhur, wan- 
soo, sookhun hutee. ,\.cVrv, s' ...,. iis«;, 

to attach, (to win, &c.) upna- girweedu- hulqu- 
bu gosh-k. lobliana, birbhana, moh-lena, 
hilana, luga-lena, ganthna, {to join, q. v.) mil- 
ana, wusl-k. lugana. 

attached, chuspeedu, girweedu, manoos,mu,uloof, 
rula-mila, hila-mila, ghut put, wufadar, ma,il, 
mcnbtilu, luoleen, dilbustu, puchee ; to be at- 
tached, guthna, ho-ruhna, hirikna, hilna,wufa- 
dar-h. muel-k. v, to conciliate. 

attachment, chuspeedugee, dil-bustugee, hel mel, 
muel, wufa, lugga, v. Ujve, adherence, {regard, 
q. V.) pyar, chah, oolfut, rubt. 

attack, humlu, cburhaiCe, dhawa, yoorish, wuhlu, 
V. assault. 




to attach, churhna, mama, humlu- &c. -k. pur- 
na, girna, chherna, kood-puma, pukuina, hoo- 

- lukna, V. to assault, {as a feiiU) bhunik-, 
siyahu-dikhlana, v. alert, diversion ; to attack 
the rear, pichharee-marna ; to attack in frmif, 

. moohra-marna, ugaree-mama; to attack the 
Jlank, kumur-marna, v. to storm. AuHi« 

to attain, v. a. pana, labh-k. v. n. m3na, bur- 
ana, ajana, buhum-puhoonchna, hasil-h, v. to 

attainable, milun bar, mooyussir, kusbee, moom- 
kln col hoosooL 

attainment, bat, gojn, wusf, juohur, tu.ureef, 
hoonur, boord, ghuneemut, kani, istifadu, oo- 
paijun, V. to acquire, &c. ; attainment of one's 
wishes, kam-ranee, kam-yabee, v. completion. 

to attemper, attemperate, moowafiq- moo,uludil-, 
humwar-k. v. to moderate, &c. 

attempt, koshish, su^ee, jihd, qusd, azma,isli, 
V. essay, trial, (attack) humlu, chot, v. as- 

to attempt, azmana, koshi^- &c. -k. dekhna, 
kurna, v. to try, to endeavour, &c. Qo attack) 
humlu- &c. -ktH 

to attend, dhyan- ghuor-k. dil-d. kan-dhurna, 
tun-qudum- hath-d. (to wait on) hazir-muo- 
jood- luga-pas-sath- -ruhna, v. to wait, &c. 
takna, nlharna, rcokh- moonh-k. v. to observe, 
(as a physician, &c.) khubur-lena, poochna, 

- duwa pauee-k. moo,aliju-k. bueda,ee-k. (to the 
door, &c.) puUonchana, v. to mind. 

attendance, ha/.ir-bashee, tu,eenatec, khidmut, 
nuokuree, (on the sick) beemar-daree, beemar- 
poorsce, khubur-geeree, poochhar, v. care, 
mcnlazimut, mrojra, (to dance) nach-nachna, 
tana bana-k. 

attendant, attender, khidmutgar,, kha- 
dim, mmlazim, tu,ecnat, khidmutiya, jilo-dar, 
humrah-rikab, bundhanee, huwashee, v. scr- 

vatit ((M tiie sick) beemardar, karnee, ruoh- 
uk, khuburgeer, v. nurse, suit, &c. 

attentimi, uttentiveness, hosbiyaree, soochetee, 
chuoksa,ee, soort, llhaz, su,ec, ihtiyat, khubur- 
daree, koshish, tuqueyud, khuoi, (to a guest) 
i,uzaz, sunman, adur, tuwujjuuh, (study, q. v.) 
tuwaza3,u, mcura,at, v. regard, care, 8tc. 

attentive, chuokus, scorta, scodh-muna, soochct, 
sur-gurm, moostu,id, mooqueyud, sa,ce, roo- 
joo,u, mootuivujjih, mooltufit, v. careful, &c. 

attentively, soort-se, ghuor- &c. -se, tuhqeeq kur. 

attenuant, mcoluuif. 

to attenuate, putla- ruqeeq-k. 

attenuation, putla,ee, riqqut, v. the verb. 

to attest, sliahidee- &c. -d. v. to appeal, he. 

attestation, shahidee, shuheedaree, [which last is 
improper] tusdeeq, istishhad, sijil, tus,heeh, 
V. to testify, evidence. 

attire, poshak, libas, jil. kupre, busun, cheer, 
V. habit, &c  i.„,f ot" 

to attire, puhinna, puhnana, puhirana, posh, 
added to nouns, and followed by bona ; thus, 
in Suoda : 

De busmu posh ho ke too saghur biloor ka. 
When allired in golden robes jyresent the crystal bowl. 
V. to dress, &c. 

attitude, halut, suma, an, dhuj, asun, v. posture, 
attorney, na.ib, wukeel, (at law) udalut ka wu- 

keel ; powers of attorney, &c. sunud, wikalut- 

namu, v. agent, 
to attract, khecnchna, birbhana, lulcliana, bur- 

lena, girweedu-k. uenchna, teerna, sulb-k. v. 

to draw, luga-lena, v. to allure, 
attracted, ashiq, mujzoob, v. hver, &c. 
attraction, kheench, kheencha,o, kushish, juzb, 

injizab, (of tJie magnet) jshq ; female charms 

or attractions, dil-kushee, dil-furebee, dil-roo 
E 2 




ba,ee, moh, an, naz, uda, ashiqee, ukurs, 

tu.ushshcoq, v. charm, 
attractive, attracting, dttractor, (alluring, q. v.) 

dil-bur, mun-mohun, dil-Iugun, mohun, mu,u- 

shooq, (as the magnet) jazib ; an attractive 

quality, qoowwut i jazibu. 
attribute, wusf, sifut, khassiyut, mahiyut, goon, 

khassu, pi. khuwass. 
to attribute, thanna, dalna, v. to impute, 
attrition, rugur, ghisa,o, v. cordrition. 
avail, fa,idu, nufu, hasil, labh, bih-bood, v. me, 

to avail, gutha.o- ganthna, shippa-lurana, fa,idu- 

pueda-k. phul-d. phulna, kam-ana, luhna, v. 

avarice, avariciousness, hirs, lul-chahut, khissut, 

lalsa, bhookh, v. hunger, covetou^ness. 
avaricious, hurees, tummU|U, daridur, khusees, 

V. covetous, &c. 
avariciously, laluch-se, tummu,u-se. 
avast, bus, bus bus, bus kuro, ruho ruho, han- 

avaunf, doot, goom-ho, doorho, chukhe ; chul- 

chukhe, avaunt ! begone ! 
' auburn, mue-goon, bhoora, y.Jair, &c. 
auction, neelam, (from Helam, Port.) hurraj, bl- 

ka,o, bikree, v. sale, 
auctioneer, neelam-chee. 
audacious, (bold, q. v.) nidur, uojhur, oojud, uk- 

khur, be-lihaz, be-udub, tanchra, seenu-zor. 
audaciousness, audaciti/,Ahitha,ee, niduree, be-ba- 

kee, seenu-zoree, shokhee, goostakhee, be-ud- 

ubee, be-lihazee. 
audaciously, goostakhanu, gcostakhee-se, dhitha- 

,, ^audible, (loud, q. v.) boolund, ooncha, soona,oo, 

musmoo.u, zabir, julee, jihr, poor, (to be) soo- 

na,ee-d. soon-purna or -ana, v. to hear ; an 

audible voice, boolund-awaz, bang boolund. 

audibly, bang boolund-se. 

audience, auditory, uhl i mujlis, soonne wale, moo- 
khatibeen, sami een, istima,u, surwun, v. hear- 
ing ; (of an ambassador) moolazumut, moojra, 
to give audience, kan-d. bar i am-k. the hall of 
audience, deewan i am, bar i am. 

to audit, janchna, nuzur i sanee-k. isteefa-k. 

auditor (hearer) sami, mookhatub, soonne-wala, 
(of accounts) moostuofee, moohasib, mooshrif. 

to avenge, intiqam-budlu-lena, (to punish) uzab- 
qulir-k. suza-d. v. to revenge. :iji»_i is . i: 

avenger, moontuqim, qahir, quhhar, v. punisher. 

avenue, naka, mooroor, goozaru, ruwish, vulg. 
roush, V. alley. 

to aver, du,uwa- iqrar- buchun- bad-k. budabu- 

average, uosut, purta, bur dur, v. medium; the 
average price, mootuwussit-qeemut, summood- 
ha-mol ; at an average, surasuree. 

averse, mookhalif, dooshmum, birodhee, na-razee, 
roo-gurdan, mootuwuhhish, v. disgusted; to he 
averse, moonh- pherna, kusheedu-h. rookna, 
ankh-chhipana, kheench-ruk^na, jee-chorana, 

averseness, kusheed, kheench, rookawut, soostee, 
tughafool, dheel. 

aversion, (dislike, q. v.) i.uraz, ikrah, tunuffoor, 
uks, ijtinab, (hatred, q. v.) mookhalufut, bir- 
odh, dcDshmunee, tuwuhhoosh, khuench, v. pre- 
judice, antipathy, detestation. 

to avert, door- dufu,u-k. talna, pherna, mor-de- 
na, mar-dena, baz-rukhna, hutana, v. to turn. 

auger, burma, v. gimblet. 

aught, koochh. 

to augment, burhana, ziyadu- &c. -k. v. to in- 

augmentation, augment, ziyadutee, burhtee, sur- 



AUT, udhika,ee, ufzajsh, ufzoonee, izdiyad, 
V. the verb. !<r.f ,.!.!jn©mn ^.:. 

augmented, ziyadii, muzeed, udhik, surus, uf- 
zood, izafu, bishekh. 

augur, augurer, shugooniya. 

to augur, shugoon-dena, v. diviner, &c. 

augury, shugoon, fal, v. omen. 

august, alee-shan, vizeem oosh-shan, alee jah, hoo- 
mayun, juleel cnlqudr, junab i alee, boozoorg, 
cottim, V. illustrious, &c. (gracious^ moobarik, 

august, bhadon, bhadri, nubh, (fithmonth) shu,ii- 
ban, shubrat, v. month, season, also the Moni- 
tor, vol. i. p. 210. 

aviary, chiriya-khanu, v. bird, khoosh-khanu, 
and applicable also to any place where a num- 
ber of curious animals are kept. 

avidity, shuoq, rughbut, dil-gurmee, dil-dihec, 
jhanjh, chuonp, huwus, arzoo, ichha,, 
tumunna, v. greediness, &c. 

aunt, kakee, pittiya,en, v. uncle, {paternal) phoo- 
phee, phoo,a, (maternal) khalu, muosee, (pa- 
ternal u^icWs wife) chuchee, ta,ee, (maternal 
uncWs wife) moomanee, mamee. 

to avocate, mushghool-k. ulkana, bola- ootha-, 
khuench-lej ana. 

avocation, shooghl, mushghulu, dhundha, bolahut, 
bolawa, v. the verb, also calling, interruption. 

to avoid, purhcz- ihtiraz- i,uraz-k. bura,o-rukh- 
na, door-bhagna, buchana, v. to forsake, (to 
escape) buchna, (to decline) ankh-chhipana, 
jee-chorana, v. to shun. 

to avow, iqrar- &c. -k. zahir-k. (to justify) hcoj- 

jut- huth-k. 
avowahle, la,iq buyan, kuhne-jog. 
avowal, iqrar, du,uwa, ungee-kar, v. declaration, 
avowedly, deedu o danistu, janboojh kc, bil-qusd, 

churh-ke, v. purposely. ^ 

avower, mooqir, moo.uturif. 

aurelia, badamu. - > 

aurora, soobh, bhor, urcon, v. crepuscle, dawn. 

auspice, fal, shugoon; auspices, hima,it, fuzl, 
iqbal, bu-duolut, purtap, chhanli banh, v. pa- 
tronage, &c. 

auspicious, mcobaruk, su .eed , mootuburr uk,yumn, 
nek, saz-war, soobh, v. fortunate; auspicious 
person, zat bu burkat. 

austere, sukht, kurera, khurjhura, toond, kuttur, 
kurkus, (taste) buksa, kusela, zumookht, v. 
rigid, &c. 

austerity, austereness, su khtee, kurukhtigee, toon- 
dee, khooshoonut, khurjhurahut, (of taste) 
buksa,o, (of manners) tupussya, jog, zoohd, 
riyazut, v. harshness, &c. 

authentic, suheeh, sabit, tuhqeeq, mootuhuqqiq, , 
priman, suchcha, moo,utubur. 

to authenticate, suheeh- &c. -k. moosujjil-k. sa- 
bit-puhonchana, v. to prove, also attestation. 

authenticity, sihhut, i|Utibar, suchaiCe, priman, 

author, (inventor, &c.) banee, mcojid, mookhturi, 
baneekar, moosubbub, v. contriver, (writer) 
moosunnif, kurta, grunthkar, ugur-chaluk, 
compiler ; a classical atithor, moosunnif i moo- 

authority, ikhtiyar, qoodrut, muqdoor, zor, tutha, 
purakurm, iqtidar, hcnkoomut, sur-daree, 
mookhtaree, hakimee, qooruqubzu, dargeeree, 
a,et, dunka, v. jurisdiction, &c. (order, q. v.) 
hookm, furman; absolute authority, istiqlal, 
(testimony, q. v.) sunud, (weight, q. v.) qudr. 

to authorize, (to empower) mookhtar- sootuntr-k. 
ikhtiyar-d. (to make legal) moobah- priman- 
&c. rukhna. 
authorixed, mookhtar, sootuntr, ruwa, doorcost, 

mcobah, ja,iz, v. lawful, 
automatons, mcotuhurrik bu nufsihee. 
autumn, khizan, khureef, put-jhur. 



CM/M»2waZ,khureefee; thedutumnal equimMyi,-^- 
tidal i khureefee, huripud. d ^Mai^ ,«K' 

aiHBiliary,raadM.A.-gax, v. assistant; the ausdliary 
army, koomukee-lushkur. 

to await, rah-dekhna, ursu-kheenchna, zvihna. 

awake, jugta, bedar. i u" .-imM'tun , ■'■'"*■•''■ 'X- 

to awake, awaken, v. a. jugana, v. n. jugna, jug- 
cothna, v. to wake. 

award, hookm, futwa, tujweez, bimas, salisee, 
salis-namu, budan, fuesul-namu, v. sentence. 

to award, thuhrana, dilana, futwa-hookm-d. choo- 
kana, budna, v. to decree. ,-^,\*.^^\^ ,t^i;iVrvV»5^Ti 

aware, khubur-dar, hooshiyar, soocheta, chetun, 
mootunubbuh, v. conscious ; to lie aware, moot- 
tvdu,ii-waqif- agali-h. chetna. 

away, ghuer-hazir, tufawut, gha,ib, dufu, goom, 
door, jooda, bahur, bichhra, (begone, q. v.) 
goom-ho, hisht, door-dubuk, chulo, cotho, su- 
ruk, furq ho, (in comp.) dena, dalna ; to give 
away, de-dalna, to throw away, dal-dena; let 
zis go, chulen, ruwanu-hovven; away ivith him, 
door kuro ; to go away, chular-jana ; to disap~ 
joear, jata-ruhna; to come away, chula-ana. 

awe, dur, duba,o, roo,ub, dub dubu, ibrut, huc- 
but, hank, ghor, dhak, dhumuk, zulzuki, v. 
dread; to stand in awe, dubna, duba,o-manna. 

to awe, V. a. dubana, dhak-bandhna, dubkana. 

awfid, huebut-nak, huol-nak, dura,ona,bhyanuk, 
r0|Ubdar, ibrutee, v, terrible. 

awfulness, huebut-uakee, huol-nakee. 

a/while, thora, ek-dum, zurru, chund-roz, chund- 
mooddut. ) fiiuntin ;.Y..jj 5vrvviirt\Tm>- 

.-Tiii'ii'if: -Af.'l.. ,.!  , ; , . , ' . , 

._/•.;),,>. ., t' I . . ... 

awkward, (.person, &c.) unarce, phoohur, koorh, 
unchheela, moorukh, jubudda, na-turasheedu, 
na-murboot, be-suleequ, bud-zeb, be-suj, bud- 
noonia, bud-wuzu,u, be-duol, koobhakhur. 
bhudesul, kawak, v. clumsy, inelegant. 

awkwardly, be-dhub, be-duol, be-tunih. 

awkwardness, na-tui"aslieedugee, bud-noonaa,ee, 
be-duolee, unar-puna, v. clumsiness, 

awl, sootaree, sooja, durwush, soo,a, nihuroee, 
aree, durufsh. 

awn, soo.a, toor, toonda, soongh. 

awning, sliamiyanu, num-geeru, sa,eban, chund- 

./ .i«t<j'' 

awoke, v. n. jaga, v. a. jugaya. 

awry, tirchlia, terha, benda, kuj, corebi ungush- 

bungush. tf 'j1r.f<r VKft ->? o-'ft- nfffij-UfTTr-. fwf: 

axe, kcnharee, tubur, tanga, koolliar-a or -ec, 

V. adx, battle- pick- and pole-axe. 
aaillary, bughlee. 
awiom, budeehee, uzhur, pritichh. 
accis, axle, axle4ree, dhooree, (of the globe) mih- 

wur, meroo, qootb, v. pole, (ring) awun, muj- 

heroo, v. nave. 
ay, han, are-bule, uch-chha, v. yes, &c. 
aye, humeshu, suda, nit, always. Sic. 
aximuth, us-sumut, digumsh. .r.nwA.A-Mnu'J: 
axwre, asmanee, neel-goon, neela, kubood, laju- 

wurdee, ab-goon, abee, urzuq ; tlie axure sky, 

neel-goon asman. 
CBgyptiacum, niurhuin zungai'ee. 
cBgilops, dhulka.: wisWA <A) ,RrtAmifi 

 v"X-'''<' '•' •"'■^ -t/nprj^vyn t* 

jf-(^i.'.'<f -ii'i; 

' TjA-lid ,9)1 rfjjpodac^ ,uJ8i(7ttb<»i/f)yj!i ,v"!Vi^1o»ft 

,'lit!4)!rfi,i.r ,.ti: •mi' M'^IO' . 




Ww) ,• 



to hna, bhenbhiyana, mimiyana. 

babble, yawugo,ee, buk buk, qeel o qal, rez. 

to hobble, ghoonghan- hoonhan- urbur- Src. -k. 
bukna, burburana, bur-marna. 

iabMer, ba.ojhuk, foozool-go, yawu-go, behoodu- 
go, lootra, bhurbhuriya, phikuoriya, phankra, 
bacheechee, zirziriya, luppa, buwesiya, r. baf- 
fler, notisense, &c. 

lobe, buchchu, lurka, sheer-khoru, baba, (prop. 
a father) though used as a term of endear- 
ment by old people to young, does not mean, 
as the English suppose, a child ; bala, phoha, 
chenga, pisrufc, junmutiya, baba-jan, which 
last is an expression of endearment used reci- 
procally by father and son, becbee-jan is be- 
. tnreen mother and daughter, v. Imhy, infant ; 
miyan is also applicable to a habe, as in Mis- 
keen, thus : 

Pus muen kis se kuhoongee aja miyan ke baba, 
Jis dum hooruk hoorukke murjawega yih bala. 

Then to whom shall I call, "Baby's papa, come here,'" 
While my babe is sobbing his heart out for you. 
See the Grammar, p. 290. and Stanza LXI. 

hdhoon, lungoor, hunooman, t. monkey. 

baby, V. babe, pootla, pootlee, in the fern, like 

which, most of the above and similar words in 

a, may be used also, v. doll. 
ba4xhanals, {of Hindoostan) holee, phugwa. 
bachelor, mmjurrud, ko,ara, moDflis, is sometimes, 

but improperly, used in this sense ; un-byaha, 

"jug> burhumcharee, v. wimarried. 


bachelorship, moDJurrudee, tujreed, k0|ar-puna. 

back, peeth, poosht, peechha, (rear) pichhwara ; 
behind one's back, peeth-peechhe, pus-gheebut, 
{of a florae) muddoo, v. 7iape, (of a book, &c) 
pooshtu, V. behind, (of the head) goodee, v. oc- 
cijmt, tun, deh, v. body, (-wipe) oolta-hath, 
{cloth piece) peeth-mula, v. ridge, pulut, v. 
to return, also again, {to fall) peechlie-hutna 
or dubna, puhloo-tihee-k. v. to retire ; to turn 
the back on, peechhe-d. v. to desert, {to leave) 
peechha- peeth-pherna, v. to tcithdraw. 

back, adv. pher, ghoom, baz, pcechhe; to give 
hack a thing, wapus- pher-dena. 

to hack, .churhna, peeth-lugna, suwar-h. {as a 
carriage) hutana, {to support) pooshtee- puchh- 
-k. tuqwiyut-d. v. to second, &c. 

to backl/ite, chooghlee-khana, choogliool khoree-, 
gbeebut-ghummazee- diuwa,o-nindiya- gilu- 
-k. peeth-lugana, v. to traduce, to censure. 

backbiter, chcughcD], chooghocl-khor, chuwa,ee, 
ghummaz, peeth-luga,oo, gheebutee, gheebut- 
-go, lootra, V, slanderer. 

back-bone, reerh. 

back-door, chor-khirkee, kolkee, v. postern. 

backgammon, tukhtu-nurd, nurd. 

backside, {arse, q. v.) chootur, nitumbh, sooreen, 
V, back. 

to backslide, deegna, r. apostate, Szc. 

backstairs, chor-sirhee, r. by, &c. tiaMiuti 

bacJc-sicord, tuhvar, shumsher, khanda. 

backward, adj. roogurdan, kusheedu, na-razee, 
soost, jrichh-muna, v. dull, puspa, pichliata. 




V. late^ {and Jbrwards to go) tana baiia-k. ; to 
shoot an arrow, he. bacJczoards when retreating, 
baz gush tee teer- &c. -chulana, v. retrograde, 
to be backward, rookna, jee-chorana, moonh-chhi- 
pana, kheench-r. hutukna, hutna, baz-ruhna, 
dheel-k. peechhe-ruhna, durgouzur- qoosoor-k. 
backwardly, soostee- &c. -se. 
backwardness, deree, soostee, dirungee, istadugee, 
dheel, bilumb, rookawut, tughafool, duregh, 
{Uiiqoosoor, kotahee, v. aversion, neglect, 
backwards, v. back {from the wrong end, &c.) 
colta, qulb. 
. bacon, soo,ur ka khara gosht, (to save one''s) up- 
nee pugree thambna, upnee topee lungotee- 
bad, bud, boora, munda, nakaru, zuboon, khurab, 
bigra, nusht, nlkhid, bhonda, be-duol, be-dhub, 
usoobh, na-suwab, burgushtu, (in camp.) koo, 
V y.Jalse, ill; bad enough, lu,unut bu liech, uesa 
uesa, V. corrupt, vicious, &c, (wicked, q. v.) 
moofsid, bud-batin, khonta, ushur, (unfortu- 
nate') munhoos, nuhs, koo-sa,ut, {hurtful) 
rnoDzir, fasid, (sick, q. v.) beemar. 
. badge, nishan, ulamut, chinh, puhchan, chupras, 
chhapa, nishanee. sunud, v. token, (of bruh- 
muns, &c.) june,oo, zoonnar, v. sign, {of slave- 
ry) hulqu, V. mark, (bridal) kungna, sihra, 
V. garland, favour, &c. 
badly, be-turuh, be-duol, bud-duol, bigarkur, 

V. improper, bad. 
badness, budee, boora,ee, khurabee, bud-zatee, 
kJiota,ee, qoobh, bigar, nikhidta, blionda,ee, 
. V. depravity, wickedness, 
to baffle, burbad-ra,egan- zayu,u- be,urth-ukaruth- 
-k. ajiz-k. mar-dena, ghubrana, muhroom-k. 
hutkana, hueran-k. v. to confound, to elude, 
baffled, la-ilaj, v. to puzzle. 
I baffler, burbadee, santee, v. to frustrate, 
bag, thuelee, keesu, kheesu, himiyanee, kliuree- 

tu, gunjiya, v. sack, he. {of money) toru, 
budru, dhokra, khoothee, purchhee, v. purse ; 
a bag of musk, nafu, mirg-nabh ; a clothes bag, 
jamdanee; a waterman's bag, mushk, pukhal; 
bullock bags, khoorzee ; a bag or case, ghilaf, 
ghurara, v. wallet, 
to bag, jhol-koonjluk-purna. 
baggage, v. furniture, cheez-bust, usbab, sur- 
unjam, usasu, kulkanta, deru dunda, fur- 
ashkhanu, sazbaz, oordoo, v. market, (sent on 
before) pesh-khanu, {of an army) boon,gali, 
buheer, lutbuhur, (slut, q. v.) ullamu, qootta- 
mu ; bag and baggage, umulu-fi,ulu, ghurbar, 
tumam o kumal, sulog, v. strumpet, 
bagnio, humam, suqaya, ghoosl-khanu. ^ ^^^ , 
bagpipe, shuh-na,ee, — resembles it in sound, but 

not in appearance. 
bail, zaminee, zimmu, kufalut, tukuffool, (the 
person) zamin, kufeel, mootukuffil, (pecuniary 
surety) mal-zamin, (security for a persorCs ap- 
pearance) hazir-zaminee, (for tlie conduct of 
any one) fi,ul zamin. 
to give or stand bail, munuotee-k. v. surety, za- 
minee- &c. -k. zamin- &c. -h. ; to admit to 
bail, zaminee- &c. -manna or -qubool-k. 
bailable, zaminee-puzeer. 

bailiff, suzavvul, dhuons, chuprasee, mcohussil, 
dustukee, shuhnu, meer-duha, dundlya, v. 
overseer, officer, messenger, 
bait, charu, danu, too.umu, vulg. tamba, ahar, 

(snare) jal, shust, y. feint, temptation, 
to bait, charu-lugana, charu-dalna, v. supra, oo- 
turna, v. to halt, {a liorse) khilana, danupanee-, 
ghasdanu-d. v. to refresh, (beasts) torwana, 
kutwana, lurana, v. to worry, also bull, (to 
rest) istirahut- bisram-k. sustana. 
baize, put too, v.ffannel. 

to bake, pukana, pona, pera-bunana, v. oven, also 
to form, to knead. . , 




baked, tundooree. 

baker, nan-ba,ce, nan-puz, rotee-wala, tubbakh. 
bakehouse, tundoor-khanu. 
baking, nan-puzee. 

balaiice, meczan, turazoo, toola, bldh, (receivable) 
baq^c, (^payable), {equipoise) udl, v. sur- 
plus; fazil baqce, is probably a balance sheet; 
owing a balance, baqce-dar ; outstanding ba- 
lance, pa,e-baqee, zer-baqce, wllayut-baqce, 
V. account; (small) nurza, kanta; also the 
tongue of a balance, jeebhee, (J,he scale) pullu, 
pulra, {the beam) dundcc, {overplus) barha,, ziyadutee, (of an account) baqec, buqa- 
ya, tutimmu. 
to balance, (real or Jigurative) tolna, wuzn- un- 
dazu-k. {scales) pasung-burabur- poora-k. 
{an account) wasilbaqee- saf-k. bidji- &c. 
-milana, dyorha-k. v. to settle, to counteract, 
udl-sumbhalna, hum wuzii-k. dhura-b. scedha- 
-k.y.totritn; balancing books, Stc. bidhmilec, 
balcony, shuh-nusheen, nikasta, pcsh-dalan, v. 
gallery, buramudu, [corruptedly burandu, 
whence, perhaps, the common word veraiidah] 
bala-klianu, from which balcony is probably 
derived. ' 

bald, chandil, kul, khulwatce, rootha, be-numuk, 

V. 7'ude, harsh, 

balderdash, poochpadur huwa, v. nonsense. 

baldness, chundla, khulwat, boorka, looch, v. bare, 

inelegance. It would appear that there is no 

very common word in the language to express 

. this, as the Asiatics appear to confound it with 

the herpes, q. v. 
bale, guthur, gutha, ganth, mot, tukhtu, {of cot- 
ton) gooth, V. bundle, 
to bale, {to lave, q. v.) ooleechna. 
baliful,hud,hcora, moofsid, moozir, uogoon, v. bad. 
balk, bunderge, Y, 6eam, also the verb. 

to balk, muliroom-r, mayus- na oommed- niras-k. 

V. to frustrate, miss, 
ball, gola, golce, gol, kooru, phend, v. l)0wly 
pinda, gorha, ghnolulu, girdu, v. globe, {for 
play) go,ce, genda, {scy-ball) gola bhela, 
mengnee, gootjdee, {cocoon) ko,a, v. apple, 
{dance) gut, bucrag, nach, ruqs, jhoormut, 
jhoomur, ras, {of thread, &c.) butta, v. view, 
round, {of a turban) joora, v. club, {hand- 
ball) gend, a flower used to play with, 
ballad, geet, rag, v. song, 
ballast, ncclam, v. weight, neelum, leelum, mun, 

jung, V. to balance, 
to ballast, neelam-d. 
balUster, ballustrade, pukhree, kutuhra, kungoo- 

ru, V. rail, &c. 
ballot, qooru,u, v. lot. 
to ballot, q(X)rU|U-d. 

balloon, kulsa, v. globe, anar, v.Jirewm-ks, fanoos. 
babn, {the balsam) bulsan, {the plant) boomadu- 

ran, badrunjboyu. 
balmy, mcetha, sheereen, sookh, v. fragrant, soft, 
balsam, bulsan, ruoghun i bulsan, tila, v. plaster, 

{double) gool-mihndee. 
bamboo, bans, {work) thuda, {splitter) buns-phor, 
[-ee his work'\ {sugar, manna, or camphor of) 
buns-lochun, {case) chonga, {clump of) buns- 
baree, {single clump) bans kee kothee. 
to bamboozle, mooghaltu-d. bhoolawa-d. v. to 

bamboozler, mooghaltu-baz, v. cheat, 
to ban, kosna, v. to curse, 

ba7iana, kcla ; of which there are several kinds, 
as the chumpa kela, murtuban kela, cheenee 
kela, &c. V. plantain, 
band, v. bandage, bond, &c. {troop) guroh, jutha, 
ghol, zoomru, {of music) ta,ifu, chuokee, ruo- 
shunbaja, puchbujna, nuobut, dhuonsa, baja, 
V. knot, {crew, q. v.) guthree, v, gang. 



handage, puttee, bund, bundhun, pun-kupra, v. 
fillet ; a head band, qusabu. 

banditti, lootere, quzzak, pindare. This last is 
particularly ajiplicable to those who attend the 
Murhuta armies, v./z-eeiioo^en ''■'■'■^ '*■'*' 

handy, khoondee, v. crooked, club. 

to bandy, danwandol-k. ruddbudul-k. v. to toss, 
discuss, &c. 

handy-legged, bangoor, phidda, v. crooked. 

hane, zuhr, bis, bikh, mahoor, sum, khurabu. 

baneful, zuhr-dai-; summee, zuboon, v. baleful. 

hang, mar, v. blow. The herb so called is pro- 
perly bhung, V. Iienhane. 

to bang, kootna, peetna, mama, tumbeeh- mar- 
koot-k. V. to beat. 

to banish, shuhr budur- jula wutun-k. des nikala-, 
bunwas-d. be wutun-k. tyagna, hundana, v. to 
\ expel, transport, &c. 

banished, kharij, murdood, v. exile. 

banishment, jula wutun, des nikala, awarugee, 
istikhraj, bunwas, v. exile, also the verb. 

hank, (of a river, &c.) kinaru, par, teer, turuf; 
a high bank, kurara, urara, (dike) pooshtu, 
bandh, v. bridge, (of eartfi) todu, teela, tekra, 
deeha, dhoo,a, pal, v. bench, (loose) kuchliar, 
~' \ V. precipice ; a sand bank, chur, guthana, v. 
mound, &c.; a bank for money, surraf-khanu, 
khuzanu, kothee. 

to hank, bandhna, pooshtu bundee-k. v. the noun. 

hank-hill, teep, v. bill. 

hanker, surraf, muhajun, seth, sahod-kar, sah, 
kothee- or hoondee-wal, fotu-dar, whence puo- 
dar, pot-dar, &c. (street) muhajun-tolee, sur- 
raf u, also the banking business, muhajunee, 
suhooka'ree, &c. 

bankrupt, shikustu, na-dar, (to be) tat- or tat- 
pet-ooliitna, v. to break. 

hankruptcy, dewalu, iflas, na-daree, v. insolvent. 

banner, bannerol, nishan, jhunda, ba.ota, v. co- 
lours, streamer. ..,..., ...... ,,.„», 

bannian, this word is not risecf by the natives i' 
their under garments, like it, are called unga, 
puerahun, &c. Buniya, is the name of a tribe 
who are all merchants, and traders of one kind 
or another ; whence such a one''s hamiian, or 
broker, \. factor, &c. 

bannock, pastec, chupatee, gudree, v. cake. 

banquet, mujlis, buzm, unjoomun, jushn, ziyafut, 
du.iiwut, mihmanee, rotsuo, nyota, jewunhar, 
yr. feast, &c. 

hanqueting-house, uesh-muhul, ushrut-khanu, 
raue-khanu, cotsuo bhuwun, v. carousal. 

to banter, muskhuru-bunana, bunana, tueyar-k. 
thutha- muzakh-tusukhkhoDr-zurafut- reesh- 
khundee-k. v. to ridicule. 

hanterer, thuthe-baz, thuthol, zureef, khoosh- 
tubu,u, \. jester, droll, &c. 

bantling, ghenta, v. brat. 

to baptize, nam-r. namkurun-k. v. to christen. 

bar, shuhteer, lukkur, lutha, urbunga, dunda, 
bara, mend,dand,v. ew^rawce,seekh, seekh-chu, 
durbund, v. Jo^#,qued,|bundhej, v. hinderance, 
pcDshtee-ban, bata, zamin, v. stanchion, (of a, 
court, &c.) kuthghura, chubootra, v. tribunal^ 
(of a harbour) chur, v. hank, (obstacle, q. v.) 
ar, rok, sudd i rah, (of gold, he.) sulakh, 
cent, puttur, chukkee, kamee. 

to bar, belna^lugana, v. bolt, (to hinder, q. v.) 
sudd-k. burujna, tu,urrooz-k. nikalna, v. to 

barb, ankree, khar, kanta, pakhur, v. armour, 
tazee, v. horse, dant, v. tooth, also whisker. 

barbarian, gunwar, dihqanee, bnn-manoos, du- 
bung, bhil, moorukh, huewan, v. savage, 
ignorant, zalim, v. bloody, bhundesur, juthur, 
urburungee, v. rude. 

barparism, barbarousness,'^i\vnkvt, jihl, na-turash- 




ec-du<i;ee, moorukh-puna, oojmu, v. inelegance, 

barbarity, urburung, v. inhumanity. 

harhdrous, jahil, na-turaslieedu, dubung, kooiid, 
gimwaroo, unguili, bunela, unchheela, kur- 
ukbt, V. cruel. 

barbarously, naturasheedngee- beruhmee-bedu- 
reghee- &c. -se. 

barbed, unkree-dai-, khar-dar. 

barber, Inijjam, (proiierly a cupper, or scnrijier) 
na,ee, oosta, from oostad, an artist, q. v. niiw- 
wa, napit, (horse, &c.) bubiir, (-'« manual) 
kisbut namu, v. case. 

barberries, zirishk. 

barhiton, barbut^ v. harp. 

hard, bhat, muddah, kurkuet, meerasee, birduet, 
TOuedanee, v. encomiast, poet. 

hare, {naked, q. v.) nunga, (.plain, q. v.) sadu, 
(mere, q. t.) khalee, (as ground) putpiir, kuf 
i dust, V. barren, &c. khoorra, moondla, be- 
burg o bur, be bal o pur, v. leafless, &c. 
(headed) qpriyani sur, v. naked, (not saddled) 
charjamu, v. threadbare ; to sleep oti the bare 
ground, or bed, khuruhna-sona, v. bleak. 

to bare, kholna, nunga-k. oogharna, v. to strip. 

6are/'«cerf,be-hueya,nllujja,be-imtiyaz,v. A-Aewne- 

barefacedly, be-shurmee- be-ghuenitee-se, din 
diya, v. openly. 

harefacedness, be-shurmec, be-imtiyazee, v. im- 

bare-footed, nunge-pueron, buruhnu-pa. 

bareheaded, nunge-sir, sir-khoole, moond-phikarc. 

barely, birf, fuqut, v. only. 

bareness, buruhnugee, cpriyanee, v. jwverty. 

bargain, shuTtj hot, quol, quol-iqrar, iqrar,uhd o- 
pueman, v. agreement, (the thing bought) 
suoda ; to make the best of a had bargain, gule 
pure ka nibalina. 

to bargain, sliurt- &c. -b. or -budna, khureed- 

furokht-k. becha bechee- or -khoncheo-k. 

V. to barter, 
barge, bujra, corrupted perhaps from tlie Eng- 
lish word ; luchka, ghoor-duor, mor-punkhee, 

V. boat, 
bark, (of a tree) post, chhal, bukla, chhilka, 

bhojputtur, much used for hooqqu-sna&es, v. 

rind, (ship) juhaz, sufeenu, v. boat, 
to bark, bhuonkna, bhoonsna, huon Imon-, 

jhuon jhuon- uo uo-k. (trees) chheelna, v. 

barker, bhonkaha. 
barley, juo, juwa, (water) ash-juo, (land) juo- 

nar, opposed to khoontar, ookhjur, korar, q. v. 

in Vol. II. (sugar) faneez, paneez, v. sugar, 

(com the size of) juo bhur, v. bulk, grain, && 

green barley, khood. 
barm, khumeer, v. yeast, 
barn, khirmun, umbar, khulilian, bhundar, khu- 

mar, khurUiCe, bhoosuela, kotha, v. house, 

magazine, &c. 
barnacle, poka, syala poka, keera, lona, v. worm, 

(for a horse) poozee. 
barrack, uhuig, chhuonee, v. quarter, 
barrel, peepa, toong, (of a gun) nal, nulee, (of 

a drum) khol, khokhra, v. tube, cylinder, 
barrel-bellied, tonduela, petahul. 
barren, (ground) oosur, shor, bhoor, i. e. sandy, 

rehur, lona, (plain) shoru-zar, v. sterile, (as a 

cow, &c.) sundhur, v. dry, fruitless, &c. (as a 

tree, Stc.) banjh, bunjhotee, buhel, tiqeemu, 

bundliiya, (scanty) tung. 
barrenness, banjh-puna, tungee, v. barren, 
barricade, sudd, ar,koochu-bundee,naka-bundee, 

V. intrencknient. 
to barricade, koochu bundee-&c. -k. arna, bher- 

na, V. to block, &c. ' 

F 2 




harrier, v. bar, sur-hudd, siwana, danda, mend, 
V. bulwark. ? -v^'in 

barrow, burali, v. hoar, Imth-jhola, {wheel) huth- 
garee, v. hand, also cart, &c. {of earth) dher, 
gunj shuheedu, v. hillock. 

barter, buepar, tijarut, udla budla,, 
iwuz-mo,awuz.u, moobadulu, hera pheree, era- 
pheree, er pher, len-den, v. traffic. 

to barter, udla budla- &c. -k. 

base, adj. pajee, rizalu, pileed, bhrisht, moobtu- 
zul, doon, be-ghuerut, be-hueya, bud nusl, 
V. wicked, mean, ghat, munda, v. bad, (bass) 
khad, khurj, bum, v. abandoned, urzul, upuj, 
huramee, untej, usfvd, v. loorthless, kura usl, 
kum zat, bud zat, bud us], v. degenerate, (as 

. coin) na-soorru, mekhee, rukebee, v. false. 

base, basis, nyo, bina, usas, v. bottom, foot, bekh, 
boon, V. root, {pedestal) koorsee, v. the adj. 
(of a triangle) wutur, (post) puenta, v. goal, 

~ (the game) koondul shikar, bagh-bukree. 

base-born, huram-zadu, burun sunkur, v. abject. 

basely, namurdee- be ghuerutee- &c. -se. 

baseness, kumeen-pun, rizal-pun, pajee-puna, 
duna^ut, be-ghuerutee, be-huya,ee, bud-zatee, 
shuqawut, v. meanness. 

bashaw, basha, perhaps from badsha. 

bashful, shurmeela, shurm-nak, muhjoob, sahib- 
huya, lujeela, shurm-geen, laj-wunt, v. asha- 
med, sunkochee, nuzur-chor, moonh-chippa, 
mujlis-chora, wuhshee-mizaj, v. sheepish. 

hashfulness, shurm, shurm-geenee, sunkoch, v. 

basil, (a plant) naz-bo, kalee toolsee, ruehan, 
babu,ee, balungoo. 

basilica, basuleeq, v. vein, salve. 

basilisk, ufU|ee, balishtiya, ujgur, v. serpent. 

basin, v. bason, 

basis, V. base. 

to bask, ghumaaa, from gham, sunshine, q. v. 

basket, tokra, tokree, duliya, pitara, pitaree, 
khancha, jhuovva, dala, duora, muona, dhama, 
jhapa, chheeta, churung, kurka, (slung) 
chheeka, sikhur; buhungee [vulg. bangee] is - 
properly the slings and furniture only without 
the baskets ; (for bread, &c.) chunger. 

bason, basun, burtun, zurf, pyalu, lugun, tas, 
tusht ; a wash hand bason, chilumchee ; a 
bason {pond, q. v.) huoz. 

bass, V. base, mat, &c. 

bass-relief, oobhra, buramudu, v. prominent. 

bastard, huram-zadu, huramee, wulud ooz-zina, 
madur-bu-khuta, burun sunkur, huramee piUa, 
(brat, q. v.) dhendha, v. spurious, &c. 

bastard-saffron, koosoom, mu,usfur. 

to baste, {to drub) peetna, lut murdun-k. v. to 
thump, {meat) choopurna, poochara-d. {to 
stitch) dhaga-d. bhonkiyana. 

bastinade, mar-koot, koot-peet, zurb-shullaq. 

to bastinade, lukriyan- bans-marna, kufpa,ee- 
marna, v. to bang. 

bastinado, kootuk- or lathee-bazee, v. to thrash. 

bastion, boorj, v. battlement, turret, &c. 

bat, chumgeedur, shub-pur, shub-puruk, badoor, 
y. baton. >j;»:iti!..'fi i  ! 

batch, ghan ; this bread is all of the same batch, 
yih rotee sub ekhee ghan kee hue, v. brewing. 

to bate, ghutana, kum- &c. -k. chhorna, v. to 

bat-fowling, lookaree shikar ; applicable to Jish- 
ing also. .ft-. ; ,> 

bath, {hot) hummam, gurm-abu, v. pediluvium, 
(cold) ghoosl-khanu, surd abu, suqabu, nitush- 
nanee {keeper) humamee, v. fomentation. 

to bathe, hummam-ghcosl-k. nuhana or unhana, 
ushnan-k. nuhlana, dhona, ungohul-k. >i 

bating, chhor, v. except. 

baton, usa, chob, [whence cbob-dar] lathee, bel- 
chu, mootuhra, bhung-ghotna, dunda, v. club.- 




battalia, suf-ara,ee, suf-bu-suf, v. arrat/. 

battalion, from which, or peltoon, platoon, the 
common words, pultun, petalum, a corrup- 
tion of the English word, the natives having 
no other to express it by, unless cnlossh may 
be translated as such, v. regimetit, body, &c. 

to batter, dhana, girana, buethalna, tor-dena, 
chhulnee-k. jhunjhree-k. v. to paste. 

battered, (as a wliore) hulwa, v. mellow, (as a 
soldier) chhulnee, khidmut-ruseedu, v. worn 
out, also to shatter. 

battery, morchu, dumdumu, (in law) dust-dura- 
zee ; to raise a battery, morchu-b or lugana. 

battle, lura,ee, joodh, run, ghumsan, Jung, sun- 
gran, jungojudul, purkliash, karzar, puekar, 
urbudu, mooharibu, moobarizu, ruzm, niza,u, 
mar,bharut, v.war,Jight,Jield; the field of bat- 
tle, khet, muedan; a pitched battle, suf i jung. 

to battle, lurna ; to give battle, mooqabulu-lur- 
a,ee-k. ; to join in battle, bhirna, v. to fight. 

battle-array, suf-ara,ee, suf bu suf, pura bustu, 
V. to engage ; to form hi battle-array, pura 

battle-axe, tubur, phursa, tuburzecn, gundasa, 
V. club. 

battlemetit, fuseel, vulg. sufeel, moonder, seenu- 
punah, kungooru, suri deewar, v. bastion, &c. 

bawble, na-cheez, hech, khiluona, v. toy, bubble. 

bawd, bhurwa, kootna, or koottun, qooroomsaq, 
muhul-dar, na,ek, (procuress) kcDtnee,dullalu, 
muhul-darnec, vulg. muhuldanee, na.eka. 

bawdy, hatcdry, pooch, phukkur, mooghullu7.u, 
foohsh, be-shurm, nilujja, la-zuban, bud-soo- 
khun, koo-buchun, v. obscene. 

baivdy-house, kusbee ka^ghur, khiirabat-khanu, 
buet ool lutuf, chukla, lolee- or tawa,if-khanu, 
chhinal-khanu ; kusbee poora, means the quar- 
ter or street allowed to prostitutes. 

to bawl, hank-mama, pookarna, chillana, goonj- 

na, naru- qcelqaree-marna, bang-d. furiyad-, 
ulghiyas-k. tema, gohema, phikoorna, v. to 

bay, (colour) koomuet; chesnut bay, lukhee; 
light bay, soorung ; dark bay, teliya ; bay of 
the sea, kol, v. creek ; bay salt, panga Ion, 
kuchcha numuk ; bay, (tree) tuj. 

to bay, V. to bark. 

to be at hay, biphuma, roopna, rookna, dutna ; to 
keep at bay, baz-rukhna, v. to restrain. 

bayonet, sungeen, suneen. 

bdellium, googul, mooql. 

to be, bona, jana, [the former is the auxiliary of 
the active, and the latter of the passive voice'\ 
bunna, chulna, v. to do, (in comp.) a, ho, 
mama, tvhence a-purna,a-jana,ho-gcDzurna,<o 
be-fal, &c. v. to happen, be-drench, ana, jeena, 
V. to exist ; so he it, so,ee ho ; let be, jane-de. 

beach, kinaru, par, lub i duriya, teer, v. shore. 

beacon, nishan, ulamu, puta, v. boom, ukas diya, 
muhtabu, v. light, nusub, v. post, &c. 

bead, danu, munka, gooriya, gota, pot ; a string 
of 100 beads, tqsbeeh, subhu, (108) mala, 
(any number from W to 28) soomrun, v. neck- 
lace, rosary, (the chief iti a rosary) imam. 

beak, nok, chonch, minqar, thor, v. peak, (of a 
vessel) moonh, aga, v. fronts 

beam, shuhteer, kuree, lutha, lukkur, chob, kol- 
hoo,a,chuoput, burga, silee, dhurun, bulendee, 
V. rafter, (weaversytoor, v. shaft, (of a jjloughy 
hurus, V. pole, (of a sugar mill) dhenka, v, 
yard, (of a balance) dundee, (of the sun) kim, 
piurtuo, V. ray, light. 

to beam, purtuo- kirn-fi. 

beamy, moonuwwur, nooranee, ruoshun, oojagur. 

bean, lobiya, baqla, bora, loba ; the fiat bean, 
sem ; the small slender bean, wall wah kee 
I to bear, (to carry, q. v.) lechulna, (to keep, q. 




V.) rukhna, {to prop, q. v.) pooshtee-d. (to en- 
dure) burdasht- boord baree- cpbdu bura,ee-, 
subr- tuhummool-k. suhna, ungezna, tab-lana, 
musosna, bhogna, pee-lena or -jana, v. to suf- 
fer, {to take) lena, v. to bring, {to allow) 
manna, {to defray) kifayut- wufa-k. nibahna, 
V. to behave, luhna, v. to succeed, {to tend) 
phirna, lugna, girna, v. to rest, to turn, press, 
fall, he. {to be situated) rookh- moonh-h. ; 
to bear fruit, pliulna, phul-lana or -dena ; to 
bear a child, junna, byana; to bear witness, 
shuhadut- guwahee- sakhee-d. ; to bear off", 
chheen-lena ; to bear upoti, zor-purna ; Chin- 
sura bears 7wrfh of Calcutta, Cheechru, Kul- 
kutte se oottur i-ookh hue. Most of these 
words have such a latitude, that they can nei- 
ther be, easily explained, nor restricted to par- 
ticular acceptations of the verb to bear, v, to 
push, urge, &c. 

bear, reechh, bhal, bhaJoo, khirs; the greater 
bear, doobbi ukbur, suptrikh ; the lesser bear, 
doDbbi visghur. .f-^ ».- , 

heard, darhee, reesh, moohasin, khutt, subzu, 
chimbook, v. barb, {part of) reesh-buchu, 
{pointed) tc»kku reesh, v. awn, {of corn, &c.) 
seenkoor, v. head ; to shave the beard, khutt- 
or darhee-bunana, islah-k. hujamut-k. [but 
generally applied by the natives to shaving 
the head] darhee-moondana. This expression 
among the Moosulmans conveys tlie idea of 
disgracing a person, and therefore in this sense 
is seldom used by them, v. mustachoes. 

to beard, darhee-nochna, darhna, v. to defy. 

bearded, durhiyala, reesh-a,eel, reesh-dar, chim- 
bookee ; having a thin beard, kosu, v. barbed. 

beardless, be-reeshu, umrud, gubhroo, loonda- 
moonda khosa, v. stripling. 

hearer, {of a letter, &c.) haniil, darindu, {porter) 
hummal. mootiya, qoolee, {chairman) kuhar, 

muhra, bho,ee, dheemur, gor, v. carrier, {in 
comp.) bur, kush, dar, as namu-bur, the bearer 
of a letter, v. tale-bearer, holder, &c. {produc- 
tive) bar-dar, mewa-dar, phulunta, v. prop. 
The English word is corrupted by the vulgar 
into buehra, which signifies deaf; {in comp.) 
burdar ; a standard 6ea?'er, nishan-burdar, &c. 

bear-herd, qulundur. 

bearsplay, khur-mustee, khirs-bazee. 

bearing, rookh, soot, turuf, simt, v. to bear, also 

beast, huewan, pusoo, churindu, v. brute, duwab, , 
mirg, V. quadruped, {of jwey) pharkha,oo, du- 
rindu, shikaree, v. wild, {of chase) sliikar, 
sued, {of burden) bai--burdar, ladoo. ^ 

beastliness, huewaniyut, ghilazut, nujasut, gun- 
dugee, V. brtitality, &c. 

beasts, buha|im, v. animal, creature. 

beastly, huewan-khuslut, buha,im-seerut, chur- 
pooz, gundu, nirghin, huewan-sa, v. abominable. 

heat, mar, war, chot, {of a drum) awaz, v. puU 
aation. Sec. 

to beat, V. a. peetna, kootna, marna, [properly 
to kill, from its neuter murna, to die, v. to 
kill] thuthana, thoorna, puteelna, koochulna, 
hoorna, dhum dhumana, zud o kob-k. ziya» 
fut-k, V. to thump, {to agitate) muhna, v. to 
churn, {a drum) bujana, {bushes, &c.) jharna, 
{to batter) gira-d. {eggs, &c.) phentna, lut-k. 
{as rain) jhikoma, buoclihar-marna, {to con- 
quer) shikust- purajue-d. mar-hutana, jeetna, 
futuh-zufur- or jue-pana ; to beat back, huta-, 
duba-d.; to beat down the price of goods, duba- 
na ; to beat up, {attack) duor-churhnee- takht- 
kuma, {to attack at night) shub khoon-k. ; \ 

to beat the hoof, puer-ghuseetna; to beat about 
the bush, ghol ghooma,o-k.; to beat, v. n. (as 
the pulse) chulna, hurukut-k. oochhulna, v. to 
bound,palpitate, {asa watch) bolna,v./o sound. 




pound, &c. (at chess) mat-k. (at cards) khU 
lal-d. V. to defeat; to beat down, pa,emal-k. 
musiilna, v. to lay, roonn;a,ee-k. roongna, v. 
to haggle, (to overcome) bus-k. hurana, zer-k. 
(to hit) lugna, v. to fall, pelt, strike, punish, 
&c. (to throb) tees-mama, tupukna, {to verbc- 
rate) purna, (to sound) bujna; to beat to arms, 
nuqqaru-k. ; to beat against the wind, huwa 
bandh kurjana. 

beater, moosul, sumath, peetuor, thapee, phur- 
wee, V. mallet, &c. (person) huth-clihoot, 
moonhmar, (in comp.) mar, zun, whence murd- 
mar, a maji-beater, or virago, q. v. 

beaten, mara, zudii, mughloob, v. sitbdued, (as a 
road) rah-rast, seedhee-rah, chulta, ooghra, 
numood, v. plain. 

heating, mar-koot, koot-peet, dhuol-chukkur, 
koba-karee, tumbeeh, muha,ee, 

heau, banka, ghoonda, ukur foon, lubkha, uenthc- 
khan, chikniya, bisoonee, y.fop. 

ieaziish, ukur-baz, ulbela, chhubcela, rungeela. 

"beautiful, beauteous, khoob-soorut, huseen, wu- 
jeeh, soo-roop, soondur, [whence the Soondur- 
bun, i. e. the beautiful wilderness'] khrosh-roo, 
jumeel, subceh, numkeen, roop-wunt, sahib- 
jumal, bisal, v. lovely, shukeel, khoosh-duol, 
pakeezu, toohfu, nufees, saf, ru,una, sujeela, 
zeb-awur, soo-duol, v. elegant, &c. 

beautifully, khoob soortee- &c. -se. 

to beautify, sunwama, bunana, soodharna, singar-, 
zeenut-jila- mcnruttub-k. v. to embellish. 

beauties, khooban, khoobiyan, tumasha-khood- 
a,ec, V. idol, fair, qualification. 

beauty, beautifulness, khoob-soortcc,khrosh-roo,e, 
khoosh-duolee, nuzakut, kho9sh-ncDma,ee, pak- 
eezugec, tcohfugee, jumal, subahut, sufa,ee, 
mulahut, nufasut, lutafut, choj, khoobee,, alum, buhar, numuk, v. animation, 
soondra,ee ; a lovely person, khoob-soorut, pu- 

ree zad, puree-puckur, v. the adj. (spot) khal, 
til, grol-goonu, bindkee. 

beaver, oodbila,o, sunjab, also the skin or fur,q. v. 

to becalm, buethalna, diibana, furo- ruf'u,u-k. 
tham-dena, bandhna, mama, khura-k. huwa- 
bund-k. V. to still, to calm, 

because, is-waste, is-liye, lihaza, kyoonkur, kis- 
waste, yu,unee, v. for, also why, as the words 
there are used here often indiscriminately, 
V. account, where subub, &c. wiU be found, 
with these and the pronoun is or oas, this con- 
junction can easily be fonned. 

to beckon, isharu-eema- suen-k. butlana, ankh- 
mama, v. sign. «, 

to become, v. n. ho-jana, Iio-ana, [though this 
last exactly corresponds with be-come, it is sel- 
dom used as such] bona, jana; what is become 
of your king ? kya hoo,a toamhara padshah ? 
what will become of me ? hum kuhan-ja,enge ? 

to become, v. a. (to befit, q. v.) sohna, sujna, 
khoolna, uch-chha-lugna, zeb-tl. moonasib- &c. 
-h. V. becomijig, bunna, bun-buethna, v. to 
grow, birajna, v. to suit. 

becoming, khrosh-nooma, siijeela, mcozueyub,zeb- 
awur,, suz-awar, lazim, durkhoor, v. pro- 
priety, oochit, zebindu, v. neat. 

bed, V. bedstead, bedding, &c. bich-huona, fursh, 
bistura, bisat, sej, munja, (0/ straw) suthra, 
V. mattrass, (of a garden) kiyarce, chumun, 
tukhtu, sel,bighee, v. plot, (of a n'fer) juguh, 
than, thul, mujra,pet, c]\hor,v. channel,(stays) 
scj bund, V. brace, &c. (stratum) tub, tubuq, 
purt ; to bring to bed, junana, v. to bear; to 
make the bed, bichhuona-bichhana. 

to bed, hum bistur-k. v. cohabitation, &c. chur- 
ana, v. to smc, buethalna, v. to lay. 

bed-chamber, khwab-gah, sone kee kot,hree,arani- 
gah, khilwut-suraiC. 




bedding, ied-clothes, bichhawun, orlina,bala-posh, 

V. quilt, bed, {a child's) phuliya. 
to bedeck, sajna, singar-buna,o-k. ara|ish-d. v. to 

to bedew, bhigona, numtur-k. bhur-lana, tur bu- 
tur-k. serab-k. v. tnoisi ; bedewed with tears, 

hed-fellotv, hum-bistur, hum-kliwabu, hum-pu- 

bed-maker, furrash, sej-karee. 

bed-post, chhupur khut ka-dunda. 

bed-presser, mache-tor, khuthuonghee, v. drone. 

to bedrench, bhlgo-marna. 

bedrid, sahib-bistur, khut-dhurwa, kjiut-luggoo. 

to bedrop, chheenta-marna, v. to sprinkle. 

bed-stead, pulung, charpa,ee, khat ; a camp-bed, 
chhupur-khut, (small) khulola, khutiya, pu- 
lungeeree, v. couch, the timbers of -whicli are 
bazoo, patee, serwa, and the foot stones are 
called, punpaya, purpaya, v. p7-op. 

hed-time, aram ke wuqt, sone ke wuqt. 

io bedust, dhoohya-marna. 

lee, moomakhee, shuhd kee mukhee, bhuonra, 
bhunwur, mudhookur, mudhmachhee, ulee, 
loottee, zumboor, nuhl, bhiing, khut pud, v. 
wasp. A„a," .7 

heef, ga,o gosht, ga,e ka gosht, guo-mans. 

beef-tea, ma ool luhm. 

bee-hive, chhata, ghuriya, clihutta. 

been, hoo.a, guya, v. to be. 

beer, bozu. 

beet, chooqundur, soolluq, qoomree. 

beetle, goobruonda, goobreela, v. bee, bhoond, v. 
beater {Jn-owed) bhoond-moonha, uondhee- 

beetle, betel, or betel-7iut, kusuelee, goo,a, poon- 
gee phul, fooful, [the varieties are named 
chiknee, desec, juhazec, Sec] (plant) nagbel, 
(leaf) buig tumbol, (roots) koohnjun, (bit 

of) phal, (prepared) beera, khilee, giluoree, 
duona, (leaves, bunch of) dholee, (seller of) 
tumbolee,, pueta, (cracker) surota, 
(bocv) pan-dan, pun-butta, biUhra, (-fur the 
lime) choone-danee, choonuotee, v. vineyard. 
The varieties of beetle-leaf are sanchee, bun- 
gula, bitihree. 

beeves, goroo, muwashee, v. cattle. 

to befal, purna, beetna, ana, puhoonchna, nazil-, 
ariz- waqj-h. a-jana, v. to happen. 

to be/it, phubna, chhajna, v. to Jit. &c. 

to befool, khiibtu- &c. -bunana, v. fool, also to 

before, age, samne, peshtur, peshpesh, pur, qubl, 
pesh, v. fore, maqubl, ottur, v. prior, tuk, 
ke, jo, V. till, durpesh, men, v. ifi, (rather) 
puchle, v. sooner, (hand) puehle-se, v. pre- 
vious, (in presence of) roo buroo,bil-mooshafu- 
hu, bil-muwujahu, hcozoor ; before him, ens ke 
hoozoor ; how many days had elapsed from that 
date before he returned the horse to you? kete 
roz goozre the oos tareekh se ki oosne yih gho- 
ra toomhare ihan pherwa diya, v. when. 

before-hand, uwvvul-mi, puehle puehlar, age-se, 
pesh dust {to be) aga-h. v, anticipation. 

to befriend, dust geree- moorubbeeguree- mihr- 
banec- dost daree- dostee- pooshte6- kirpa-, 
ghuorpurdakht- soolook-k. 

to beg, bheekh- bhichha-mangna, suwal- gudaiCe-, 
benuwa,ee- &c. -k. (humbly) niyaz-k. (to 
ask, q. V.) tulub-k. mangna, zuban- awaz-d. 
V. to implore. 

to beget, pueda-k. junana, nikalna, ootput-k. 
oopjana, junmana, v. to generate. 

begetter, junma|Oo, v. father, &c. 

beggar, fuqeer, bhikharee, bheekh-munga, bhich- 
hook, mungta, sa,i!, qulundur, guda-gur, dur- 
wezugur, be-nuwa, jholee-wala, [and used to 




frighten children] v. wallet, mulung, khue- 
rat-ee or -khor, v. mendicant. 

to beggar, fuqecr-k. v. to shame. 

beggarly, mouflis, qullash, mufloyk, khwar, dali- 
dree, kungal, v. scurvy, mean. 

beggary, iflas, fuqeeree, guda-guree, be-nuwa,ee, 
zcoUut, khwaree, bipta, kungal-puna, v. po- 

to begin, v. a. shcDroo,u- &c. -k. v. the noun, 
nandhna, surwa-k. v. to cause, nikahia, eejad- 
-k. lugana, chhcrna, muchana, qudum-marna, 
V. n. muchna, churhna, v. to rise, shooroOiU-, 
surzud-h. nundhna, oothna, nikulna, lugna; 
alas '. thisblossombegariu-hilebloomingtodecay, 
ah ! yih ghoonchu to kooclih khiltehee koomh- 
lane luga. — Meer Sox. 

beginner, banee, moojid, (a tyro) nuo-amoz, nuo- 
sikh, moobtudee. 

beginning, sliooroo,u, ibtida, aghaz, churha,o, sur, 
moonh, puhul, ootput, lugnu,ee, bidayut, shoo-, V. commencement, {of a poem) mutlu, 
nioakhbund, {of a hook) fatihu, {of a month) 
ghoorru, purba, v.Jirst, original. Sec. {of a web, 
&c.) oopur-ka sira, mookh pat, v. end, head, 
&c. ; from beginning to end, sur a sur, sur a pa, 
sir se panw lug, y. first. 

to begird, v. to gird, kumur-b. v. to surround. 

begone, door-ho, goom-ho, jata-ruh, nikul-ja, un- 
dho, V. avaunt, away. 

begotten, {in comp.) zadu, juna, jatuk. 

to beguile, buh,kana, ghoomana, tluigna, thuga- 
ec-k. fureb- dugha- bcntta- jcol- chhul-d. ank- 
hon men khak dalna, (time, pain, &c.) bueh- 
lana, bhonlana, v. to soothe. 

heguiler, buh,lca,oo, furebee, v. deceitful. 

behalf, wastu, khatir, liye, karun, huqq {with 
men) ; / will speak in his behalf to Air. such a 
one, ooske huqq men hum fulane sahib se kuh- 

to behave, chulun-chulna,nibahna,niberna,huqq- 
uda-k. ; he behaves himself very well, wouh up- 
nee klioob nibahta hue ; to behave well, {as 
soldiers) turudda>d-k. v. to conduct. 

behaviour, wuzu, chal-dhal, chulun, luchhun, 
rah-ruwish, tureeq, a,een, soulook, bolclial, 
nishust-burkhast, v. conduct, manners, &c. 

to behead, sir-katna,moond-katna,gurdun-marna, 

behind, peechhe, bu,ud, mootu,ukhir, pus, plchh- 
ware, ma-bu,ud, pus-ghuebut, gha,ibanu, v. 
after, back, &c. {iiiferior) kumtur, ghat, v. 
below, {remaining) ruha, pus-mandu, v. left. 

behindhand, pichhant, pichh-muna, peecbha, v. 
slow, puspa, V. retrograde. 

behold, yili-dekh, dekho, uewah, leejiyc, wall, 
lo, ure, uree, v. lo ! O! 

to behold, dekhna, bilokna, tukna, takna, nihar- 
na, ankh bhur-dekhna, nigah- lihaz-k. moo- 
shahudu-k. v. to perceive. 

beholden, mumnoon, ihsan-mund, kunuonda. 

beholder, dekhnc wala, dekhwueya. 

be/ioof, fa,idu, nufu, hasll, laha, v. behalf, need. 

to behove, zuroor- furz- la,iq- moonasib- wajib-, 
lazim- labood- durkar- jog- uwish- chaheeta-h. 
chahna, luhna, v. to befit, &c. ; it hehoveth you 
yourself to go, toom hee ko jana chaheeta hue. 

being, hota, jata, hokur, v. to be, jiin, juna, v. 

being, hustee, wujood, asti, usthit, {state) uhwal, 
uwustha, {creature, q.v.) mootunuffis, jan-dar; 
be it so, woohee suheeh, washee ho, v. suppose. 

to helalxmr, peetna, kootna, thonkna, v. to bang. 

to belay, bandli-d. mama, v. to waylay. 

belch, dukar, arogh. 

to belch, dukarna, dhikarna, dhikar-lena. 

beldam, da,en, rachhusee, daknee, dag, rojhin, 
V. hag. 

belfry i jurus-khanu. 






to belie, jhoothana, jhoothalna, jhootha-k. (to ca- 
-• lumniate) toolimut- ittiham- iftira- boohtan-, 
'* Hm- lugana or -k. ; his face belies his heart, 
wcoh indra,en ka phul hvie; Ms deeds belie his 
words, ooske kuhne uor kurne men tufawut 
hue, V. differetice. 
belief, bawur, i,utibar, purman, tuhqeeq, {reli- 
gion, q. V.) tureeq, mut, punth, (estimation, 
q. V.) iitkul, V. creed, faith, cmifidence, &c. 
to believe, manna, bawur- &c. -k. or -r. eeman- 
&c. -b. (to suppose) janna, v. to imagine ; pu- 
vtiyana, suchkur-janna, i,utiqad- &c. -lana, v. 
■' to credit, c- ^•— r-'---^ ,.i-:.--- 
believer, moo,utuqid, manhe-wala', mutee, v. fol- 
lower, iihli kitab, (in religion) eeman-dar, ra- 
sikh, momin, (which the Shiyus claim to 
 themselves ; in some provinces it is also ap- 
r'plied to weavers); a believer in Moohummud, 

moosulman, uhli islam. 

bell, ghunta, ghunt, ghuree, jurus, zung, tulee, 

ghuntee, v. clock, (small) zungoolu, ghoon- 

' ghroo, chuorasee, (of a flower) piyalu, kuto- 

*"ree, (for the feet) puenjunee; to bear the bell, 

' gO|ee- bazee-lejana, sir sihra-h. v. to excel. 

belle, bankee, ulbelce, nazneen, chliuelee, rung- 

eelee, ulbelee, &c. v. beau. " " ' AV"' 
belles-lettres, ilm-o-hoonur, ilm-o-fuzl. 
hell-founder, jurus-saz. 
belligerent, jung-awur, jungee. 
bellman, ghuriyalee, ghunta pande, sa,ut-nuwaz. 
bell-metal, kansa, bhurt, uzhdhat, ro.een, phool. 
to bellow, duhukna, bumbana, bhenbhiyana, du- 
karna, ghurghurana, sunnana, gurujna, bhoo- 
kurna, jhunkarna, v. to bawl, 
bellows, dhuonknee, khal, dumu, bhatee, min- 

bellwether, bago, agwa, v. leader, 
belly, pet, shikum, dozukh, (prop, hell ; but is 
often used by the vulgar for the belly) : pet- 


bhurna, lit. to Jill the belly, signifies to satisfy 
the demands of a servant, &c.; dhidh, butun, 
jhojh, tond, v. abdomen (swell) oobhar, v. 
to belly, jhol-purna, nikul-ana, phool-ana, oobhur- 

bellyache, murora, pechish, durd i shikum, v. 

belly-fretting, koorkcoree. 
bellyful, pet-bhur, bhurnet, jee-bhur, shikum- 

bellygod, shikum-bundu, v. glutton, 
to belong, lugna, ulaqudar-h. puhoonchna, hona, 
(with the possessives, mera, my, &c.) moo- 
tu,ulliq- shamil- dakhil-h. ulaqu- tu,ul]Goq-, 
luga,o-r. V. to pertain; this business belongs to 
me,yih kam moojh se mootU|Ulliq hue; does thai 
ground belong to you ? wooh zumeen toom se 
tU|Ullooq rukhtee hue ? yes, it belongs to me (is 
mine), han meree hue ; it does not belong to 
ymi to treat with him, cos se juvrab suwal 
kuma toom ko nuheen puhooncbta; the father'' s 
property, inthe eyeofthelaw, belongs to the son, 
bap kee milkiyut shureCiVtt ke roo se bete ko 
puhoonchtee hue. 
beloved, piyara, fern, piyarec, muhboob, fern. 
muhboobu, mu,ushooq,yem. mu,ushooqu, cha- 
heeta, fem. chaheetee, iizeez, dil-dar, -aram or 
-khwah, V. charmer ; my beloved ! ue meree 
janee ! 
below, neeche, tule, zer ; whence the diacritical 
point , from its situation ; heth, ootar, v. be- 
hind, matuht, V. beneath, pust, v. inferior, (to 
be) ooturna, (in hell) putal men, usful men, 
V. earth, also improper: 
belswagger, sand, bok, kunhuya, v. ram, bull, 
belt, bund, (of a sword) purtula, dab, (of leather) 
budhee, tusmu, duwal, duwalee, (of a saddle) 
tung, furakhee, (of a shield) vilee-bund, v. 




girdle, patee, hiina,jl, lungur, kuniur-duwal, 
petce, V. girth, he. 

to bemire, bedraggle, bednhhle, bedaub, bedash, be- 
foul, bhur-marna or -dalna, for which, and all 
sudii words, sec their primitives. 

to bemoan, ufsos- tu,ussoof- ghum-k. ah-marna, 
wawueltt-k. sans-bhurna, nalu-k. v. to bewail. 

bench, chuokee, kcorsee, sundilee, nushemuii, 
soofFu, tuklitu, \. board, seat, {of justice) muh- 
kumu, udalut, kuchuliree. 

to bench, tukhtu bundec-k. 

bend, bending, khum, tcrha,ce, v. crook, pech, 
bul, V. turn. 

to bend, V. a. terha^ khum- kuj-k. luchluchan?, 
nihoorana, dumana, morna, bhuo,ana, phiraiia, 
bul-khilana, v. to twist, (a bow) churhana, 
V. to lay, (a tiet) siyarna, v. to prepare, (one''s 
way, &c.) rah-leiia, mootuwujjih-h. qusd-k. 
{to apply) lugana, v. n. nihoorna, luchna, dum- 
na, terha- &c. -h. moorna, khumna, bhuona, 
phima, bul-khana, v. to warp, lugna, jana, v. 
to tend ; to bend the knee, zanoo-marna, 

beneath, neeche, (unbecoming, &c.) ncech, kum, 
ghat, bud-zeb, narinoonasib, v. below, kumtur, 
V. inconsistent, under ; to be beneath instation, 
value, &c. or the dignity of a person, -coturta-h. 

benediction, doo,a, usees, asheerbad. 

benefaction, ni,umut, inam, buklisliish, (public) 
niyaz, wuqf, sunkulp. 

benefactor, kureem, mookhueyur, data, duya- 
wunt, oopkarcc, moohsin, masnim, wulec-ni,u- 
mut, sunkulpee, v. patroti. 

6e«e/^p, krislinar-pun,bishnar-pun,tuhti-musjid, 
suhnuk, nu7.ur-imam, v. charity lands, 

beneficence, khoobee, khuer, dad-dihish, bakh- 
shish, fuez, fuezan, ni,umut, nekokaree, cnp- 
kar, V. kindness. 
icnc^cere^,fueyaz,duyal,juwwad,nekokar, mihr- 
ban, kirpa-wunt, v. gracious, benefactor. 

beneficial, moofeed, khoob, mooslih, goon,karce, 

bhula, uch-chha, v. profitable, useful, 
benejicialness, fa,idu-inundee, v. advantage, 
benefit, ihsan, minnut, ni,iimut, bakhshish, duya, 

kirpa, ultaf, y.faxour, {profit, q. v.) niahu- 

sul, hoosool, kuma|Ce, kifayut, ifadu, wara, v, 

adca ntagco us. 
to benefit, fa^idu- &c. -k. pueda- 8:c. -h. y. to 

benefited, moostufeed, v. to gain, 
benevolence, khucr-khwahce, khoobee, khuer-un- 

deshec, nek-kh\yahee, nikOiCe, khuer, mooruw- 

wut, shufqut, uhliyut, lootf, seel, iltifat, v. 

humanity, he. 
benevolent, khuer-khvyah, nek-khwah,khuer-un- 

desh, khoob, sahib-moDruwwiit, mookhueyur, 

shufeeq, seel-wunt, bhula, sulecm oot-tubu. 
to benight, rat-aj)urna, rat-hojana. 
benighted, shub-ruseedu. 
benign, moolayim, shufeeq, khuleeq, moosukkin, 

sulecm, huleem, bhula-manoos, v. beneficent, 
benignity, bhulaiCe, bhul-muiisa,ee, khoobee, uli- 

liyut, khojlq, moolayimut, v. kindness, 
bent, {crooked, q. v.) banka, luclika, jhooka, ku- 

man, a bow, sometimes is used in tliis sense ; 

bul-dar,muonee, v. decrepid, {resolute) moastu- 

id, khura, v. apt. 
bent, {inclination, q. v.) roojoo,u, kheench, ku- 

shish, jhookawut, {determination) qusd, icliha, 

V. bend, 
to benumb, thlthoorana, soon- ufsoordu- lukree-k. 

be hiss- khooshk-k. 
benzoin, loban. 

to bepiss, moot-mama or bhigona, v. to wet, 
to bequeath,de-murnii,dc-ja.neL, hibu-k.bukhsh-d. 

wusiyut-k. v. to leave, {for a public purpose) 

niyaz- nuzr- sunkulp-k. 
bequest, hibu, wuqf, sunkulp, v. donation, 
to bereave, lelena, lena, chheen-lena, buzor-lena. 
G 2 




hereft, khalee, v. without. 

berry, danu, phul, ber, buer, {the tree) beree, v. 

beryl, feerozu. '' '**^'^'' 

to beseech, girgirana, ghighiyana, haha-khana, 

 bintee- mintee- ajizee- ilhah- lujajut- suma- 
jut-k. (to ask) durkhwast- khwahish- gooza- 
rish- iltimas- urz- istida-k. chahna, v. to con- 

to beseem, suhna, zeb-d. v. to become. 

to beset, gheriia, chhenkna, moohasuru-k. v. to 
waylay, &c. dhurna-d. or buethna, v. to per- 

to beshit, hug-marna or -bhurna. , 

to beshreiv, kosna, bud doo,a-d. 

beside, besides, (near) pas,nere, nuzdeek, qureeb, 
T. about, bughuer, ghuer uz, chhor, jooz, (over 
and above) ulawu, siwa, masiwa, ooprant, 
oopur-iske, age, mafrura, sath-iske, tispiir, 
.<f' ghuer-zalik, mimbu,ud, bu,vid uz an, v. more- 
over; feesjc^e Amse//", apmen-nuheen,be-khood, 
huwas-bakhtu, v. except, mad, &c. 

to besiege, gher-lena, chhenkna, mc»hasuru- ihatu- 
glrd- hisar-k. berhna, quhigeer- quhxbund-k. 
muhsoor-r, v. to surround. 

besieger, moohasir, gherunhar, chhenkwueva. 

to besmear, besprinkle, bespatter, tila- aloodu-k. 
choopurna, suondhna, jubudna, bhur-marna, 
doobo-d. V. to daub, &c. • '"'''', ''• 

besom, jharoo, burhnee, booharee, jarob,booharoo, 
sohnee, v. brush. 

to besot, jnudhosh- bekhood- be-hosh- surshar-k. 

to bespangle, ufshan-k. ufshan-choonna. 

to bespatter, bhur-d. aloodu-k. 

to bespeak, rok-rukhna, kuh-rukhna, ugotna, le- 

to bespew, chand- rudd kur-marna. 

to bespit, bespiitter, thook-marna. 

bespoken, furma|ishee, v. commission, &c 

to bespread, bespot, bestrew, les-bhur-marna. 
to besprinkle,c\\\arjikrya.,(with rose water) goAsib 

best, uch-chhe-se-uch-chha, sub-se-bhula, bih- 

tur-se-bihtur, toohfe-se-tcohfu, bhule-se-bhula, 

uolatiir, oottim, buhoot koachh, v. good, better ; 

to do one's best, hutt-ul muqdoor-k. hutt-ul 

wusu-k. upne bus bhur-k. buhoot koochh-k. 

zor-marna, v. to strive ; do it the best way you 

can, jyon tyon kur kuro, v. as ; and the best 

of it is, toohfu to ylh hue. In this sense lootf, 

muzu, tumashu, &c. are all used occasionally, 

V. cream, &c. To make the best of it, boore 

bhule-nibajina, v. bargain, 
bestial, huewan-seerut, bhishtul, bhrusht, v. 

beastly. •• r.^ii^it,;y^ 

bestiality, hue wanly ut, na-pakee, pusoo-rut, 

bhrushtta, \.Jilthy. 
to bestir, surgurm- nioostu,id-k. v. to excite, 
to bestow, de-dalna, de-jana, tuwaz.00,11- uta-, 

hibu-k. dan-k. khurj-k. (to apply) lugana, 

khuruchna. v. to confer, to give, 
to bestride, churh-buethna, phand-Iena or -bueth 

na, suwar-h. v. to mount, 
to bestud, phoolana, jurana, v. to set. 
to bet, shurt- &c. -budna or -b. budna, v. to 

icager ; a bet, shurt, hor, bet^. 
to betake, ana, tueyar-h. hona, jana, lana, lugna, 

duorna, v. to apply; he betook himself to Jlight, 

bhagne pur aya, v. to mwie. i'-t a"\'v'.vVim  
betel-nut, scnpyaree, (/eff/)pan, tunibol, v. beetle. 
#o6e^/i/M/r,mu,uloom-k. boojhna; bethink thyself, 

upne tu,een mu,uloom-kuro. 
to betide, apurna, v. to happen, &c. 
betimes, suwere, bur-wuqt, bur-muhul. 
to betoken, dulalut-k. jutana, butlana. 
to betray, (to an enemy, &c.) jhonkna, dal-dena, 

sompna, dugha-k. (to discover, q. v.) khol-d. 

purduduree-k. chhulna, .bewufa,ee- ghudr-k. 




V. to deceive, (a secret) phoraa, v. to expose, 
also a traitor, &c. »v . 

betrayer, dugha-baz, dughuoliya, thug, v. trai- 
tor, (of secrets) lootra, purdu-dur. 

to betrothe, munsoob- namzud- sunibundh-k. 
nisbut- mungnee- suga|ee-k. raangna, tiluk-d. 

betrothed, mungetur ; to be betrothed, munsoob- 
&c. -h. 

better, bihtur, uch-chha, bhula, bura. [These 
have always tlie sign of the comparative se, 
than, which in fact gives them the power they 
have, being, without it, the simple adjective 
good, q. v.] usluh uolatur ; he is better than I, 
wooh hum se uch-chha hue ; better every one 
than another, ek se ek bihtur. 

better, bura, what are you ? I have threshed your 
betters, toom kya cheez ho ? toom se buron ko 
muen ne peeta hue ; the better, ghulbu, subqut, 
futuh, jue, jeet, v. victory; I did it for the 
better, bihtxiree ke waste kiya hue muen ne. 

to better, soodharna, bunana, sunwarna, sumbhal- 
na, islah-d. bihtur- &c. -k. y. good. Sec. 

bettor, horee, shurtee. 

between, betwixt, beech, beech men, durmiyan- 
men, undur, men, (-themselves) balium, apoos 
men, v. middle ; between the two, buen buen, 
V. so. 

beverage, shurbut, shcorb, pana, rus, toorsh-abu, 
V. sherbet, (treat), ziyafut, v. feast. 

hevy, (of birds) jhcond, gunj, (of people) guroh, 
jutha, ghol, toomun, suraooh. i^ ,v ;^i. 

to bewail, koorhna, ufsos- ghum- matum- zarce- 
sog- nuohu-k. rona, bilukhna, bilbilana, jheek- 
na, ro-d. or mama, v. to regret. 

to beware, khuburdar- hoosliiyar- agah- moot- 
tulu-cheta, -rulma or -h. 

to bewilder, ghubrana, bhutkana^ bhoolana, sur- 

gur dan-goomrah-k. bun bhurmec-k. v. to dis- 
tract. -yMuyA ,\5«»'"> 

bewildered, bhoola-bhutka, goom-rah. 

to bewitch, jadoo-ufsoon- sihr-k. or -d. tona-, 
lutka- totka-k. muntur-phenkna or -chulana, 
beer-chulana, sayu-d. 

bewitched, sihr-zudu, ufsoon-zudu. , .,^iw«i 

to be bewitched, bhoot- pret-lugna, sayu- asfeb 
zudu- fureftu- mooblilu- lutoo-h. v. distracted. 

bewitching, dil-ruoba, dil-fureb, jado<i-chushm, 
i. e. having bewitching eyes, v. charming. 

beyond, pure, oodhur, cnsturuf, v. above, puela, 
oone, par, pueleewur, v. over, bahur, door, 
bu,ecd, kharij, v. past, (superior) churb, oot- 
tim, V. to excel, (above) siwa, ziyadu, burhtee; 
beyond expectation, oommed-ke-pure ; beyond 
the sea, sumoondur par. 

bezel, bezil, khoriya, ghur, khanu, v. stone. 

bexoar, from pazuhr, zuhr-moohru, v. antidote. 

bias, roojoo.u, muel, muelan, niyut, jhooka.o. 

to bias, k,heenchna,loobhana,raa,il-k. v. toincline. 

bib, gooloo-bund. 

to bib, choosna, khuenchna, soorookna, v. to tip- 
ple, &c. 

bible, kitab ; the Old Testament, tuoret ; the New 
Testament, xa^eel; theMoasulm^n bible,qooTan, 
-v.alcoran ; the Hindoo bible, pooran, bed, sooch, 
srooti, amna,e. 

bibulous, ja/.ib, soorkeela. 

to bicker, khanujungee-k. mara maree- &c. -k. 
(to quiver) luhurna, v. to shake, to skirmish. 

bickering, mara maree, chonchuwul, puthrU^rutl, 

bicornous, do-shakhu, v. horn. 

to bid, kulina, irshad- aggya-k. izn-d. dena, 
scnnana, v. to say, to propose, &c. (to charge) 
takeed- tuqueyood- chetun-k. v. to instruct, 
(to invite) du,uwut- tuwaz.oo,u-k. nyotna, boo- 




lana ; to bid adieu, ul-widaiU-k. ; to bid good 
day, khuer bad-kuhna. 

bidder, khwahan, khwast-gar, v. purchaser. 

bidding, kuha, bol, bolahut, v. order. 
■Mdental, bifurcated, do-dunta, do-kanee, do- 
goshu, do-sool, V. trident, &c. r-Viel ' ; 

biennial, do-salu, do-bursa. 

hier, junazu, taboot, nash, ruthee, murun-sej. 

biestings, pyosee, pyos, phennos, khirsa, ful or 
fool, whence probably the dish called by most 
Europeans in India, niangoe fool. 

big, bura, mota, kulan, juseem, bharee, v. great, 
(^pregnant) hamllu, gurbhinee, gabhin, [this 
last is restricted to beasts] bardar, {full, &c.) 
bhurpoor, phoola, v. distended ; to be big, 
(proud, &c.) mughroor-h. v. haughty; big 
words, kurr o fur,, lumbee-chuoree ; 
to use big words, lurabee chuoree-hankna ; 
big bodied, vizeem-ool-jussu ; big bellied, pet- 
se, oommed-se, doojiya, petlee, panw bharee, 
dheedhar, dojan, pet-walee, v. preg7iant, bur- 
peta, V. barrel, &c. ^auti-oui- 

bigamist, dohajoo, dowaha. ' ' 

bight, pech, glicr, bul, v. coil. 

bigly, uenthke, phoolke, v. proudly. 

bigness, buraiCe, mota,ee, jusamut, (size) qudr, 
V. bzilk. 

bigot, bigoted, inootu,ussib, tu,usscDbee, huthee, 
puchhee, v. zealot. 

bigotry, huth, puchh, tu.usscob, pueruwee, jihl- 
rooorukkub, v. superstition, prejudice. 

bilboes, kath, koondu, hur. 

bile, pit, zurd-ab, sufra, zuhru, [properly the gall 
bladder]^ (boil) phora, doommul, bultor, v. 
choler.^^,; ,j 

biliary, bilious, q. v. sufrawee, pituha, zuhra- 
wee, moowullid- oos-sufra. 

a bilious fever, pitijur. 

to bilk, thugna, chhulna, du^ia- fureb-d. bhoo- 
lawa-d. V. to cheat. ,\,\,uA uj^ti^. 

bilker, bhagoo, 'v. the verb.  '• 

bill, (beak) chonch, nol, nok, minqar, (hatchet) 
da^o, (account, q. v.) hisab, lekha, chitha, 
(note) tnmussook, dust-awez, teep, pat,chithee, 
V. note, (cancelled) khokha, v. duplicate, &c. 
kaghuz, putree, furd, v. list, (in comp.) namu, 
V. advertisement, cerfificate, (an order) tun- 
khwah, burat, (of exchange) hoondee or hoon- 
duwee, (of articles, or invoice) beejuk, syahu, 
(of sale) biii namu, qubalu, bikree-putur, (a 
declaration in writing) soorut-hal, muh,zur, 
V. prescription, &c. 

to bill, danu-budulna, choga-budulna, v. to kiss. 

billet, chithee, patee, rooqqu,u, v. note, (of wood) 
chuela, koondu, tona, bondiya, v. log. ;j : 

hilling, or caressing, danu-budluwwul. '^ 

billingsgate, koonjrapun, zutul, v. rihaldry. 

billion, khurb. ^f^t-^^i-il^ 'V ,}3ci; pui, ,Aiii"^- 

billow, muoju, dhe,oo, luhra, hilkora. 

to billow, luhrana, hilkoma. 

billowy, muoj-zun, muwwaj, mootulatim, ulthana. 

bin, kothee, v. store-room, &c. 

binary, doo,ee, moosiinna, v. dtial. '■'-"^ 

to bind, bandhna, jukurna, kusna, kuch,chna, 
jorna, qued- bund-k. moorunda-k. chbandna, 
V. to tie, &c. (to make costive) qubz- bundhcj- 
-k. (a book) jild bundee-jild-k. or -b. moojul- 
lud-k. (as an apprentice) sompna, dena, sipoord- 
-k. shagird-k. ; to bind over, hazir zaminee- 
lena ; to be binding, or obligatory, furz-wajib- 
-h. uwush-h. V. bound. 

binder, bundhunhar, &c. (in comp.) \)\yadi,tohence 
jild-bund, a bookbinder, (for papers, &c.) que- 
duk, bundhun, kusun, \. fillet, string, &c. 

binding, bund, (of a ftoo/f) jild-bundee, jooz-bun- 
dee, mughz-bundee, sheerazu or -sheerazu- 




''Inmdee, jild, q. v. in the Second Vol. ; see 
also to contract, &c. 

bindweed, bel, v. inne. 

liinocular, do-unkha, do-cliushmii. 

hiograjtker, rawee, naqil, bukta, tuzkiru-nuwees, 
T. historian. 

hiography, ruwayut, nuql, tuzklru, mulfooz. 

biped, do-payu. 

bird, cliiriya, pukheroo, punkhee or punclihce, 
ta,ir, piirind, moorgh, [is a general term, but 
is now in a great measure restricted to a cock, 
as moorghee is to a hen, q. v.] purewa, jan- 
wur, bihung, khug, whence kliiig-esur, the 
bird of Jore, v. fowl, crane, adjutant, &c. 
(^-catcher) meer-shikar. The names of tlic 
most common that do not, or cannot otherwise 
occur in this volume, are as follows : — buya, 
bhoorjunga, bhoojel, buela, bara, chumurku- 
lee, lulgunda, bubu,ee, lal, raooniya, sudiya, 
subzuk, neelkunt, kutnas, kekila, luglug, chu- 
kee, lutora, chukawuk, chunduol, dhunes, gu- 
lar, gulguliya, nukta, peeng, pidda, pidree, 
phcodkee, phoodgoodilec, pupeeha, dulpeepee, 
shamu, seenu-baz, bhung-raj, tuteehree, sut- 
bhueya, domnee, chukor, zureen-moorgh, waq, 
tewung, postee, tilyur, duehyul, khindrich, 
tenta, motree or potrce, sonchiree, huldee, da- 
hook, mumokha, goolal-chusbm, nuknuol, gcol- 
doom, kut-khora, toontoonee, cbutruk, konda, 
sura.el, ka,em, manikjor, bansputta, agin, 
bhurt, khueree ; for some account of which 
consult Vol. II. and here refer to Mack-bird, 
&honighttngale,hatvk, starling, &c. ; tokilltwo 
birds with one stone, is expressed by, ek guz 
do fakhtu, ek punth do kaj ; and a bird in the 
hand is icorth two in the hush, by, adhee chhor 
saree ko nu duoriye; or nuqd ko chhor nusiye 
ko nu duoriye. 
bird-bolt, guz, nul, tekoo,a.  ■-'^■' ' 

bird-cage, pinjrn, qufus, qufus. 

bird-catchei', cliiree-raar, sueyad, (means also a 

hunter) nuliya, budliik. 
hird-linK, lasa, chenj), [stick) kumpa. 
birth, junum, ootput, pueda.i^sh, tuwuUood, wila- 
dut, junnun, ootpun, tuoleed, uotar, oodhbhuo, 
byant, v. delivery, {of a boat) lugan, v. place, 
hammock, {extraction, q. v.) kool, qubeelu, 
kliandan, ghurana, bconiyad, v. lineage, {lit- 
ter) jhol, V. station, &c. 
Urth-day, junum-din, sal-girih, burkh bundhun, 
{feast, a species of) chuhuthee, burus-ganth, 
from the custom of adding a knot annually to 
the string which is kept, and appropriated to 
this purpose, after the birth of a child. 
/v/r^A-pZace, junum-bhoom, muolud, wutun, v. na- 
tive country, 
hirtfi-right, irs, muoroosee, uba,ee, puetrik, bup- 

uotee, huqq iwiladut, junmuns. 
Jnrthwort, {long) zurawund-tuweel, {round) zu- 

biscuit, kak, qoors, tikkee, kooleechu, nan khu- 

ta,ee, tikiya, t. cake. 
to bisect, doqitu-k. v. to halve, 
bishop, moojtuhid, imam. 
bishop''s weed, nankhah, amoos, v. anise, 
bismuth, phool, v. bell-metal, 
bissextile, burkhudik, v. intercalary . 
bit, {piece, q. v.) tookra, kurch, zurni, v. scrap, 
qutu,u, chit, V. rag, dulee, buree, buree, botee, 
buttee, choora, kuna, choor, bhora, rora, v. 
particle, {of a bridle) lugam, duhanu, quezu- 
ee, nuharee, jeebhee, {whit) tunuk, koochh, 
{mouthful, &c.) nuwalii, loqmu, v. lump, mor- 
sel ; a hit the better or worse, kcochh nu gliu- 
tee nu burhee ; he is not a bit better than be- 
fore, koochh age se bihtur nuheen hue. 
bitch, koottee, kootiya, kookooree, swanee, dhoo- 
tee, T. she, {jade, q. v.) khundee, v. dog. 




bite, kata, dant, darh, pukur, hubuk, v. snap, 
(ofajish) khoatkar, (cheat) thug, thuga,ee. 

to bite, katna, kat-khana, moonh-dalna, -chulana 
or -mama, bhumbhorna, pukurna, hubukna, 
V. to S7iap, (the lips) honth-dubana, (as cold, 
&c.) lugna, (to pain) julana, v. to sting, (as 
pepper) lugna, jhuljhulana, v. to smart, (desire 
to) kutas, (as a snake) dusna, (as ajish) khoot- 
kar-k. (to cheat) thugna, v. to nibble, &c. 

biter, kutha, guzindu, duntaloo, dundangeer, 
kutuha, kutasa, moonha,el, (as a horse) moo- 
ze-geer, v. deceiver, &c. 

bitten, kata, dusa : 


Samp ka kata sowe, 
Bichhee ka kata rowe. 

He that is bitten by a serpent sleeps. 
Whilst he thafs bitten by a scorpion weeps. 

bitter, kurwa, teeta, tulkh, zhazh, neem, zuhr, 
V. acrimonious, (sharp, q. v.) tez, (severe, q. 
V.) kutta, ushud, khurjhura. 

bitterly, (severely) bu-shiddut, buhoot, (sharply) 
khooshoonut- &c. -se, v. keen, &c. 

bittern, bugla, bug, booteemar, chumur buglee, 
V. gull. 

bitterness, tulkhee, kurwahut, (of temper) toon- 
dee, tezee, jbanjh, khurjjiurahut, (of satire) 
sukhtee, khooshoonut, v. malice, sorrow, &c. 

Utumen, nuftu, qufr-ool-yuhood. ttv.Ji.r^, 

blab, blabber, purdu-dur, lootra, chhichhora, 
ochha, gozi shootr. 

to blab, fash- purduduree-k. kholna, buk-d. 
pooch-bukna, v. to babble. 

black, kala kuloota, siyah, kuriya, krishin,. 
syam, ujnee, seela, v. sullen, (a horse) moosh- 
kee, shub-rung, v. sable, (streaks between the 
teeth) beeree, dhuree, v. lamp-black, (dark, q, 
V.) undhera, (horrible) sukht, shudeed ; black 

deeds, ufal i shunee.u, v. dismal, &c. ; black 
and blue, neela peela. ' , .^^j, 

black, siyahee, v. blackness, (of the eye) pootlee, 
murdoomuk ; clad in black, siyah-posh. 

to black, blacken, kala- &c. -k. kuriyana, (to de- 
fame) moottuhim-k. hurf-lana, kulunk-luga- 
na, roo siyah- kala moonh-k. v. to disgrace, 
(the hair) khizab-k. (the teeth) beeree-juma- 
na, V. to stain, to asperse. 

blackamoor, kaliya, kala-admee, hubshee, seedee, 
V. negro. 

black ant, chyonta, chyontee. 

black-birds, (of India) ko,el, pik, bhungraj, 
bhoojunga, dhubchoo, kulchiree, kulkurchhee, 
q. V. in Vol. II. and under bird here. 

black cattle, muwashee, goroo. 

black earth, kalee muttee, v. mould. 

blackguard, huram-zadu, loochcha, shoohda, awa- 
ru, khurabatee, rind, pujora, loonda, ghoonda, 
lubkha, V. profligate, vagabond. 

black-hearted, teeru-dil, siyah-batin. 

blackish, soormu,ee-rung, siyah-fam, kala-sa, v. 

blacklead, mcxjrdu seesa. 

black-mail, chorka, rukhee. 

blackness, siyahee, kaluk, [this last is generally 
applied to lamp-black,^ v. darkness, &c. i^t 

blacksmith, lobar, ahun-gur, huddad. 

bladder, phookna, musanu, thuelee, kumeez-dan, 
V- iog, (for swimming) ghura, toomba, v. pot, 
blister, &c, ; the gall bladder, pitta, zuhru. 

blade, (of grass) putta, pat, v. leaf, (pile) tinka, 
V. sprout, (of a sword) dal, phul, pliulra, te- 
gha, ('*/ a spear) pola, (of scissars) pura, v. 
beau; the blade bo7ie, shanu, pukhra, (a fellow) 
ashiq, yar, ugla ; the blade wanted to cheat me, 
ugla humen thuga chahta tha. 

to blade, (as corn, &c.) putiyana, v. leaf, &C. 

blain, phora, phoonsee, phuphola, abilu. 




blame, dos, dokh, ilzam, mulaniut, rauzummut, 
surzunish, lu,un-tu,un, niiida, oolahna, lag, bat, 
hurf, ueb,, dhirkar, v. censure ,• 
(eriinc, q. v.) qoosoor, iisiyan ; to be to blame, 
mcolzim-h. dokha-jana, v. fault. 

to blame, doklina, ilzam- Sec. -d. moolzim- mu- 
tu,oon-k. dhirkarna, v. reproach. 

blameahle, moulzim,tuqseer-war, goonah-gar, itioo- 
qussir, dokhee, v. reprehensible. 

blameless, be-tuqseer, be-gnonah, nir-dokhee, bu- 
ree, mcnburra, be-ueb, be-qoosoor, be-dos, v. 

blamelessly, na-huqq, be-subub. 

blamelessness, be-tuqseeree, &c. v. guiltless. 

to blanch, mooqushshur-k. chheelna, chhilka-ro- 
ta.ina,\. to bleach.'' t ,^ ,iMii:;.'. 

bland, moola,im, luteef, nurm, soobook, hulka, 
puth, V. soft, mild. 

bla7idishment, naz, kurushmu, uda, an, ushwu, 
chonchla, jhanoolee, man, nukhru, shewu, naz 
o niyaz, nuzakut, phooslahut, chooclikaree, 
bholee baten, meethee baten, mu.ushooqiyut, 
V. airs, caress, S:c. 

blank, sufed, sadu, klialee, kora, saf, mu.urra, 
F. white, {verse) nuzm ghuer mooquffa, nusur 
moosujju, bulir i tuweel, v. the Grammar, 
p. 2G1, 267; to leave a blank, sufedee- juguh- 
chhorna, khalee- &c. -r. (pale) khooshk, zurd, 
sookha ; to look blank on any occasion, moonh 
ke kuwwe oorjana. 

blank, {in loriting) sufedee, bueyaz, {a lot) kha- 

a blank, chit, [opposed to chithee, a prize^ qco- 
ni,u, V. lottery, hech, v. cypher. 

blank-book, bueya?., sufeenu, v. memorandum. 

blanket, kummul, kumlee, gileem, ral, lo,ee, v. 
Jlannel, rug. 

to blaspheme, kulme kcofr-kuhna. 

blasphemer, kafir, moortud. 

blasphemy, kulme-koofr, nikurm, 

blast, jhikor, jhoka, sumoom, muoj, loo, phoonk, 
V. puff, tumaclui, .sudniii, dhukka, jhuput, v. 
stroke, jhonk, jhola, buokha, liooha, v. gust, 
{wintry) rar, v. atorm, byadh, v. blight, {sov/nd, 
q, V.) awaz, bang. 

to blast, (to blight, q. v.) jhcolus-d. {to destroy, 
q. V.) gharut-k. suttyanas- clmojmt-k. dha- 
dena, mama, phoonkna, julana, oorana, duba- 
na, V. to ruin, &c. {sight, &c.) phorna, v. to 
confound, {sight of animals) chandnee-marna, 
{as a mail's cliaracter) khona, crjtarna,burbad-d. 
{n design) moonqutu- fuskh-k. torna : kliooda 
tojjhe gharut kure, dugliabaz gharut ho, are 
impious expressions, too like those coarse ana- 
themas used with this verb in our own language. 

blasted, chuslium- or nuzur-zudu, burf zudu, v. 
the verb, also damned, frozen. 

blaze, jot, bhubhooka, anch, ruoshnee, shoo.ulu, 
lat, luhur, dhudhuk, dhudhkar, deck, v.Jlash, 
&c. {of a horse) tuppul, teeka, qushqu. , 

to blaze, v. n. bhubhukna, anch-oothna, jjhuruk- 
na, shoo,ulu zun-h. shco.ulu-marna, luhrana, 
d,ha,edha,e-julna, v. tojlame, dhudhkana, noo- 
mayan-k. v. to display. 

to blaze, blazon, v. a. huwa-chung-k. phoonk-, 
oora-d. (Ihindhora-peetna, v. supra. 

blazer, purdu-dur, dhindhoriya. 

a blazing star, raoonuwwur sitara. 

to bleach, nikharna, oojla- sufed- saf-k. bikhar- 
na, nibarna, purkhur-k. v. to ivhiten, boil. Sec. 

bleak, rootjia, roorha, sung-lakh, rookha, rooch- 
bhooch, khooshk, moordu, oojbunkh, v. bare, 
{weather) gundu-buhar, surd, thundlia, muha- 
wut, V. blast, {place) oodas, soona, v. dreary. 

to blear, chuondhyana, chipra-k. kichrana, cbip- 

blear-eyed, chipra, chwndhla. 

bleared, chipraha. 






bleat, mea men, bhen bhen. 

to bleat, mimiyana, bhenbhiyana, leliyana, v. to 

to bleed, vin. lohoo- &c. -girna, -chulna or -buh- 

;\ii«a, (to divji) tupukna, (« tree, &c.) chhyona, 
pachhna, (to die) khoon-h. v. to flow, &o, (at 

5^! ihe nose) nufcseer-phpotna, (foopen aveiri) fusd- 
fjcholna, lohoo-lena or -nikalna, lohoo kum-k. 

bleeding, fusd, (at the nose) nukseer, binwans, 

(A rco,af, V. hcemorrhage. 

blemish, (lit. and Jig.) dagh, kulunk, khot, jirm, 

.L-ueb, nooqsan, hurf, dhubba, kan, butta, bigeon, 

fi'irukhnu, dokh, v. spot. 

io. blemish, dagb dar- dagliee- dugheela-k. (to de- 
fame) aloodu-k. dagh- kulunk- ueb-lugana, 
hurf-lana, v. to spoil. ■" •'■■'•'' J- •• -'^'-i^ 

blemished, uehdai; V. the v&T'b. ■■••■■■ • ' '• 

to blend, milana, amez- mukhloot- shamil-k. 

to bless, (to prosper) burkhoordar- kamyab- sur- 
subz- bhula-k. burukut-d. nekee- juzaiCe khu- 
er-d. (to wish happiness) doo,a- usees-d. bilsana, 
[whence nara,en tcomhen doodh poot se bilsa- 
we, may the Almighty bless you with milk and 
children'] v. to felicitate, dum-k. plioonkna, 
V. to exorcise, (to praise) surahna, soomurna, 
tuhseen- tu,upeetk. (god, &c.) shookr- humd- 
goonabad-k. ; Mess me, la huol wula-qoowwut, 
ustugh fircollah, uluzmuto lilla, nu,ooz billah, 
nara,en, bap re bap, ram ram, v. mercy. 

blessed, asoodu, khoosh-hal, nek-bukht, mooba- 
ruk, V. happy, najee, mookt, bhagee, buhisli- 
tee, buhisht-nuseeb, svvurgee, buekoonthee, 
golokee, v. holy, bushshash, shad, farigh ool 
bal, farigh, musood, muhzooz, mcotuburruk, 
v. lucky, (thistle) shuoqmoobaruk; blessed dis- 
position, khoajistu khisal. 

blessedness, sU|adut, khooshee, uesh, v. happiness. 

blesser, doo,a-go, useesee. 

blessing, doO|a, doO|a-khuer, usees, burukut, (fa- 

vour) 5nayut, kurum, mihr-banee, kirpa, ghu- 
neemut, moaghtunum, ni,umut, duolut, kulli- 
yan, doo,a-go,ee, v. benediction, lukhee, luchh- 
mee-niwas, ruhmut, fuez, khooda-dad, (the 
person who is) ayu ruhmut, kuleed rizq, jugut- 
data ; he is a blessing to this country, wooh is 
moolk men ghuneemut hue. 

blight, afut, ghuzub, leddha, giroo,ee, hurda, 
jhola, pala, thar, v. mildew. 

to blight, jhoolsa-d. koomhlana, puzhmoordu-k. 
moorjhana, mar-d. mama, lendhiyana, giroo,ee- 
&c. -lugna, jhola-marna, v. to blast. 

blind, undha, undhla, kor, na-beena, unkh-phoo- 
ta, usoojh, netr-heen, uma, zureer, soor, (prop. 
bold) buseer, [the very reverse of its real 
meaning], (of an eye) kana, ek-chushm, (at 
night) rut-uondhiya, shub-kor, opposed to din- 
uondhiya, blind during ihe day ; (in the day) 
din-uondha, (shut) bund, undha, v. obscure, 
(to become) ankh-phootna or -buethna. • 

blind, purdu, topnee, putta, puttee, v.JiUet, (of 
a window) kewar, pulla, bedbafee, v. screen, 
(for a horse, q. v.) und/iyaree, (deception) si- 
yahee, doochawa, chookkee, bhoolawa, moogh- 
alutu, buhanu, heelu, mukur; to blind, or make 
a feint, in order to deceive an enemy, siyahee 

to blind, undhlana, undha- &c. -k. ankh-phorna, [lit. io turn a pencil; from the 
practice in the East, of drawing a heated pen- 
cil over the pupil of the unhappy person who 
falls a victim to the jealousy of a tyrant, or 
the ambition of a villain], (to darken) undhe- 
ra- tareek-k. (to deceive) ankhon men khak- 
-dalna. ....•■ Ui 

io blindfold, ankh- meechna- moondna- or buri(f- 
-kurna, undheree-d. or -d. chushm-dokhtu or 
bustu-k, unkhmoonda-k. "'"^' 

H blindly, undhon kee Juruh, ankh moonde, undha- 




m, V. implkitlff, (to fallow) bheriyan dhusan- 

hUnd-man'a huff, ankh moonduora, ankK mich- 
uw\#Til, unkh-moondle or -michwa. 

blindness, (lit. and^^.) und,hla,ee, koree, undh- 
la-pun, na-beena,ee; the night^lindncss, sbub- 
koree, rut-uondha. 

dspu hue toojh ko rut-uondlm mere shub-kor 

:(;. fill 

Besides tJiis you Jiave the nightJjllndness ; 0! mi/ 

bV,nd brideffroom. 
.iji i«xi< e#.ii Suoda's Satire on Shekjee. 

t6,nddie, luga,o, rukhnu, ghuflut, ueb, pue, v. 

foible. ^ J 

to blink, mutmutana, famnkana^ -f fSud v^wWau. 
ilhikard, dhoondlila, tyondha, choondhla, kor- 

Hiss, bushashut, shadee, hoolas, anuici^ jt^hn, 

uesh, ushrut, nujat, rahut, mookt, bilas, §u,a- 

dut, -w. felicity. ' '■ ►«<:•? tm -si .?i»irfi(t|( 

bUssfull, furuh-bukhsh, dil-koosha, ruwuneck, bi- 

lasee, rahut-ungez, chuence, v. joyful, 
blister, phupliola, chhala, pupota, phoolka, abilu, 

phola, chhiluorce, jhulka, pupta, chharoo, 

(small) tupkhalu, (application) chitta, cheeta. 
to blister, v, n. abilu- &c. -purna, v. a. phuj)- 

hola- &c. -d. 
blithe, blithesome, huiis-mookh, shigooftu-pesli- 

anee, khundu-roo, khoosh-dil, kooshadu-pesh- 
-; «nee, thuthol, khoosh-hal, khrosh-wuqt, shokh, 

kulolee, v. merry, buxom, &c. 
blHkeness,blithesmueness, khundu-roo, ee, khoosh- 

ililec, /Indu-dilee, v. gladtiess 
to bloat, bhubhiirana, jrfioolana, soojana, phuph- 

s«na, phuphusna. {? ,laa«mfb ^vt 
bloated, phoola, sooja, phuphsalia. 
Woatedne«8, bhub^urahut, soojun, amas, phuph- 


blobber-lipped, gooadu-lub, bur-hontlia. "j^ 

lUock^ koondu, lukkur, kath, kutjunool, hur, v. 
timber, (of marble) ehutan, (of stone) sutouncc, 
silee, koUioo.a, v. slab, (for a hat) gola, qalib, 
kalbood, (an ubstructioii) kanta, khar, (for 
meat) khutiya, pirhiya, v. board, (for behead- 
ing animals) huree, (pull^, c}. v.) kooppee, v. 
blockhead, &c. yv iVK^^yvjoxA 

to block, blockade, rokna, chheukna, ghfirtia, araa, 
tekna, bund- ihatu- inoohasuru- musdood- na- 
ka bundeo- gird-k. bera-d. agar-b. marna, v, 
to obstruct, barricade. 

blockade, moohasuru,^era,inhisar, naka-bundee, 
V. barricade. 

blockhead, be-wuqoof, uhmuq, nadan, hubunnuq, 
ublu, kuodun, ooUoo, bhukwa, gudha, buel, 
kliueia, kath ka ooloo, ghamur, bow bhukwa, 
bilula, hiyoola, boozi ukhfush, billur, bhooch, 
miyan mithoo, niuskliuru, koonikhur, oolagh^ 
ponga, &c. V. dull, &c. 

blood, lohoo,rukut,klioon,rood.hir,dumm, khoon^ 
ab, soorkhee, lalee, \. juice, (descentyq. v.) ?at, 
(family, q. v.) khandan, (bully, q. v.) terha, 
phankra, v. buck, life, murder, (to spit) lohoo- 
bookurna, lalce- S:c. -d. or -girana, (to void) 
lohoo- &c. -buethna ; a pritice of the blood, 
sliali-zadu; the princes of the blood, sulateen; 
blood hot, sheer-gunn, goongoona; to kill in cold 
blood, guobud-k. v. to massacre, ,.v ,^j,,.„ 

bloodiness, khoon-aloodugce. * .-r .:^- .--.'- 

bloodless, nir-rukut, be-khoon, be-klioon kurabu. 

bloodletteri rug-zun, v. phlebotomist. 

bloodshed,]i}\oQn-xezee, klitKHi-khurabu,v. daugh- 

bloodshot, kboon-aioodu, scorkh, lal, kitouuec- 
ankh. r ^u6wA 

bloodstotte, hijur ood-dumm, shadinuj, shadiou. 

bloodsucker, juiJad, qustsab, kuttur, jonk, loL«x>- 
choos, V. blood-thiraty, (Itssard) girgit. 
H 2 




hloodthirsfi/f loohoo ka piyasa, khoon-khwar. 

bloodvessel., rugUkhoon, v. «ejw, &c. {name of a) 
BUri roo, v. jugular, &c. 

hloodwit, khoon-buha, rukut-durb. 

bloody, khoon-aloodu, poor-khoon, lohoo-bhura, 
loohoo-Iohan, (sanguinary, q. v.) khoonee, 
qatil, hutyara, v. cruel. 

bloody-flux, ishal i khoon, lohoo ka beg, utisar ; 
lohoo-buethna, means to pass blood, or to have 
a bloody flux, 

bloody-minded, khoon-dost, rukutpremee, \. san- 
guinary. , ' ('">>'fto5 c*. 

bloom, shigoofu, ghoonchu, gool, kulee, phool, 
cliumuk, V. lustre, {of youth) nuo-juwanec, 
buhar, jobun, shubab, {mangoc blossom) mun- 
jur, kohur, {of the pitlas) tesoo. i'.'; 

to bloom-, khilna, plioolna, shigooftu-h. muolana, 
muolna, buorana, tuhtuhana, v. blossom. 

blooming, nuo-juwan, buharee, v. youthful. 

bloomy, poor gool, v.Jlower. 

blossom, phool, kulee, {of mangoes) muol, buor, 
V. bloom. 

to blossom, khoolna, bigusna, kuruhna, khikurna, 
munjurna, chhutnar-k. buhar (men) -ana, 
kohurna, v. to flourish. 

blot, dagh, chheet, chinh, boond, qutru, ncoqsan, 
hurf, top, thop, V, spot, bla7ik, blemish, 

to blot, bhur-d. daghdar-k. chhintiyana, mama, 
topna, V. to obliterate, boondkiyaha- daghec- 
&c. -k. V. to stain ; to blot out, dho-dalna, 
katna, metna, muhw-k. qulum-marna. - 

blotch, dagh, chut, dudora, moohasa, v. pimple. 

blow, moosht, mookkee, ghoosa, killee, war, tho- 
kur, thcs, dhumooka, zurb, chupet, v. stroke, 
{home) goongee or bheeturee-mar, v. thump, 
hurbu, V. battle, &c. {misfortune, q. v.) dhuk- 
ka, {of flies), v. calamity, &c. an unex- 
pected blow, bula,e naguhanee ; a blow or over- 
throw, shikust, huzeemut. 

to Ihw, V. n, {as wind) chulna, buhna, dolna, 
{aflre) dhookna, v. to inflate, {to pant) hamp- 
na, {to sound) bujna, bujana, {to kindle) duh- 
kana, {with the breath) phoonkna, {topiiffup) 
phoola-d. {to drive) marna, tukrana, dalna, v. 
to cast, {to divulge, q. v.) phorna, [from phoot- 
na,to burst or take wind,v, todisclose'\ {as flies) 
sa,ee-d. v. to corrupt, &c. to blow out, phoonk- 
-d. V. to exti7iguish ; to blow over {a storm, &c.) 
tul-jana, pur-jana, puta-jana, neeche- furo-h. 
or puma, nikul-jana, v. to subside; to bloiv up, 
oorjana, v. a. chulana, buhana, oorana, oora-d. 
V. to bloom ; to blow the nose, sinukna,jharna. 
Most of the above words are very extensive in 
their application and acceptation. 

blubber, bus, v. oil, also blobber. "ItSmUA n\ 

to blubber, kandna, thoonukna, bilbilana, v. to 
cry, {as a camel) bulbulana, {to swell, q. v.) 

bludgeon, lathee, kutta, gundasa, loohthee, hur- 
uothee, kootka, thengna, kootuk, v. club, : N 

blue, neela,(«i<Z^.leela) neel-goon, asraanee-rung, 
kuboodee-rung, subzu, ukasee, kubood, v. 
assure, &c. {bottle) gooh mukhee, v. fly ; blue- 
eyed, urzuq-chushm, kurrunja, kunja, v. in- 
digo, green, &c. ; black and blue, is expressed 
by neela^peela, lit. blue and yellow, .ns^v^sii^ •' 

blueish, abce-rung, neela-sa, soormu,ee, kohlee, 
V. blue, sky. 

blueness, neelaiCe. ^ 

bluff, bur-bola, ungurh, dheeth, unchheela, mug- 
ra, na-turasheedu, dhumdhoosur. 

blunder, dhoka, chook, bhool, khuta, sulioo, qoo- 
soor, ghulutee, v. error. 

to blunder, chookna, khuta- &c. -k. bhoolna. 

blunderbuss, dumanuk, ghor churhee, v. cara- 

blunderer, bhoolloo, bhoolukkur, bhoollur,uhmuq, 




. bhoolundra, usoodhee, ghuliiUgo, -kar, or -nu- 
 wees, chookec. 

Hunt, (as a knife) kcond, thootla, bhota, bhootra, 
(dull) kiuxlun, ghubee,sadu-luoh, kooncl-zihn, 
suth, jubudda, (rough, q.v.) na-humwar,sadu, 
be-imtiyaz, sukht, uojhur, oojud, kiitta, kur- 
kus, koond moond, (plain) urburung, v. rude. 

to hlunt, koond- &c. -k. (the appetite, q. v.) 
kum- bund-k. v. to allay. ^•'■~-i 

hluntly, be imtiyazee-be udubec-goostakhee-so, 
dhitha,ee-se, goostakbanii. 

hluntness, kcondee, bhootra|ee, (dullness) kcond- 
zihnee, kiiodunee, ghubawut, (roughness) na- 
turasheedu-gee, goostakhee, be-imtiyazee, sa- 
du-gee, V. plainness. 

blur, dagh, v. to blot, &c, 

to blurt, shigoofu-clihorna, kufun phar-bolna, 
kuh-buethna, v. to rattle. 

blush, khijlut, khijalut, liijab, lujja, chajh-chno- 
hahut, shunn ; at thejirst blush, puehlee jhul- 
kee, dekhte hoo,e ; / liked it at thejirst blush, 
dekhte hoo,e oosko pusund kiya muen ne. 

to blush, khijlut- &c. oothana or -khana, shur- 
mindu- moonfu,il-h. muhjoob- khiijil- zurd- 
roo-h. zurdee-chhana or duor-jana, panee- ab-, 
urq-hojana, shurmana, shurmaloodu- &c. -h. 
V. abashed, cbupna, guhna, irkha-ana, bhub- 
huma, urqi iufi,ul-ana, v. to abash,fliish, (as a 
Jlower) chojh-choohana. 

bluster, saxmaXa, furrata, ghenpen^gbool-ghupara, 
kulla, shekhee, turturahut, geedur bhubkee, 
bundur bhubkee, v. boast. 

to bluster, sunnata-bhurna, sungunana, jhurjhur- 
ana, kurr o fur- kulla thuUa- phoonphan-, 
ukratukree-k. turturana, bhubhukna, dhoom- 
muchana or -k. v. to bully. 

blusterer, laf-zun, khmd-furosh, kullu-zun, uk- 
urfoon, nooktufoon, banka, phankra, v. bully. 

bOi, do do, bom. ,, ;,, , 

l)oar, soo,ur, khook, khinzeer, burali, (toild) 
bunuela, gooraz, j unglee-80o,ur ; a swell of the 
tide, peculiar to the Ganges, 8ic, commonly 
called the boar or bore, hoomma, ban, mendlxa, 

board, tukhtu, pat, putra, v. plank, (of a book) 
duftee, V. pasteboard, (food) peliya, khora- 
kee, khana poena, (and education) tubuq su-, 
buq, V. victuals, &c. (table) sufru, dustur- 
khwan, mez, dusturee, (council) kuchuhree, 
miijlis, (deck) putuotun ; board and clotheSy 
rotee-kupra ; a small writing board, tukhtee, 
patee, luoh ; on board, juhaz- kishtee- nao- 
&c. -pur ; to board, bhirna, (i. e. to close as 
in battle). 

to board, churhna, humlu-k. (to plank, q. v.) 
patna, putuotun-k.; to board a person, khana- 
puhoonchana ; to board with, khana peena^k. 
V. to stay, also to feed, &c. 

board-wages, khoorakee. 

boarding-school, mudrusu, v. school, seminary. 

boarish, v. boar, na-turasheedu, un-chheela, un- 
gurh. .1 

boast, boasting, laf-zunep,, baba,ee, kullu- 
zunee, kulla-tjuilla, unaniyut, kuUu-durazee, 
gul-phutakee, moobalughu, ghooroor, v. pride,, shekhee-bazec, hunkar, ghumund, 
burbolee, gup, hank, pokar, alatoQnee,liunbee- 
chuorec, lunturanee, hoonda toondee, v. blus- 
ter, ostentation, &c. 

to boast, fukhr- laf zunee- &c. -k. dum-marna, 
hankna, pokarna, khuenchna, v. to swagger, 
arrogate, &c. 

boaster, laf-zun, khood-furosh, khood-sita, moo- 
baligh, kullu-zun, bur-bola, but-burha, jeeb- 
hara, boolund-purwaz, khood-suna, v. vain. 

boat, na,o, kishtee, sufeenu, bohit, nuoka,zuoruq, 
purewa ; to which I shall add the varieties,, pulwar, olaq, bhunwuliya, bhur, bet- 




ter known among us as 'paunchwas,woollacks, 
in the same way that our sloop, barge, have 
become soolf, &c. v. large, eanoe. Sec. hola, 
kutree, duona, donee, whence our denies, like 
prow from purewa, v. lighter, wherry, &c. ; 
( aj^t iottomed boat, putela ; a passage boat, 
goozare kee na,o» \_) ,V«toot5ib\a»»i ./ tsaJiob 

boatman, mullah, kishtee-ban, kewut, nuiya, 
na,o-wala, v. rower, dandee, manjhee, lit. the 
^nidshipman, or midstream-man, v. mid. 

boatswain, surhung, [corrupt, serang] guluiya. 

bob, lutkun, v. j)endant, bhoojkee, rudda, ghuch, 

. V. shove, (dry) thuppa, v. tofmiMe, (of a song) 
untra, v. chorus. 

to bob, dolna, hilna, jhoolna, ghuchghuchana, 
. bhoojkee- &c. -mama, v. to shake, {to wriggle) 
murwana. aij-WMo . 

bobin, chlioonchhee. 

bobtail, lundora. , ,,; „, ■;, . 

bobtailed, banda, loonda. "'y^r?)' .•'«^■^r^"<J'l^• • 

to bode, shugoon-d. dulalut-k. butlana, jutana. 

bodice, seenu-bund, muhrum, ungiya, choice, 

bodiless, niningkar, v. incorporeal. 

bodily, budunee,jismanee, dehee; bodily strength, 
sureer-bul, qoowwut i budunee. jaisioi^-Ijt^ 

bodkin, sootaree, durwush, sooja, soo,a. 

body, budun, deh, sureer, pinda, joossu, gat, 

kathee, ungeth, kaya, ung, jamu, tun, jism, 

akar, gutur, dhur, roond, qalib, jusud, wujood, 

.murkub, jirm, deel, v. size, sut, teh, sukt, 

 V. strength, (in comp.) undam, (the fru'nJc)kot- 

ha, (person) shukhs, admee, juna, moo,a, v. 

wight, ko,ee, v. any^ somebody, (corporation) 

mundlee, firqu, (of men) guroh, ta)mun,jutha, 

juma,u, zoomru, risalu, (in contempt) moozghu, 

let the poor body alone, bechare moor.ghe ko 

jane de, (of the army) qulb, ghol, (of a tree) 

- tunu, kcondu, (of the law, &c<) kooUiyat, 

{strength) qcovrwut,{ofacarriage, &c.) huoda, 
sundooq, phur, v. Jield, (of a boat) khol, v. 
hull, (of a river) dhara, v. corpse, {of an ar- 
row, &c.) muedan, v. shaft, (of a frame) huoz, 
zumeen, ung, v. groimd, (main part) joozi 
u,azim ; a homogeneous body, jism buseet ; the 
heavenly bodies, vijram-useeree or -opluwee ; a 
metalline body, jismi jumadee ; a vegetablebody, 
jismi nubatee ; an animal body, jismi huewa- 
nee, v. substance, &c. 

body-clothes, libas, poshak, kupre, busun, bUstur. 

bog, duldul, anduQ, phusa|0, pank, ghunghree, 
V. sioamp, (house) mukan zuroor, v. privy. 

to boggle, thithukna, jhujhukna, hutukna, hidiya- 
na, khurukna, chuonkna, pusopesh- aga- 
peechha-k. lendiyana, hichukna, v. toJlinch.M. 

boggier, chuonkel, hetha, durpokna, Mchkara, 
V. to shrink, &c. 

to boil, V. n. khuolna, khulbulana, cosijna, oosin- 
na, josh-khana, oobulna, uotna, pukna, [Euro- 
peans and their servants use phootna, but veiy 
improperly, v. to burst'\ v. a. khuolana, oobal- 
na, ooseejna, josh-d. or -k. uotana, pukana, 
seejhna, seejhana, (pulse) ghoonghnee-k. v. to 
dress, oochhalna, oochhulna, khulbulana, v. to 
wallop, (over) oophuphna, (clothes) khootof^ 
churhana. ■*' •  

boiled, mutbookb, joshandu, seejha. ' ' ' 

boiler, joshindu, seejliunhar, {vessel) khoom, 
mat, kurah, v* caldron, tusla, v. pot, pan, &c. 

boiling watet, udhun. 'iw«ifT joaoii^aK .f.tiu^i r 

boisterous, toond, sukht, fcz> bur4, sfitideecl, z6r, 
kura, V. violent. 

boisterously, zor- shiddut-se, bu-shiddut. 

boisterousnesSi shiddut, suklitee, toondee, tezee, 
zor, V. stormy. muttFJtn:. 

bold, juvvan-murd, buhadoor, soorma, muzboo^, 
murdanu, mun-gura, muncliula, bhubhootee, 
be purwa, sher-murd, sahusee, v. brave, nil* 



mood dar, numkeen, v. Jitrot^, {level) bue^x- 
wan, putsum, v. cveu, (daring, q. v.) be-bak, 
nilliir, {rude, q. v.) sir-churha, be-huya, be- 
sbunn, nlliiija, v. audacious, {as a picture) 
oobhra, noomayan, numood, {as a shore) kum- 
war, chuorus, v. steep; to make bold, iltimas-, 
urz-k. ; may I make so bold ? muen iltinjas 
kuroon ? 
holdlij, dileranu, murdanu, goostakhanu, shokhce- 
, sc, be-purwaiCe-se, be-moohaba, kholke, v. 

freely, nisung, murda-murdee, v. plainly^ 

boldness, shwja.ut, dilavvuree, jtor-ut, buhadooree, 

Hiuzbootee, tuhuwwoor, be-bakee, tUl-chulee, 

ugmuna,ee, gcostakhee, shokh.ce,, be-, be-shurmee, sukhtee, kuruklitugee, 

; doorooshtec, uojhur-pun, ukhur-pun, v. tJie adj. 

bheerta, numuk, v. spirit, energy, courage, 


bote, (armenian) gil i urtnunee, {earth) gujnee, 

Diooltanee rauttee, kaboolee mittee, gil i soorkh. 

bolster, tukiyu, balish, balistu, {pad or compress) 

gudee, V. pillow, cusJdotu 
to bolster, tukiyu- Sec, -lugana, -r. or -d. 
bolt, {bar, q. v.) belna, billee, benda, thekee, 
bUa,ee, chhitkunee, hoorka, durbund, urdunda, 
senthee, kootta, v. birdbolt, seekh, v. spit, {of 
'a lock)]\»xr, pura, {of thunder) chukkee, sillee, 
gaj, bujur, pootkee, v. dart; bolt upright, 
burchee-sa, seekh-sa, v. perpendicular, 
to boU, belna-lugana, bund-k. {to spri7ig) chhoot- 
na, nikul-purna, jliur se-nikulna, {out) phror 
or khoor se-nikulna, v. to blurt, {to swallotc) 
, dliookusna, phankna, guttukna, v. to sift, {up) 

oochuk- jhup de-oothna, v. to rear, 
bolter, {at meah) dhooksa,oo, gutka|00, phan- 

koo, V. sieve, 
bolusy qoirs, tikiysfc 
bomb, ghoobare-ka gola, v. mortar, 
to bombard, ghoobaru-chulana.1 oeiluiiaioot to 

bombardier, gurnalpe, v. gunneriny,,^^^^, 

bombast, laf-zunee, bura,ee, baba,ee, naoobalughu, 
dhvjulla, gbtjjrfish, ghooloo. 

bond, {ligature) bund, puttee, bund.hao, pat, v. 
obligation, &c. pi. t;uoq, t. fetters, {/or debt, 
&c.) tmnussook, dustawez, teep, sunud, {of 
nnioti, &c.) rishtu, silsilu, iilaqu, surishtu, 
djiaga, V. thread. 

bondage, qued, bund, useeree, giriftaree, hubs, 
bundhun, ghoolamee, v. slavery, hulqu-bu go- 
shee, tuoq-zunjeer. . .1 

bondmaid, bandee, luondee, cheree, kunefez, ku- 

bondman^ ghcnlam, buudu, pi. bundlgan, burdu, 
chela, V. slave. nifi 

Itondsman, zamin, kufeel. 

bone, huddee, har, hudda, oostookhwan, usti, uzm; 
to make no bones, khutru- undesbu- nu kuroai 

to bone, nihudda-k. ,\yrsT.'.(<A 

bonefire, uhra, ula,o, kuora, dhundhuor, dhoonee, 
agiya, v. illumination, ,v 

boneless, nihudda. 

bone-setter, shikustu-bund, kumangur, [properly 
a bow-maker^, to set bones, huddee-b. or -jorna. 

bonnet, topee, koolah, taj. 

bonny, khoob-soorut, scondur. 

bony, huddee-dar, hudeela. 

toofty, jubudda, bhooch, phudee, v. dunce. 

book, kitab, pi. kootoob, nooskhu,. pothee, jild, 
risalu, suheefu, bed^, pooran, prostuk, gootka, 
shastur, chuopta, grunth, sufeenu, bueyaz, 
duftur, {of fate) luohi muhfboz, v. alrnran, 
&c. {in comp.) namu, mala, whence rag-mala, 
a aong book, v. aecoient, collection, (stand) re- 
hul, chuo-goree; the book of life, name u,umal; 
to be in one''s book, [good graces^ putte men 
puethna. ^ 

to book, durj-k. ta«k-r. v. to in«ert:3£in .M>*A*ooi 

bookbinder, suh.haf, moojullid, jild-gur, juld-bund. 




bookkeeper, sudur m(»hurrir,kurnuin, v. account. 

book-keeping, hisab-kitab, lekha-jokha. 

bookJearned,hookish, kitab-dost, moolanu, (in the 
qoran) hafiz. 

booksellar, suh,haf, kitab-furosh. 

hookworm, dhawa, keera, {st^idious) kitab ka 

. keera. 

boom, shuhteer, lukkur, v. bar, (beacon) dhehoo, 
nusub, (chain) ar-sungul. 

to boom, bhurbhurake-a. or -j. gull guhake-a or 
-j. V. to rush. 

boon, bukhshish, bur, v. gift. 

boon, adj. khoosli-tubu, zindu-dil, yar-bash, moo- 
wafiq ; a boon companion, yar-shatir. 

boor, gunwar, jotuha, hul-jot, wuhoosh, junglee, 
gunwuela, guonroo, dihatee, koo-giyanee, v. 
clown, countryman. 

boorish, unchhecla, naturaslieedu, v. blunt, &c. 

boorishness, gunwar-puna, dihqaniyut, v. rusti- 

hoot, mozu, pi. moze, chukmu, (one leg of) pu- 
wa,ec. The English word is frequently used, 
from a false idea, that there is no other to ex- 
press it, and that mozu properly signifies a 
stocking; as this is not the case, chumre ke 
moze is a needless pleonasm. Sootee-moze, 
(i. e. thread boots) is sufficiently expressive for 
stockings, and will be generally understood, 

,bWy stocking. 

to boot, luhna, v. to profit, (something) oopur, ro- 
kun, ulawu, pha,o, ghuloo,a, rookhun, lawa- 
goo,a, roonga, v. over; I ivill give you ten ru- 
pees, and a turban to boot, muen toom ko dus 
rqopue doonga ulawu ek pugree, (put on boots) 
booted, mozu-kush. 
booth, chhuppur, v. cottage, 
bootless, ukaruth, nirgoon, v. vain, useless. 
bootmaker, mozu-gur. 

booty, loot, ghuiieemut, yughma, gharut, v. 
plunder, (to play) hureefee-k. har-khelna, v. 
to trick, &c. 

bo-peep, jhanka jhoonkee, mcwlka moolkee; to 
play bo-peep, jhanka jhoonkee-k. 

borax, sohaga, tunkar, boruq, juwa^khar. 

border, chhor, kinaru, zih, qor, damun, kuggur, 
(confine, q. v.) juwar, sunjaf, mughzee, uonth, 
anchul, v. end, (of ajield) aiee, dharee, v. to 
join, (margin) hashiyu, (of a garden, bed, &c.) 
mend. '\ 

to border, <landa menda- luga- puewustu- moot- 
tusil- qureeb-h. v. to join, v. a. hashiyu- &c. 
-lugana, v. border. 

bordered, hashiyu-dar, moohushshu, v. edge.  

borderer, siwuniya, siwunuet, surhudd-nusheen, 

hm-e (of a gun) moohree, teer, v. eagre, moonh, 
pet, V. size, boar. 

to bm'e, chhedna, bedhna, [wheiice unbedha mo- 
tee, an tmbored pearl, fig. a virgin] burmana, 
beendhna, natlina, dch-k. soorakhna, salna, 
soorakh- rukhnu- ruozum-k. v. to excavate, 
&c. (as a hm-se) kandhee-d. (to hollow) koma, 
khukhorna, (to pester) khijana, sutana, v. to 

horeas, ootra, ootruhee, badi shimal, nuseem i 
shimal, v. north. 

borer, burmu, munqub. 

horn, juna, jun, za,idu, jatuk, v. smi, whence ram- 
junee, &c. ; (in comp.) zadu, za : — thus, shah- 
zadu, born of a king; huram-zadu, base born; 
madur zad buehra, born deaf; junumee goon- 
ga, born dumb; khanu zad, ghur junuma, 
greh jatuk, born in the house.  t'"*'- • 

to be born, pueda- mootuwuHid-h. or simply horm, 
junnum- uotar-lena, v. birth; where tvere you 
born? toomharee pueda|ish kuhan kee hue? 
or toom kuhan hoo.e the .'' v. to bear. 




to borroiv, mang- ariyut iin- qurz- codhar-lena, 
huth pher- dustgurdan-lena, lena, quruzna, 
mang tang-k. warn- rin- mungncc- puencha-, {to copy, &c.) tuzmeen-ukhz- 
-k. nuql-kurlana, isti,arii-k. le-lena. 

borrowed, inoostu,ar, manga^tanga, ariyutee, 
mungnce, &c. mungut, 

borrower, ra«)stu,eer, uiuiigta, uiungunhara, v. 
debtor, &c. 

bosom, {emlrrace, q. v.) god, kuola, godee, kunar, 
{piece) purdu, v. cover, &c. {breast, q. v.) 
chhatee, seenu, {inclosure') qued, {of the earth) 
pet ; a bosom friend, hum-dum, dost-janee ; 
hosom secrets, pet kec baten. 

to bosom, pet men-r. v. to conceal. 

boss, {a stud) phool, gool, phoolee, koka, qoobuh, 
V. convexity. 

botanical, nubatatee. 

botanist, juree kulpce, v. herbalist. 

Iwtany, ilmi nubatat, juree kulp. 

botch, dagh, chut, phora, moohasa, v. clout, 

to botch, bigarna, lidhrana, ghongchana, bhonki- 

botcher, lidhra.oo, bigaroo, v. bungler. 

both, dono, [from do, two ; thus, teen, three ; 
teenon, the three ; char, charon, &c.] liur-doo, 
V. also, each, &c. ; there is both meat and drink 
in it, is men khane ka khana o peene ka pee- 
na ; carry them to the court, both Hindoos and 
Mmsulmans, oon ko udalut men lechulo kya 
hindoo kya moosulman, v. whether. 

hots, jonktee, jonkee, v. leech. 

bottle, sheeshu, soorahee,goolabee, \. glass-maker, 
&c. qurabu, meena, y.jlaggon, {of leather, q. 
V.) chhagul, koopp-a or -ee, dcnbbu, kheek, 
V. jar, &c. ; a square bottle, chuo-puhul ; 
bottle-companion, hum-piyalu, hum-kasu. 
to bottle, sheeshe men-dalna. 
bottom, tula, tulee, penda, pendee, pa,een, thah, 

imt, V. end, root, tub, gum, quer, v. ground, 
neechan, nusheb, v. hollow, {vessel) tiikhtu, 
V. ship, {cloth) zer-undaz, v. behw, under, kofi, 
V. ball, clew, &c. {foundation) jur, booniyad, 
V. base, {a dale) muedan, (o/ « lane) sira, 
V. foot. 

bottomed, tule-dar,- pcnde-dar. 

bottomless, u-thah, u-gum. 

bough, dala, dalee, shakh, dal, do-shakhu, do- 

bought, (or bow-knot) dyorhee ganth, phool, v. 

bougie, buttee. 

bounce, chuokree, guzund, lupuk, v. spring. 

to bounce, bound, kood-oothna, oochhul-chuonk- 
puma, chuokree-bliurna, kmlanch-marna, lu- 
pukna, tuppa-khana, turara-bhurna, v. to leap. 

bouncer, laf-zun, khood-furosh, moobaligh, v. 
boaster. •• 

boimd, V. boundary, {end) intiha, mcontuha, tint, 
nihayut, {leap, q. v.) kood, oochhal, v. bounce. 

bound, {participle) bund, pa-bund, pa-bustu, 
mooqueyud, muhboos, {in comp.) bustu, {obli~ 
ged, q. V.) ihsan-mund, v. ta bind, {as a book, 
&c.) bundha, kusa, moojuUud, shirazu-bund, 
V. costive, {limit, q. v.) bundhej, moo.utad, v. 
medium, {of a ball) \uppa,v.jump,{to a-place) 
azim, qasid, mootuwujjih ; where are you bound 
to ? toom kuhan ke azim ho ? 

to bound, {to spring, q. v.) koodna, oochhiilna, 
koodukna, koodrana, turupna, {to limit) sur- 
hudd-b. {to rebound) pulta-khana. 

boundary, hudd, sur-hudd, chhor, intilia, kinaru, 


danda menda, v. border, limit, {bounds) umu- 

lu, y. jurisdiction; without 6oM«ds,be-thikana, 

boundless, unbounded. 

bounded, muhdood, ghera, mootunahee. 




boundless, be-hudd, be-nihayut, be-intiha, be- 
unt, u-par, ghuer-mootuhahee. 

boundlessness, be-nihayutee. 

bountiful, bounteous, sukhee, kureem, fueyaz, 
juwwad, mookhueyur, danee, gunj-bukbsh, 
fuez-bukhsh, kurum-goostur, uta bukhsh, (in 
comp.) paluk, nuwaz, purwur, v. munifice7it ; 
bountiful to the poor, gbureeb-nuwaz, &c. 

bmrntifully, bounteously, \icoAMiA\.v&i\ee-&e^co^\&- 
du pcslianee-se, dil khol-ke, v. liberally. 

bountifulness, bbunteousness, sukhawut,bimmut, 
fuez, jood, kureemee, dad-dihisb, dan, dat, 
inam, ikrani, v. generosity. 

bounty, kurum, inayut, lootf, tuwujjooh, ultaf, 
duolut, iqbal, bukhshish, nuwazish, mihr- 
banee, kirpa, duya, fuez, fuzl, v; ^generosity ; 
by your bounty, ap ke bu duolutr,;iap ke iqbal- 
se. " ...•V'Xi-iiii'iK'^t] . -'M i^s-uv' 

bourn, hudd, intiha, cbhor, munzil, y. limit. 

to bouse, dhookusna, v. to tope. :: ! • 

bout, bar, ber, dufu, niurtubu, du^r^, baru, v. 
course, turn, match, &:c. ra) 

■iow, (obeisance) koornish, rookoo.u, ^nlam, (in- 
strumenf) kuuian, dhunook, dhu'noo, lezuni, 
quos, karmookh, v. bought, (of a vessel) peta, 
seenu, v. front ; a bamboo bow, kiimtha ; a 
practising supple bow, kubadu ; ati unfinished 
bow, hulqu; a small bow, neemcliu; tlte middle 
of a bow, qubzu ; the horns of a bow, goshu, 
[the nich of which is called kuoree] ; the bow 
of a fiddle, &c. kumanchu, kumanee; a bow 
for cleaning cotton, dhoonkee ; a pellet bow, 
ghoolel ; the rainbow, quos i qojzuh, dhunuk; 
the bow of a saddle, agwa ; to bend a bow, ku- 
man-churhana, (fig.) kuman-kheenchna ; to 
ti/tibeyid a bow, kuman-ootarna ; a bow-shot, 
purtab, tecr bhur ; a bow case, qrorban. 

to bow, V. a. nihoorana, jhookana, luchana, nu- 
wana, luchkana, khum-k. (to depress) dubana, 

sijdu- sulam- &:c. -k. v. reverence, also to bend, 
kuman-k. v. to crook; to make a bow, sir- 
jhookana, v. bow ; v. n. nihcorna, nuona, 
jhookna, luchukna, luchna, khum-h. dubna. 

bowels, unturiyan, anten, uma, sing, untree, ant, , 
rodu, (compassion) ruhm, riqqut,.durd,Bmya, 
kuroona, (inside) durmiyan. '. .1 .[•■•.im, 

bower, kmnj, rawutee, gooddee, gopha, mundwa. 

bowl, piyalu, saghur, jam, kasu, kutora, bela, 
quduh, ayagh, puemanu,butta, unta,gubboo, 
beda, v. ball, to roll, chumlee, v. cup, bason. 

bow-legged, tribhungee, v. bandy-legged. •'■•> 

bow-maker, kuman-gur,— he is also a painter, a 
bone-setter, and a palkee-maker, &c. 

bowman, bowyer, kum nuet, dhunook-dhur, ku- 
man-dar, v. archer. 

bowsprit, or bolsprit, subdhura. iV-'*n«{,", .v 

bowstring, chillu, zih, churha,o, tant, roda, [the 
two ends of which are called sesur, and tlie 
middle part for the arrow, muedan\ 

box, sundooq, (small) sundooq-chu, petee, butta, 
V. casket, (for dice, &c.) chonga, (in comp.) 
dan, whence qulum-dan, v. till, (thump) chu- 
meta, thupera, thopee, v. knock, (for pills, he.) 
dlbbiya, dubba, (bloiv) ghoosa, killee, thup- 
pur, tumachu, (oti the head) dhuol, v. slap; 
the boxtree, shumshad, buqs. 

to box, (to shut up) sundooq men bund kuma, 
(Jight) V. n. ghoosa-marna, ghoDSSum ghoossa- 
lurna, mookuwwul-lurna, v. a. ghossiyana, 
mookiyana, mcosht zunee-k. lioora hooree-k. 

boxer, mcosht-zun, hurmoora, jung-moosht. 

boy, chhokra, lurka, luonda, baluk, dhituona, 
duk, saqee,v. cup-bearer, (child) buchu, pisiir, 
chhohra, dhota, dohra, ghoolam, subee, lungur- 
wa, goorga, goorjce, v. brat, &c. ; a heavenly 
boy, ghilman, opposed to the hoors, or nymphs 
of paradise, >.iuiHKmi 3ii<r.>:JUfi f,a«^M^  ■, 

•r vv,i>/-q ./v-'i)r-.^''( .etmaq .'wli'I jjUi* ^<ASo^^ 



boyhood, chhokra-pun, lurka-pun, Iurka,ee, buch- 
pun, bal-puD, toofooliyut. 

hoyish, chhrolrohla, chibulla, chiba,ola, hulka. 

boyishly, chhokra sa, chhokron ka sa. 

Itoyishness, hoyism, choolbcolahut, hulka-pun, 
ochha,ee, v. boyhood. 

brace, bracer, bund, bundhan, kusun, bundhun, 
(of a drum) jotec, kuree, v. trace, (of a bed) 
udwa,en, ma,ecn, paiCntee, (of a carriage) 
buddhee, v. belf, (in huildlng) quenchee, v. 
harness, &c. (of a sail) kunnee, buomhee, v. 
harness, &c. (a pair) jora, jojft. 

to brace, bandhna, kusna,jukurna, (to make tense) 
sikorna, sumetna, (a drum) churhana. 

bracelet, of which in Hindoostan there is a very 
great variety, the most common are as follow : 
bazoo^bund, bhcnj-bund^ nuo-nuga, buhonta, 
bazoo-chuok, tar, chooree, choora, puhoohchee, 
juhangeeree, nuo-geerhee, nuo-rutun,kungun, 
kiira, [the eight latter belong to the fore-arm, 
as the six former do to the arm] khurwa, bun- 
guree, [whence jjerhaps bangles^ kungunee, 
moothiya, choor, puchhoo,a, burhara, putree, 
bel, unuth, torul, bala, chundwa, gureriya, 
gujra, kunguna; these are various ornaments, 
See. for the arm, v. garland, &c. (armour) 
dustanu, bank, v. ring. 

hracelet-maker, chooree-har, muni-liar, munyar, 
(Jitter) chooree-harun, &c. v. goldsmith. 

bracer, sumct, v. astriiigent. 

bracket, istadu, zamin, tekun, nikasta, v. prop. 

brackish, khara, lona, khurchha, shor, numkeen. 

brackishness, khura,ee, khurchha,ee. 

brag, laf-zunce, kullu, huwa bundee, phunk- 
ra,ee, v. bluster, boast. 

to brag, lafzunee-baba,ee-k. lumbec-chuoree- 
hankna, kullu-marna, bur-hankna, phoolphool- 
ana, naz-k. v. to vaunt. 


khrod-furosh, kbrod-turash, Yj,,bitUy, swag- 
gerer. , t I,.-. . , 

braid, goondhun, luree, chotee, mendee, biruo, 
lut, V. tresses. 

to braid, goondhna, bima, mirhna, bulna, binna, 
V. to coil. 

brain, mughz, bheja, good, diraagh. 

to brain, mughz-nikal-dalna- 

Ifrainless, be-mughz,sa)bQok-mughz,usarh; more 
bottom than brains, sir se kha,e bharee. 

brainpan, khopree, kupal, kasu. 

brainsick, gundu-mughz, khulul-dimagli. 

brake, bramble, khar, jhurberee, buer-kuntee, 
dhundhor, v. brushwood. 

bran, chbkur, bhoosee, suboos, rU|ee, boora, ku- 
nee. ^ 

branch, dalee, dal, shakh, shaklichu, shakhsar, 
jhunkhar, toondce, furii, v. ramijication, (of a 
bridle) dal, (stream) so,ee, kat, v. arm, (arti- 
cle, division, q. v.) qism, nuo,u, (of a river) 
sota, khal; any thing having two branches, do^ 
shakhu, (Jice) punj-shakhu. ' 

to branch, v. n. phuelna, v. a. phuelana, jhar-, 
jhunkhar-b. v. to digress, shakh dur shakh-h. 
buhoo dhara-h. v. to spread, (to flower) boote- 
karhna, v. to shoot. 

bra7ichless, bc-dalpal, tonda nioonda. 

branchy, shakh-dar, poor-shakh, lotun, jhpondla, 
jhumtar. ^Vn^m.^ 

brand, (stick) sokhtu, loskthee, lo,at, meraree, 
V. sword, (mark) dagh, gcnl, cliinh, chhap, 
(stigtna) hiurf, kulunk, y.^rebrand, Ssc. 

to brand, dagh- &c. -d. or -lugana, hurf-lana, 

V. to asperse, 
to brandish, ghoomana,phirana,chumkana,bhanj- 

na, V. to display, 
brandy, urq-iuigooree, v. spirit, Ssc 
brasier, thu«thera, kusera, bhur-tiya, niis-gur, 
(firepan, q. v.) boorsee, v. stove, &c. 




brasil-wood, buqum, mujeeth. 

brass, peetul, biriiij. 

brassy, peetulha, pitrahund, pitra,end, peetulsa, 

V. braxen. 
brat, luonda, chingna, huram-zadu, pilla, na- 

shoodunee, chhuona, ghata, wara-dhendha, v. 

imp, bastard. >(},ui av 

brats, kuch bucli, lurke purke, chench pench. 
bravado, dhuruUa, dhumkee, dhurukka, geedur- 

bhubkee, v. bluster, brag, 
brave, buhadoor, dilawur, diler, juvvau-murd, 

murdanu, bc-jan, soor, beer, jodha, sawunt, 

shcDJa,u, muzboot, juree, soojan, dil-chul, ra- 

wat, jtorutec, roostum, sur-baz, v. gallant, bold, 

{excellent) khassu, toohfu, bihtur. 
to brave, humchushmee- mooqabulut- hconda- 

toondee- surkushee-k. hankna, liunkarna, un- 

gootha-dekhana, v. to dare, 
bravely, murdanu, dUeranu, buha-dcnranu, shoo- 

ja,ut- &c. -se. 
Irravery, buhadooree, juwanmurdee, muzbootee, 

be-janee, shooja|Ut, joor-ut, sliuhamut, dilchu- 

lee, jigurdar-ce, &c. v. the adj. also spirit, 

hravo, khoonee, suffak, qatil, v. assassin, {inter- 
jection) shabash, wah wah, afreen, wachhre, 

bhulbi, wahjee, dhunijee, zihi, murhuba, v. 

brawl, galee-giluoj, ghoolghupara, phukkur, 

jhugra rugra, ghuogha, khurkhushu, bukhera, 
• jihalut, jhugra, dhoomdham, shor shar, urbu- 

du, thookkum, thojkka, mardhar, tuobu-dhar, 

gooha lutharee, rurho pootuho, chjieeha chhee, 

V. altercation. 
to brawl, galea giluoj- &c. -k. 
brawler, jhugraloo, luraka, bukbukiya, ghuo- 

gha,ee, bukheriya, v. squabbler, &c. 
brawn, motapa, inota,ee, {of the leg) pindlee, 


phllee, V. calf, bul, ghat, pind, chukka, v, 
strength. i .ultnJ ^t.. nrj 

brawny, hajrmcoshta, ghuteela, soo-pind, chuh- 
kueth, V. sturdy, athletic. 

bray, renk. ^ 

to bray, {to pound) kootna, {as a7i ass) renkna. 

brazen, peetluha, peetul-ka, birunjee, {age) dwa- 
pur-joog, V. shameless. . , , , (sfXly^^; 5. ■"-. 

brazen faced,chviT^x&fio, mookra,oo,v. impudent. 

to firn^eWjgoostakliee- ghoorfish-k,dj:iiraiia,dhum- 
kana, chuprana, mookrana. ^ --'• 

breach, durar, toot, phoot, rukhnu, durz, sliikaf, 
naka, phar, sendh, nuqub, boghara, v. gap, 
{of law) tuolieen, v. infraction, {of peace) bi- 
dut, V. violence, {difference) bigar, khulul, ikh- 
tilaf, nifaq, bhung, nachaqee, v. to break. 

bread, rdtee, nan, kuchuoree, {in general) khana, 
danu-panee, khana peena, unjul, rozee, ab- 
khoor, tikee, pet, nan o numuk, numuk, bun- 
ijh, V. livelihood, &c. {plai7i) nan abee, op- 
posed to nan rogliunee, v. butter, {daily) nan 
shub, tookra un-aj, v. fare. 'yj|; ,.55.^,? ' 

breadth, chuora,ee,, urz, puhn, puh- 
na,ee, puesai", kol, tukhtu, v. width, puhna, 
{vulg. punlia) bur, {of a river) pat, {of a wall) 
asar. > ."iiS. vbtiiiA>t4'«*'-.v ,»?'"i i'tl' •:'?!• .i** 

break, toot, phoot, {of day) bhor, buree fujur, 
V. early, turka, soobh, puhphute, noorketurke, 
pratkale, v. dawn, fasilu, untur, v. ifiterrup- 
tion, {a pause) suktu, wuqfu, thuhra,Oj, v. 
breach. .^-j-iut ->«ii)j^f-«.htt,.,j. .wf^gf ^x>nt>,■i^ 

break-neck, gurdun-tor. .?,al^y«43-^«i*.,vn.' 

break-promise, buchun bhung, uhud shikun. 

to break, ioi-na, phorna, pharna, bhanjna,turkana, 
V. to crack, mama, girana, puchharna, v. to 
destroy, sadhna, nikalna, liumwar-k. v. to 
train, {to pound) neem kob- juokob- durdura- 
-k. V. to powder, &c. burturuf-k. v. to dis- 
card, {open) tortar- tor phar-k. torke-kholna, 




{a fall) chot- &c. -bucliana, v. blotv, also to 
save, (o house) sendh-marna, v. house-breaker, 
&c. (Ihe neck) munka-torna, {through troops) 
cheer nikulna, v. to open, (as morning) puli- 
phutna, {to propound) chherna, izhar-k. v. to 
tell, (a promise, law, &c.) bhung- fuskli-k. 
(out) bol-oothna, v. to hhtrt, oobhurna, phud- 
phudana, kuch-kuchana, ookusna, v. ertiption, 
(astheface) moonh-phulna, v. efflorescence, (as 
jlre) jul-oathna, v. to burst, (as a merchant) 
tootna, girna, tat-oolutna, shikustu-h. v. to fall, 
also bankrupt, &c. (as waves)  dhe,oo-marna, 
(one'' s fast) nihar shikunee- iftar-k. rozu-khol- 
na, V. fast, (in pieces) tookie- choor-k. (to 
defeat) shikust-d. (a Jiorse) arastu-k. soodh- 
ama, bunana, (to bankrupt) moohtaj-mcoflis-k. 
(to disband) hoorra^k. tor-dena, (to intercept) 
buchana, sumbhalna, (to reform) chhora-d. 
ootha-d.; to break a jest, thutha-k. or -mama; 
to break off", nioonqutu-k. chhorna; to break up, 
(dissolve) muoqoof- bhung- burkhast-k. (to 
open) qoofl-torna; to break wind, huwa-chjfior- 
na, V. n. tootna, phootna, phutna, (as day) ni- 
kulna ; to break from, nikul-bhagna ; to break 
in, dukhl-k. toot-purna ; to break loose, tora- 
bhagna; to break off', chhora-bhagna,ooth-bhag- 
na; to break out, phoot-nikulna, phootna, (to 
he dissolute) khool-khelna ; to break up, burk- 
hast- bhung-h. ; to break a promise, iqalu-k. 
nukarna. As in English, these verbs have 
such a variety of acceptations, and are often so 
perplexingly combined, that it is not easy to 
fix, with any precision, their various and al- 
most unlimited meanings ; v. the several words 
In Vol. II. also to crack, split, he. 
breaker, torwuya, phorunhar, phorwar, fasikh, 
(in cwnp.) shikun, bhung, tor, mar, (wave) 
simuoju, v. boar, &c. 
breakfast, nashta, hazree nuharee, balbhog, nan- 

niharee, chasht, v. repast, (time) zooha, v. 

to breakfast, nashta-k. nuhar-torna, julpan-k 

breast, chhatee, seenii, oor, hirda, heera, v. mind, 
(dug) choonchee, kooch, ooroj, pistan, jijiya,^ 
usthun, jobun, doodhee, (arms) kochha, olee, 
V. embrace, (heart, q. v.) kuleja, mun, du 
jigur, ghut, untuh kurn, pet, v. bosom, belly, 
&c. ((f a bird, &c.) pctee, v. chest, (swelled) 
thunuela, (-high) chhatee-bhur or lug. 

breast-belt, seenu-bund, also breast-pin. 

breast-lHMie, surseenu. 

breast-high, chhatee-lug, chhatee chhatee. 

breast-plate, chupras, petee, chara,iynu, dholna, 

breast-work, fuseel, (vulg. sufeel) kungooru, v. 
parapet, seenu-punah, puchree, sungur,v. bar- 
ricade, &c. 

breath, dum, sans, nufus, swasa, v. ivind, [which, 
as in English, are of extensive application] 
(of air) tikora, muoj, rumuq, jhupka, sunuk, 
V. breeze, (to be out of) sans-tootna, dumbhur- 
jana or churhna, Qiaving stinking) gundu du- 
hun, moonh sura, (to draw) dum-marna or 

to breathe, (to inspire) dum- &c. -lena, (to expire) 
dum-chhorna, (to inject) dum-phoonkna, (in- 
hale) lena, (ajlute, &c.) bujana, phoonkna, 
(to exhale, &c.) dena, (revenge) intiqam ka 
dum-marna, (mie's last) akhiree dum-lena, v. 
to expire. 

breather, swasee, dum-dar, dum-kush, v. inspirer. 

breatliiug, v. respiration, also the verb. 

breathless, be-duni, ni-sansa ; the breathless clay, 
bejan mittee. 

breech, v. backside, (of a gun) peechha, penda, 
chootur, v. back. 

breeches, kuchhna, kachh, janghiya,lang, churna, 




kuchhuota, goorgee, (band) nefu ; to wear the 
breeches, pugree-b. v. turban. 

breed, nusl, us], zat, pal, byant, pet, v. birth, 
&c. {family, q. v.) qubeelu, {race) uolad, 
suntut, suntan, (hatch) '^hol; pure breed, useel; 
crossbreed, doghla, doo-nusla, (-/iOJ*se)mcDJ an- 
nus, V. mongrel. 

to breed, pueda-k. nikalna, junana, byana, lana, 
V. to rear, lugana, muchana, oothana, dalna, 
V. to cause, {to bring up, q. v.) palna, {to edu- 
cate, q. V.) turbiyut-d. or -k. arastu-k. dhung- 
-d. bunana, sunwarna, v. n. pueda-h. oopujna, 
junna, hoiia, ruhna, lugna, pulna, purwurish- 
pana, soodhurna, sunwurna, bunna, turbiyut- 
pana or -li. v. to produce, rise, &c. {as a fe- 
male) pet-ruhna, muheena-tulna or churhna ; 
to increase as a breed, pal-burhna, v. to pro- 

breeder, juntee, (o/ca<^/e),gullu-ban, churwaha, 
{a prolific female) buchu-kush, gubhel, {as a 
mare) so,en, v. prolijic, {in comp.) pal, paluk, 
ban, V. keeper. 

breeding, turbiyut, tu,uleem, jlmi mujlis, 4^ung, 
{manner, q. v.) chulun, qureenu, lucWiun ; 
good breeding, hoosn khoolq, v. nurture, &c. 

breeze, jhlkora, jhoka, tikora,luhur, jhook, muoj, 
V. zephyr, &c. 

breviary, moontukhub, uorad bundugee, v. epi- 
tome, prayer-book. 

brevity, kotahee, ikhtisar, ijmal, v. short, concise. 

to brew, joshandu-k. bunana, v. to prepare, {to 
contrive) muthna, v. to churn, {ale) bozuguree-, 
bozukushee-k. {to plot) pukana, bandhna. 

brewer, bozu-kush, bozu-gur. 

brewing, ghan, v. batch. :;I: ■id^.uVA' 

bribe, rishwut, ukor, ghoos, moonh-bhuree or 
topa, V. present. 

to bribe, rishwut-d. or -khilana, ukor-d. ; to take 
a bribe, risliwut- &c. -khana or -lena. 

briber, rashee, rishwut dene wala, ukoree, ghoo- 
siya, also the bribed, ghooskha|00 ; the person 
bribed, rlshwut-khor, rishwutee, mcxjrtushee, 
rishwut khane wala. 

bribery, rishwut-khoree, v. corruption, 

brick, cent, khisht, {large) chuoka, v. tile, {kiln) 
bhutha; there are two or three kinds, the 
furma eent, also the kaghzee, kuchee, unburnf, 
and the pukkee, burnt. 

to brick, eent-bichhana, khurunja-b. , 

brickbat, rora, koocha, v. lump, &c. 

brickdust, soorkhee. 

brick-kiln, puzaya, {culg. jiujawa) awa. j; 

In'icltlayer, raz or raj, thuwU|ee, v. mason. ^,^j 

brickmaker, khisht-puz, eent-wala. ^ . ;. i 

bridal, shadee,byah,byahta, v. WMpiiaZ, {presents, 
dress, &c.) sachuq, buree, pahoor, {ceremony) 
julwa, arsee-moos,huf, moonh-dekha,ee. 

bride, doolhun, ooroos, banoo, bunee, bunree, 
bunnoo, kuniya, budhoo, v. virgin, {cake) 
math, nan, inanda. tt^^ji;j_. ( , •.\*v*l'»>. 

bridegroom, doolha, nuo-shuh, bunra, buna, bur, 

bridegroom'' s-ma7i, shuh-bala, {friends) guonhar, 
buratee. .„,'t ij,i^UA ."' 

bridemen, bridemaids, haraX, {sing, buratee, yem. 
buratin) buriyat, suriyat. 

bridge, pool, set, sankho {of the nose) bansa, ku^u- 
butuen, {of a fiddle) ghorec, ghorunj, khuruk; 
to make a bridge, pool-b. ; to form a bridge of 
boats, pool bundee-k. [but little used by the 
natives, among >vhom the word has an Inde- t 
cent equivocal meaning] v. to bank. ' 

bridle, lugam, bag, inan, v. rein, bit, &c. {of ca- 
mels, &c.) nukel, {of cattle) nath ; as in Eng- \ 
lish these words have a figurative meaning also. 

to bridle, {a horse) lugam-d. {to restrain) utka- 
na, rokna, barna, {hold up) uenthna, ukurna, 
V. to strut, 8sc. 




bridle-strap, gooltuna. 

brief, adj. kotah, mookhtusur, tung, sunchhcp, 
chhota, moojmul, v. short, a brief, intikhab, 
!V. epitome, diploma, Ssc. .v ,ut:;ji(>,tu 

briefly, ikhtisar- &c. -sc, v. brevity,' ghuru/., 
qissu-kotah, qissu mookhtusLr, hasili kulam. 

hriefness, kotaliee, ikhtisar, tungee. 

brier, suda goolab, syotee, v. rose. 

brigade, dustu, kushoon, toomun, v. body. Sec. 

brigadier, dustu-dar, toomun-dar, v. general. 

Irrigajid, shoohdu, quzzak, v. freebooter. 

bright, saf, ruoshun, taban, tab-nak, pojla, oojjul, 
oojagur, prikashit, chumukta, jlla-dar, jul- 
wxigur, mconuwwur, zahir, ubyuz, v. clear, 

to be bright, chumukna, jhulukna, v. shine. 

to brighten, v. a. jhulkana, jhumkana, chum- 
kana, oojlana, opna, ruoshun- &c. -k. jila- &c. 
-d. nikharna, v. to exalt, &c. v. n. phurcha-, 
saf-li. khool-jana, nlkhurna, v. to clear, sharpen. 

brightness, brilliancy, ruoshunec, oojala, chum- 
chumahut, op, prikash, tab-daree, tab, julwu- 
guree, ab-daree, shuffafee, sufa,eo, furogh, bue- 
yaz, z.iya, zoohoor, chcahul, phur(;}ia,ee, lumu, 
chumkaliutjV. splendour, histre, acute7iess,kc. 

hrillinnt, ruonuq-dar, ba-ruouuq, choohul-dar, v. 
bright, acute, &c. (a diamond) ulmas, heera, 
chintamun heera. 

brim, lub, kinaru, moonh, uonth, kunkha, dan- 
tec, V. lip. 

to brim, lubalub-bhurna, moolubbub-k. 

Itrimful, lub-a-lub, moonh-a-moonh, mcolubbub, 
iub-rez, bhur-poor, nialamal, v. bumper. 

brimstone, gundliuk, goglrd, v. sulphur, &c. 

brinded, hrindle, khal-dar, ubiuq, luhur-dar, ka- 
kca, V, pyebald. 

brine, ab-shor, lon-gura, panec, khara-panec, 

lona- or namkeen-panee, kharee. 
to bring, lana, (w le-ana) anna, v. to make. 

lewa-lana, lekur or -letc-ana, puhonchaua, bo- 
lalana, ootjiwa-lana, v. to siimmon, (to incline) 
jhookana, v. to cause, phirana, v. to reclaim^ 
(to produce) pueda-k. {to lead) kheechna ; to 
bring aliout, buna-lana- w -A. bur-lana,v. to ac- 
complish ; to bring forth, nikahui, v. to bear ; 
to bring off", biicha-lana, nikal-lana, nibah- 
lana; to bring over, phor-lana, khecnch-lana ; 
to bring under, upne tuhut men-lana; to britig 
up, palna, purwurisli-k. posna, turbiyut-, 
dhung-d. (to adoance) burha-lana, todisengage, 
promote, &c. It is not easy to set hmits to the 
various meanings and arbitrary combinations 
of tliis verb. 

bringcr, lane-wala, (m comp.) awur, bur, v. 

brinish, briny, khara, numkeen, shor, lona. 

brink, kurara, urara, kinaru, teer, v. side. Sec. 

brisk, choost, chalak, juld-baz, chabook, shokh, 
tez, toond, juld, phoortcela, chutputiya, chun- 
chul, uchpul, V. gay, spirited. Sec. 

briskly, choostee-se, juldee- &c. -se. 

briskness, choostee, clialakee, juld-bazee, cha- 
bookee, zindu-dilee, shokhee, tezee, toondee, 
jan-daree, jan-bazee, uchpulee, juldee, chut- 
putahut, chunchulee, v. activity. 

bristle, kuch, soo,ur ka bal. 

to bristle, bal-thirrana, phmruhree-lena, ro,an- 
khura-k. kundrana, deh-suhurna, v. to erect, 
hair, &c. 

bristly, kutuela, khar-dar, v. quill. 

to brite, kooriyana, v. to shoot. 

brittle, nazook, soubook, phooska, thuska, mur- 
kuna, thoonka, urur, kurkuna, bhoorbhcBra, 
tccnuk, V. fragile. 

brittleness, nazcokee, muruk, murkahut^ b^oor- 
bhoorahut, v. to snap, crumble, S6C►^{l1l^.|-; 

broach, seekh, v. breast-belt, ornament, spii. 

to broach, chhedua, salna, khohia, v. to open, (to 




, V 

give out) kuh-dena, ishtihar- prikasli-k. 
shoohrut-d. v. to proclaim, 
hroacher, moojid, banee, mookhturi, kurta. 
broad, chuora, ureez, urz-dar, puhn-dar, khoo- 
lasu, khoola, bur-dar, furakh, v. wide, bharee, 
mota, goonda, v. gross, {square) chuo-khoonta, 
V. dapper, (-shouldered) charshanu, (-ways) 
chuora,ee-se or -men, chuorake; to make broad, 
chiiorana, chuklana, (open) khoola, zahir; 
hroad-day, din-diya, roz i ruoshun ; to give a 
broad hint, awazu-phenkna; as broad as long, wahid, eksan, juesee teen beesee wuesa 
sath ; like six of one, and half a dozen of the 

broadcloth, banat, siiqurlat. 

broadness, chuora,ee, chukla.ce, bur, urz, puhna, 
V. breadth. 

broadside, shulukh, v. volley. 

broadsword, tulwar, tegha. 

brocade, keemkhwab or kumkhwab, vulg. kin- 
kab, kingcob ! zurbuft, zurdoz, badlu, tash, 
tumamee, liippa, wusmu, mooqueshee, usa,o- 
ree, zuree. 

brocaded, badlu- &c. -posh, v. siipra, aXso golden. 

brogue, ghelwahut, v. to drawl, khurpa, chhee- 
tur, khuonsra, v. shoe. 

broil, jhugra, jhun jhut, bukhera, ruendha, tuk- 
rar, quziyu, hoojjut. 

to broil, bhoonna, kubab-k. blioojna, bhoolusna, 
jhuonsna, jhoolusna, v. to roast, &c. 

brokage, brokerage, duUalee, huqq oos-su,ee, roo- 
soom, dustooree, arhut, mooqeemee, v. fee. 

broken, toota, phoota, shlkustu, khustu, mara, 
V. dispersed, (hatid) shikustu-khiitt, nagurec, 
(with sorrow) seenu-chak, (down with misfor- 

'■ tunes) shikustu-bal, (/»eariferf)dil-shikustu, slii- 
kustu-khatir, dil-figar, mun-muleen, (backed) 
kumree, luchra, (as a tube) dum chora, or 
broken-winded, as a horse, &c. (sleep) kuchee 

neend, (meat) tookra nuwalu, v. morsel, f&c. 
aho to break. . n 

broker, dustooriya, arhutiya, durmiyanee, moo- 
qeem, dullal, v. factor, koohnu furosh, v. brok- 
bronchocele, khoonaq, ghegha, gheghwa. 
brood, buchche, pote, gede, jhol, v. young, pal, 

byant, v. birth, 
to brood, buethna, syona, (over any thing) unde- 
shu- turuddood- &ec. -k. (ivatch over) agorna, 
V. to mope, to nourish, 
broody, kooruk. 

brook, nala, v. river, stream, &c. 
to brook, burdasht- boordbaree- ungez- subr- tu- 

hummcnl-k. suhna, oothana, v. to bear, 
broom, jharoo, jarob, burhnee, booharee, jha,oo, 
jhar, (Spanish) urhur, ruhur, [miscalled by us 
gram.'j jent, v. tamarisk, &c.  ,i;r!; >; . 

broth, shorba or shoorwa, (vulg. soorwa) jhor, ' 

pureh, jhoos, v. soup, 
brothel, khurabut-khanu, v. bawdy-house. ''«"' 
brother, bha|ee, biradur, beer, bhrata, beerun, 
tat, bhuya, bhUiC, meeta, banh, aqa, ukhee, 
pi. ukhwan,qoowwut bazoo, v. comrade,Jriend, 
&c. (in laiv) sarhoo, hum-zcolf, khoosur pooru, 
(the woman's) jeth, bhuensoor, dewur, nun- 
,do,ee, V. sister, &c.; a twin brother, tuomee- 
bha|Ce, \. foster, fellow ; full brother, upna- su- 
ga-suhodur- or huqeeqee-bha,ee ; step-brother, 
bemat-bha,ee, suotela-bha,ee ; brother-in-law, 
brother] sala; brother'' s son, bhuteeja, [-daugh- 
ter] bhuteejee, {-wife] bhawuj, bhabee. 
brotherhood, biraduree, eganugee, bhuyapa, up- 

na,et, bha,ee puna, v. fraternity, 
brotherly, biraduranu, bha,ee ka sa, bhuewadee, 

upna,etee, v. affectionate, 
brow, ubroo, bhuon, bhirkoDtee, bhroor, bhroom, 
trikootee, (of a hill) lub, chhatee, v. breast. 




&c. (forehead, q. v.) kupal, lulat ; brow to 
hrotc, rooburoo, v. to confront. 
to browbeat, dubana, dubkana, ankh-dikhlana, 

biighoo,ana, v. to depress, to bully, 
brown, giindoomee-rung- gihoon-ning, chum- 
pu,ec-rung, sundulec-rung, badamee-rung, 
bhoora, sburbutee- or shooturee-rung, khuera ; 
brown study, ghalut ghol. .♦ .jtutJA 

hrmcnish, gundoom-goon, bhoora-sa, kupul. 

hrmight, laya hoo.a, awoordii ; he was hrovght by 
sueh a one, or of such a one''s bring-ing, wooli 
fulane ka awoordu hue, v. to bring: 

browse, pala, ghas-pat, v. fodder. tm ,Aiu 

to browse, churna, chcogna, toongar-k. chool- 
boolana, choonna, ala pala- &c. -khana, v. to 
feed. - 

bruise, chot, koochla,ec, v. hurt. 4>'f I'r 

to bruise, koochulna, koonchna, dulna, peesna, 
urdawu-k. chikna choor-k. v. to break, to 

bruit, shoohrut, boo, v. fame, report. 

to bruit, shojhrut-oorana, v. to publish. 

brunette, sanola, subzu, syam-burun, findooqee, 
pookbtu, pukka, v. brown, nut. .«">« ; . 

brunt, zor, bul, jhonk, bheer, wuhlu, v. shock. 

brush, koonchcc, kooncb, v. fan, pota, liuthce, 
kheesa, v. rubber, (forties) chuonree, chun- 
\rur, moorchhul, v. tooth, {assault) jhurup, 
tukkur, V. besom, &c.; apainter''s brush, moo- 

to brush, V. a. koonchec-marna, jharna, jhar-d. ; 
to brush up anj///tiw^, jhar jhutuk- jhar jhoor-, 
jhar poncbh-k. v. to wipe ; to brush or scamper 
off", huwa- kafoor- cbumput-hojana, khisuk- 
jana, v. to disappear. 

brushwood, jharec, jhar, jharboota, bunchhoolee, 
dhandh, jungul, v. brake. ' (iv ) tU. 

brushy, jhotree-dar. ' i-ia^u ,ijooVi.'ivko0 t(^! 

brutal, brutish, huewanee, huewan ka, kuttur, 

kutta, oojud, uojhur, ukkhur, kuthin, sung- 
dil, V. barbarous, cruel, fierce, also disposition, 
brutality, brutishucss, huewaniyut, subiyut, v. 
Irrutal, Sec. 

brutally, brufishly, hiiewan ka sa, dooroushtee- 
&c -sc, V. barbarous. 

brute, huewan, huewani mootluq, wuhshco, jan- 
wur, (savage, q. v.) bun-manoos, bunchur, 
nusnas, v. animal, brutal, beast. ., ,•/ _,,;Jo 

Irryony, fashiru, bimba, bimbika. 

bubble, hoobab, boolboola, booUa, boolooka, bhub- 
kor, (Jig.) soo,e ka sembul, dhokha, jool, 
mooghalutu, nuqshbur ab, numood be bood, 
indra,en ka phul, v. cheat, deception, (the per- 
son) bhugga, khiluona, v, cully, &:c. 

to bubble, hoobab- &c. -oothna, dhur-dhurana, 
j^ir-jhirana, khul-bulana, khul-khulana, v. to 
tvallop; V. a. (to cheat, q. v.) dhokha- &c. -d. 

bubbler, daghuoliya, dugha-baz, v. deceiver. 

bubby, chhatee, cboonchce, kosch, ooroj, cor, pis- 
tan, thun, [but generally aj)plicablc to beasts] 
(large) choochul, v. dug, teat. Sic. 

bubo, bud, baghee, khuyaruk, gohiya, kukhuo- 
lee, khukhurwaree. 

bzick, (male deer) huma, him, hunna, mirg, v. 
ratn, &c, (beau, q. v.) chhuela, banka, v. fop, 
(liquor) reh-panee, v. male, &c, 

to buck, V. to boil, bleach, lugna, v. to rut. 

bucket, clol, dulo, dolchee, chhagul, kuth nuhee, 
chonga, (of leather) moth, cliurs, bara. 

buckle, chupras, buksoo.a. 

to buckle, chupras-lugana, bandhna, kusna, luga- 
na, V. to fasten, kumur-b. v. to prepare, (to 
arm, ov prepare firr any thing) kumur bundee- 
tueyaree-k. v. to cjicounter. 

buckler, dhai, phuree, sipur, teep, v. shield; arm- 
ed with a 6Mc/c/er,sipur-bund; abucklerbearer, 




hud, konpul, kulee, phoonung, toosee, kulgha, 
shigoofu, ghoonchu, unkhwa, v. sprout. 

to bud, kuliyana, konpul- &c. -phootna or -nl- 
kulna, phootna, nikulna, {fig.) buhar-pur- 
hona, V. tofiourish. 

to budge, hutna, tulna, surukna, dubna, deegna. 

budger, tulwuya, v. mover, &c. 

budget, thuelee, keesu, zumbeel, guthree, boq- 
chu, V. bag, (store) ganth, poonjee. 

buff, khal, post, chumra, sabur, v. hide, (suit) 
saburee- or churmee-libas, v. skin. 

buffalo, bhuensa, muehika, kuthra, tehan, khola, 
(female) bhuens, jamoos, muhish, (heifer) 
osur, purwa, puriya, (wild) hurna, urna, 
(young) para, osra, soongra, kara. 

buffet, mookkee, killee, moDk, ghoosa, dhuol, 
thupera, thuppur, moosht, tumachu, v. blow, 

to buffet, dhuoliyana, ghoosiyana, mookkee- &c. 
-mama or -jurna, v. to bow, &c. 

iz<j^ow,muskhuru, bhand, phukkur-baz, huzzal, 
muzkhoorlizee, zutulee, v. jester, fool, &c. 

huffoortery, tumuskhoor, muskhura-pun, tusukh- 
, khoor, muskhurgce, liuzl, v. mimickry. 

hug, khut-mul, ooris, khut-keera, ninaya, soor- 
huk, (_/!/) gundhee. .vnA) vOj^ ,,.»• 

bugbear, dhurukka, dhurulla, qissu, wulim, khi- 
yal, gogo, bhokus, bagh-dhooha, v. scarecrow, 
bear, &c. 

buglehorn, kurna,e, toorhee, nursingha. 

hughss, booghlusun, ga,o-zuban, lisan oos suor. 

to build, tu,umeer- blna-k. bunana, oothana, 
bandhna, lugana, v. to erect, run, (to rest) thu- 
i,utimad- oommed- bhurosa- as-r. ; to build 
castles in the air, puthur men jonk lugana, 
dhor kee russee butna, khiyal kham bandhna, 
huwa ke buboole phorna. 

builder, mi,umar, bumia, raz, ghur karee, v. ar- 
chitect. vo-i^Km 0*1 .-f .(M)iu<i(yn ./y»«rt6 

building, imarut, huwelee, muhul, poor, [whence 
Raj poor, a raja's place'\ ; buildings, &c. on a 
spot of ground, umulu, v. premises. 

built, imarut, nuqshu, duol, buna,o, bunawut. 

bulb, (root, q. v.) ganth, girih, potee, pootiya, 
aree, v. knot, nob, &c. ■•'vyt. '/'\'c<\\ 

bulbous, girih-dar, gutheela. 

to bulge, mara-jana, phutna, v. to iwrs^, jhookna, 
V. to protuberate, (to jut out) oobhurna. 

bulimy, liuoka, \. voracity. 6«Tr»rn fci -Kiiifof 

bulk, mota,ee, bura,ee, (size, q. v.) qudur, pri- 
man, bit, qud, phand,pet, bistar, v. body, size, 
bhur, burabur, v. full, (the majority) jum- 
hoor, buhcot, \. gross; the bulk of the people, 
uksur-ushkhas, uksur-log, unek-log, v. quan- 
tity, &c. ; the bulk of a pea, mutur-bhur. 

bulkiness, motapa, jusamut, tunawuree, zukha- 

bulky, mota, bura, juseero bharee, qudawur, 
boorj-sa, bookka, v. corpulent, large, he. ; to 
break bulk, bhurtee- ruqum-torna, v. cargo, 
&c. ; bulky of body, iizecm ooljussu. 

bull, nur-ga.o, andoo buel, burdh, brikhub, bijar, 
unudwan, j(to give the) burdhana, (baiting) 
urna-bazee, v. buffalo, (calf) bachlia, buchhra, 
(fool) khuela, v. steer, (a free bull) sand, 
(cmistellation) suor, brikh, (blunder) ghulut, 
chook, dhokha, ubhoorut, logbirodh, v. mis- 
application, (to catch by the horns) bagh ka 
moonh choomna. 

bullet, golee ; a ball, gola. 

bullion, seem-o zur, chandee-sona, sona-roopa, 
kuta,ee, y. plate. > • — ' 

bullock, buel, khuela, adar, dangur, dhugga, V. 
bull, (driver) buldiya, baldee, v. cattle, ox. 

bully, ncoktu-foon, ukur-foon, banka, phuiphu- 
rlya, shekhee-baz, moowukkil, gola-dung, 




sher-qaleen, hur-mcnshtuk, kuUu-zun, bhur- 
wa, V. blusterer, he. 

to bully, dhirana, dhum-kana, lafzunee- baba,ee-, 
ghcorfish-fc. V. to browbeat. 

bullying, lafzunee, shekhee, ghoorfish, baba,ee, 
kuUu-zunee, bura,ee, dhuons, dhundla. 

bulrush, bura-motha. 

bulwark, boorj, kotha, qulu-chu, hisar, x.fort, 
kumur kota, v. castle, phulsa, v. screen, {secu- 
rity, q. V.) phatuk, sud, v, to barricade, 8ec. 

btrni; chootur, nitutnbh, sooreen. 

bump, goomra, guthiya, ganth, girib, duduora, 
V. knob, swelling. 

to bump, dhubake se baethna, v. thump, {as a 
bittern) bok bok-k. 

bumper, lubalub-piyalu, jam i lubrcz, v. bowl, 
and full. 

bumpkin, koondu, thoo,a, dhondha, buel, gunwar, 
V. countryman. 

bunch, gcDchha, khoshu, ghuor, dustu, ghonpa, 
guera, joorec, mootha, kandhec, guodh, poon- 
jee, V. cluster {of keys) gunj, v. set, hump, 8ec. 
{of greens, &c.) guddee, poolee, antce, poola, 
{of sugar canes) phandee, {of ribbons, &c.) 
phool, {tuft) jhoondee, chontee; a earners 
bunch, kohan, v. bundle. 

to bunch, phuelna, jhar-b. 

bunchiness, phuela.o, v. bushy, &c. 

bunchy, chhutnar, goochhe-dar, 

bundle, dust-booqchu, guthree, mootree, potlec, 
pot, bustu, V. bunch, poolinda, bidree, v. par- 
cel, &c. {of goods, &c.) benda, v. load, {of 
papers) tubluq, v. roll, {of grass, &c.) poosh- 
taru, bojha, gutha, {of pots, melons, &c.) jala, 
a net, khancha, a basket, from these commo- 
dities being brought in nets, &c. for sale. 
to bundle, guthrec-b. or -k. aatiyana, v. to pack, 
bung, gutta, dhtrtha. iioMiwrt ,^T»>TAyV ,BJ8tfh 
to bung, gutta^. or -juma. >rfb.-r6ub ,^\*«>'i - 

bung-]u>le, chhcd, soorakh, duhunu, moohreei 
Imngle, cho<jk, bigar, be-wuqoofee, v. mistake, 
to bungle, bigarna, nakaru-bunana, v. to blun- 

bungler, koorh, phoobur, moorukh, unaree, na- 
azmoodu-kar, na-kusbee, kham-dust, bhooch, 
V. to botch. 

bunglingly, be-duol, bud oosloob, behoonuree-se, 
V. clumsily. 

bunn, huhva sohun, gunduora, v, cake. 

hunter, but johee. 

htwy, lungur ka nishan, lungur-nooma. 

to buoy, ootrana. ^ 

buoyancy, ootirahui, v. to float. 

buoyant, hulka, ootira|00. 

burden, {lit. and Jig.) bojha, bar, humi, bulhee, 
purchhee, v. load, {hob, q. v.) juwab, dhoo,a, 
kuree, {of a poem) rudeef, untachhura, {capa- 
city) pet, bhurtee, v. size. Sec. {incumbrance) 
gule ka bar, panw kee beree, puhar, v. 
weight, &c. {of a song) untra, a ship of great 
burden, bure bojh ka juhaz, 

to burden, bojhna, ladna, bojh-r. boojhel-zerbar- 
-k. V. to load. 

burdensome, bharee, kurra, suklit, dooshwar, gu.. 
ran, v. heavy. 

burdensomeness, sukhtoe, dooshwaree, v. weight. 

bureau. Port, ulmaree, v. drawer. 

burgess, burgher, ru,ees, shuhree. 

bu/rglary, daka, sendh, oopuk, v. housebreaker. 

burial, gar-thop, kufun-dufun, tujheez, tudfeen, 
tukfeen, {place) muqburu, goristan, quburis* 
tan, V. grave, totnb, to bury, {procession) bi- 
wan, V. bier, {service) muolood,pretmunjuree. 

buried, asoodu, ser, gura, v. to inter, {wealth) 
dufcenu, guruota, v. hoard. 

burier, gurwuya, v. the verb. 

burlesque, tusukhkhoor, thutha, khillee, muzoh, 
{vulg. muzakh.) , ,„j ^.^j, 

K 2 




to burlesque, bunana, tueyar-k. tusukhkhasr-, 
muskhurgee- &c. -k. 

burly, mootulla, v. corpulent. 

burn, sookhtu, jula, v. cautery, also a scald, &c, 

to hum, V. a. {lit. and Jig.) julana, balna, jama, 
dahna, phoonkna, scokhana, khooshk-k. ag-d. 
or -lugana, v. to kindle, parch, {the dead) mus- 
ana, v. to fire, {to brand, &c.) daghna, v. to in- 
Jlame, {bricks) pukana, (as soup, &c.) kuree 
anch-d. v. n. julna, bulna, duhna, duhukna, 
sokhtu- kubab-h. kuree anch-khana, jul- 
boojhna, khakistur-h. (as a leper) kiirsee-lena, 
{as primitig) fuleetu-chatna, piyalu- runjuk-, 
oorna, v. to flash, {with lust) bulbulana, {to be 
in pain) pirana, porana, v. to flame, {as meat) 
lugna, (as a Hindoo) sut pur churhna, suttee- 
_h. * ■A'^'V,^') .^luo* .-,' ,cFi»i' 

burner, julwviya, phookun-hara. .\\ v\ "^o )//)•»! 

burning, sozish, soz, jiilun, ihraq, hurarut, adj. 
soz-nak, sozindu, jula,oo, moohriq, tab-nak, 
V. hot, fiery, (mountain, &c.) julta-puhar, v. 
volcano, (iroii) daghnee, (place) musan, ur- 
ghut, harwar, v. pile, &c.; a burning fever, 
tup i moohriq. 

burning-glass, atusliee sheeshu, soorj kant, soo- 
ruj mookhee. 

to burnish, chumkana, jhulkana, opna, jila-d. (to 
polish) suequl- saf-k. manjna, chiknana, v. to 
gloss, V. n. chumukna, jhulukna. 

burnisher, suequl-gur, (vulg. sikleegur) opnee, 

. V. rubber, furbisher. 

burnt, jula, sokhtu, pukka, (offering) ugyaree, 
dhoop-dhep, horn, (smell) chira,endh, kupra- 
hund, kupur-gundh, v. stink, (part of a dish) 
khoorchun, tuh-degea, v. scrapings, to burn. 

burrow, (town) qusbu, (hole) bil, mand. 

to burrow, bil- &c. -bunana or -khodna, soo- 

lakh-k. * 7«>iijrii</ yi'.i I'/i /ti-'^iri' ,w*»T^  
burst, kuruk, tunip, jjianjh, v. fhe verb. 

to burst, V. n. phootna, phutna, churrana, tootna, 
turuqna, v. to split, chak-h. v. to rend, phus- 
ukna, churukna, thusukna, v. to crack, (with 
laughter, &c.) lotna- nidhal-h. pet-pukna or 
-phoolna ; to break away from, oochhul-tora- 
bhagna; to come out tvith violence, phoot nikul- 
na, (iti tears) phoot phoot-rona, v. a. phorna, 
pharna, turqana, torna, v. to break. .A(ti-W\v»i 

to hu/rthen, tuh khurch-k. v. to burden, uimul 

burthensome, sungeen, v. heavy. 

to bury, garna, topna, sumadh- dufn- mudfoon-k. 
munzil-d. matee-d. dufunnana, v. grave, zu- 
meen doz-k. v. to sink, (one's self alive) mit- 
tee-lena, sumadh-lena. 

burying-place, gor-istan, qubur-istan, qubur-gah, 
muqabir, durgah; a common or public burying 
place, gor i gliureeban, v. burial. 

bush, jhar, jharee, jhilar, (of hair) jhoond. Mh<^ 

bushel, (of a wheel) awun, v, measure. 

bushy, jhar khund, jhundoola, jhoomra, lotun, 

business, kam, kaj, urth, kar, shoighl, ishtighal, 
babut, mutlub, muqsud, zuroorut, dhundha, 
dukhl, ooddim, v. occasion, (trade, q. v.) pe- 
shu, karuj, tuhul, purojun, birt, kurm, v. 
transaction, tumashu, v. action ; btisiness of 
importance, moohim ; to do one''s business, (fig.) 
thikane-Iugana, kamburbad- kam tarputar-k. 
to ease nature, hajut rufu-k. khutru rufu-k. 
V. affair, concern, &c. 

bu^s, bosu, chooma, muchhee, mithee, mitha, 
(feoa^ na,o, kishte&s;^ ^*\wwft %«»)■,■ >', .',1 

to buss, chooma- &c. -d. or -lena, v. to kiss. 

bust, neem-qud, pcotla, v. image. 

bustle, duor-dhoop, chukkur-chal, ghool-ghupara, 
duwa-duwish, tuga-poo, hurj-murj, khulbulee, 
V. stir, bheerbhar, jorbutor, wulwulu, dhoom- 
dham, v. hurry, commotion, he. 

to bustle, duor-dhoop- &c. -k. or -muchana. 




bustler, btistling, mihnutee, hur-babee, chutput- 
,r iya, kamkajee, v. active. 
busy, muslighool, kam men, ghultan o pechan, 

- imcDtu.uUiq, moostughruq, mnoqucyud,' sur- 
gurm, utka, dooba, ooljha, musroof, ooddi- 
mee, v. laborious, engaged, (ojlcious, q. v.) 
peshamudee, fcnzool khidmut, v. bustler, med- 

- dier, (middling) hur-degee chumchu. 

to busy, ooljhana, mushghool-k. ; to be busy, 

mushgool- &c. -h. luga-ruhna. 
but, (except, q. v.) siwa, jcnz, chliora, mugur, 
bulki, lekin, wulekin, umma, pu, pur, mcul, 
peon, wule, v. otherwise, &c. (that) ki, v. yet, 
&c. (otily) fuqut, sirf, nira, (without) bughuer, 
bina, (even) ubhee, (/. e. 7wt longer ago thayi). 
Experience only can teach a learner the true 
use and application of this equivocal and puz- 
zling conjunction, v. than, &c. 
butcher, qussab, qusa,cc, chikwa, buqur qussab, 

ga,o koosh, zabih, byadha, v. murderer, 
to butcher, qutl-k. zubuh- khoon- huttya-k. 
butchery, qussabee, qutl, 
butcherly, sufFak, sung-dil, be-ruhm, khoonee, 

butler, khan-saman [properly tlie steward of the 
household, an oflSce of great dignity, and trust; 
but the title is now assumed by, and conferred 
on every link-boy or sweeper who takes upon 
himself the office of a waiting servant;] khid- 
mut-gar, rikab-dar, ab-dar, shurbut-dar,bhun- 
daree, modee, v. steward, 
butt, (lit. and Jig.) huduf, nishanu, chand, amaj, 
khaktodu, (blow, q. v.) tukkur, doon, v. tar- 
get, (of a gun) kcnndu, (person) khiluona, 
rceshkhund, go,e mujlis, genda, v. aim. 
to butt, tukrana, tukkur-lurna, doon-mama. 
butter, mukhun, muska, nuenoo, (boiled) ghee, 
ruoghun-zurd. ,aJ»ai,B<jJii«'*Mi«s 

butterfly, teetrec, purwanu, furash, punkhee, to- 
la, V. moth. 

butteris, soom-turash. .iKwii^ .y  

buttermnn, mukhuniya, mukhun-walaV 

butter-market, ghee hutta. 

butter-milk, chhachh, chhanchh, mutha, dogh, 
muherec, ghol. 

buttery, mooruoghun, ruoghunee, ghee-sa, ghee- 
ala, v.. greasy, &c. bhundar, v. pantry. 

buttock, cliootur, nitumbh, sooreen, nishustun- 
gah, pootha. 

button, tookniu, ghoondee, tiklee, bhoondee, gi- 
ruh, (knob, q. v.) bondee. 

to button, ghoondee-d. 

button-hole, hulqu, moondee, phoondee, moond- 

buttress, pooshtu, pichhoot, v, prop. 

to buttress, pcDshtu-b. 

bicxom, rungeela, shokh, khoosh-tubu, zindu-dil, 
ueyash, khoosh-dil, chlmbeela, uchpul, chun- 
chul, v. blithe. 

to buy, mol-lena, khureedna, keenna, v. to pur- 
chase, (any thing sacred) hudiyu-k. 

buyer, khureedar, liwal, khwahan, v. purchaser. 

buying, and selling, khureed-furokht, lenden, 
buyi- shiru, v. the verb. 

buzz, buzzing, bhinbhinahut, phish phishaliut. 

to buzz, bhin bhinana, (to whisper) phish phish- 
ana, ghoon ghoonana, v. to hum, (in one''s ears) 
kan phoonkna, v. to prate, (to report secretly) 

buzzard, zimch, suosagur. "  ... 

buzzer, phoosphoosiya, kunphoonkna. tj,.^, 

by, se, sen, bu, bur, ke subub, ke bais, (per) 
peechhe, suri, fee, (at, on, or in) pur, men, 
(near) pas, nuzdeek ; oiVe by otie, ek ek ; they 
came two by two, do do hokur a,e; by pounds, act 
ser; by myriads, kuror kuror, kurorha ; year 
i^^ear,salbusal; by your bounty, aT^kchndno- 




lut; hy land, khooshkee-se; hy water, turee-se, 
by himself, herself, itself, &c. aphee ap, ap se, 
V. alone, &c.; hy, {nt hand) suridust, kune, 
ihan, kihan, bumoojib, v. according, about, ko, 
V. 071, uz, zu, ke turuf, v. towards ; by night 
and by day, rat din ; by God ! qusum khooda 
se ! by the prophet! nubee qusum ! nubee son! 
by chance, ittifaq-un, ittifaq-se ; by all means, 
furaghut-se, shuoq-se, buhoot moobaruk, hur 
turuh-se; hy no means, hurgiz nu ; by name, 
nam le kur, natn-se, nam-leke or -pukurke, v. 
to call ; by, {presenf) samne, rooburoo, muo- 
jood, hazir; hy and by, dum-bhur, dum-men, 
ek pul men; / shall catch him hy and hy, oose 
pukurta hooii or pukur leta boon; (past) 
samne ko, kee rah, neeche ko, hoke, v. through. 

&c. (in camp.) chor, whence chor khlrkee, o 
by-door, v. private ; by the hy, (a-propos) ban, 
bhula, (en passant) zimnun, ruwa ruwee, is 
men, chulta, raliee, v. casual; by heart, nok- 
zuban, yad-men ; by such a day, cos din-ko, 
-pur -age or -lug; by, at, or hard by, lugbhug; 
by way of friendship, uz rabi ikhlas. 
by-law, qa,idu mukhsoos ; by-name, luqub ; by- 
path, by-road, by-walk, by-way, pugdundee, 
leek, jaddu, goopt-rah, chor-rah; by-room, 
khulwut-gah, khulwut-khanu, goshu, koonj, 
hcDJru, cbor-ghur, clior-khanu, v. spectator, 
nick-name,hc.; by-past, by-gone, ruftgoozusht, 
guyagoozra, v. past ; bystander, shahid, sak- 
hee; bystreet, gulee, koliya, koochu; by- 
word, kuhawut, musul, v. proverb. 


e, k expresses the hard, and 8 the soft sound of 
this letter ; it is therefore never used except in 
the compound ch of cheese, church, &c. 

cabal, bundish, sazish, ittifaq, eka, goosht, futoor, 
V. sedition, plot. 

to cabal, bundish- &c. -b. musluhut-k. 

caballer, moofturee, fusadee, fitrutee, v. conspi- 

cabbage, kurum, kulum, kurum-kulla, kulla, 
kobee, from couve, Poi-t. (tvorvi) jhanjha. 

to cabbage, (steal) choree-k. kutur byont-k. 

etdnn, (of a ship) duboosa, kothree (cottage) 
chhuppur, jhopra, mundhee, kootee. 

cabinet, (room) khulwut-khanu, (council) dec- 
wan-khass, (box) sundooq, ulmaree, /rom al- 


mario. Port, (of glass-ware) sheeshu-muhul, 

a,eenu-muhul, which men of rank in the East 

are often at great pains to furnish in the most 

costly manner, v. cabin, &c. 
cabinet-maker, burhUiCe, nujjar, durod-gur. 
cable, russa, jyora, boorj, luhas, [perhaps from 

cack, chheechhee. 
to cack, chirukna, poorpoor-k. 
cackle, kurkurahut. 
to cackle, ghen pen-k, kurkurana, qa qa-k. (to 

giggle) quhquhu-k. ivhilkhilana. 
cackler, bhurbhuriya, lootra. 
cadaverous, sura, mootU|Viffin; the noun, sura, end, 

opfoonut, moordu- or moordar-sa, moordunee. 




cadet, nommedvvar, niijeeb, v. volunteer, candi- 
date, suhodar, luohra, v. brother. 

cadence, cadency, ootar, dhal, unda;;, (tone) lue, 
luhju, ilhan, dhusun, y.fall, &c. qiru,ut, tur- 
teel, suju, V. rhyme. > 

cadi, from — qazee. 

c€Bsura, subub khufeef, v. the Grammar, p. 262. 

caftan, from — khuftan, v. d/resa. 

cage, pinjra, qufus, qufus, (large) kutuhra. 

to cage, que-k. v. to confine. 

caitiff, ghata, kafir, ndhurmee,muloon,murdood, 
lu,een, donshmun, bctce-chod, chundal, haroon, 
kufun-chor, v. villain. 

to-k. dum-d. chhoochkarna, v. tojlatter, coatv. 

cajoler, dum-baz, phoolasre-baz. 

cake,, kcoleechu, tikkee, girdu, ba- 
qir-khanee, kak, rot, sheermal, phcnlka, poo- 
ree, lcxx;hwee, sohalee, kuchuoree, pukuora, 
puratha, papur, malpoo,a, dostee, bujka, chela, 
goolgoola, khaja, manda, koomanchu, v. bread, 
bannock, &c. (flake) purt, tub, tubuq, pupuree, 
(-a/nd, caudle) punjuree biitasa. 

to cake, khooshk-hojana, sookhna, jumna, pupri- 
yana, v. to harden. 

calabash, tomba, luokee, v. gourd. 

calamitous, kum-bukht, bud-bukht, nukbutee, 
afut-zudu, afut-ruseedu, shamutee, ubhaga, 
quhr-aloodu, biputee, undheree, v. bad. 
calamity, afiit, ghuzub, quhr, toofan, sudmu, gu- 
zund, bula, mooseebut, undher, dhuk,ka, apda, 
kop, ulap, afut-sumawee, kal, kala-wuqt, due- 
bee, bhabhee, iilaiC bula,e, v. distress, misery, 
misfortune, adversity, 
calamus aromaticus, guor gachjh, qusub ooz zur- 

calash, garee, ruth, ekka, tanga, ruhroo, v. Car- 
riage. . . (ittiKncf ,»!iuJ«i tMMrti- 
cdlcination, tuhurrooq. wltfo ,uJj»ii^«U ,i'ib 

to calcine, mama, -kooshtu- khakistur- sidh-k. 
rusa,en-bunana, bung- bhusum-k- v. ashes. 

calcined, muhrooqu. 

to calculate, undazu- &c. -k. utkulna, ankna, 
janchna, kootna, hisab- &e. -k. ginna, jonia, 
(o nativity) junum putree-dekhna, v. to ad- 
just, to reckon. 

cahulation, tukhmeenu, undazu, burawoird, ur- 
sutha, kun-koot, moohasubu, hisab, lekha, ti,u- 
dad, shoomar, gintee, gunutkar, jortee, qiyas, 
V. guess. 

calculator, mcohasib, hisab-dan, siyaq-dan, moo- 
tusuddee, lekliuk, ulkul-baz, unkwuya, unda- 
zu-geer, v. accountant. 

calculus, puthrec, sung i musanu. 

caldron, dcg, hunda, chirwa, kuiah, y» boiler. 

calendar, tuqwecm, putra. />?"..;. 

to calender, (cloth) koondee-k. ghotna, nurd pur- 
churhana.  ;..>i^tni: 

cale7iderer, kcondee-gur, nurdiya. 

calends, ghcorre, ghooru, purba. 

calenture, (a species of) chuk-chuondhee. 

calf, buchhra, bachha, fern, bachhee, or buchhi- 
ya, guosalu, leroo, v. huffalo, (sttiffed) khur- 
buchhra, kurtce, (of the huffalo) para, (dolt) 
ga.odee, koondu, (of the leg) pindlee, v. brawn. 

caliber, teer, v. bore, &c. 

calico, chheet, rungee. 

calif, caliph, khuleefu. Quere, Why are cooks, 
taylors, scullions, &c. indulged in Hindoostan 
with this respectable title? perhaps to keep 
them in good humour with their menial emj 
ployments; whence a sweeper is hailed nprjnre, 
mihtur, while his lady is no less dignified with 
the honourable appellation of a princess, mih- 

caligraphy, khoosh- nuwees-ee, S i .■A'~ih\> 

caluv, punkhree, v. cup. iltuh- "K)' 




to calk, gabna, gahna, kala putee-k. gohnee-k. 
durzmar-k. "^'''^'"'5' -j^rnf.-f j'sfmrrMd-ro ua^t" , 

calker, kala-putee. isw«*>i 

call, pookar, hank, gohar, subud, kuha, hookm, 

' umr, irshad, furmoodu, aggya, v. demand, order, 
&c. ter, uzan, bang, v. cry, bolahut, v. suin- 
mons, (to hawks, &c.) biya biya, a,o a,o, (for 
dogs) tootoo, (cattle) uhee uhee, hiyoo, v. ele- 
phant, (a bird-call) zufeel, seethee. 

to call, (name, q. v.) kuhna, bhakhna, bolna, 
ism-r. V. to require, boola-lana, or -bhejna, 
yad-k. (by name) nam kurke- &c. -bolana, 
V. to bring, dakna, v. to cry, oocharna, v. to 
denominate, (out, or to a person) boolana, poo- 
karna, hank-marna, awaz-d. terna, gooharna, 
tulub-k. ; to call up, oothana, jugana ; to call 
off", boola-lana, pher-lana, ootha-lana; to call 
away, rokna, baz-r. (to convoke) jorna, butor- 
na, jumu-k. ; to call to account, pa|e-hisab-lana, 

. baz pcors-k. moo,akhuzu-k. poocbh poochhar- 
-k. moohasibu- &c. -lena, (en passant) oolte- 
or khure panw phirna, v. to visit, (to consider) 
turashna, junana, v. to excite; to call to mind, 
yad-r. or -k. ; to call names, bud zuban-kuh- 
na, nam-r. galee-d. ; to call over names, nam 

 bu nam kuh-jana, v. to invoke ; to call back, 
talna, pherna ; to call for, mangna, cliahna; 
to call in, pher- sumet-lena, kheench-Iena, 

. for which, and all such compounds, v. to re- 
sume, recal, revoke; to call to witness, rukhna; 
to call over, purhna ; to call to arms, tueyar- 
kurana ; to call in, (to visit) phera- gooz.ur-, 

, moolaqat-k. ajana, tushreef-lena, (to stop or 
halt) thuhurna, tikna; to call aloud, (for jus- 
tice, &c.) dad furiyad- dooha,ee tiha,ee- ulghi- 
yas-k. ; to call in question, shuk- shoobhu-, 
sundeh-k. ; to call on God, khooda se mangna, 
or-chahna; to he called, kuhlana, bajna; to 
call out, muedan-k. v. to challenge, implore ; 

also the various acceptations of this extensive 

and perplexing verb. i :, 

called, muosoom, moosumma, (-to) moonadu, v. 

calVmg, peshu, kusb, shewu, karobar, dhundha, 

ooddim, v. business, 
callosity, sukhtee, dhutha, ghutha, thela, v. wen. 
callous, sukht, kurukht, roorha, kurra, nithoor, 

kuthor, ghutheela, moo,a, mcordar, v. dead, 

(to become) lohoo-murna, v. hard, insensible, 
callousness, sukhtee, kurukhtugee, sung-dUee, 

kuraiCe,, roorha,ee, kuthorta. 
callow, be balo pur, geda, leda, loonda moonda, 

v. bare, 
callus, (of bones) his. 
calm, adj. (still) bund, rooka, sakin, mouhtubis, 

scansan, soon, huwa-bustu, nichul, (easy, q. v.) 

khoosh, ahistu, humwar, nirot, theer, usthir, 

moo,a, neewan, v. serene, quiet, meetha, v. 

mild, &c. (to become) khumusna, murna, rook- 

na, V. to fall ; calm repose, soDkh-neend. 
calm, rooka,o, ihtibas, khumus, duhum, soonsan, 

v. repose, rahut, v. rest, (quiet, q. v.) asa,ish, 

asoodugee, sookoon, anund, sookh. 
to calm, bund- soon- &c. -k. thambhna, dilasa-, 

tusuUee- tuskeen- dharus- dheeruj-d. mama, 

buethalna, v. to lay. \ ^\nV',«<\\p- 

calmly, ahistu, vulg. aste, moola,imut-se. 
calmness, ahistugee, moola|imut, humwaree, v. 

calm, &c. 
caltrops, gokhroo, hurchikar, khar-khusuk. 
to calve, junna, byana. .\\liv. ,<jr,; 

to calumniate, toohmut- &c. -b. -k. or -lugana, 

budnam-k, v. to asperse, 
calumniator, moofturee,1:oofanee, fitooriya,d,hoor- 

phankiya, bud-go, nummam, v. slanderous, 
calumny, toohmut, iftira, ittiham, lim, toofan, 

dhansa, kalima, bootlan, v. aspersion.  

calx, khakistur, chhar, bung, muhrooqu. 




camZ/nV-jchundelce, shubnum, tuninda,in»v.tocg, 
muslin, &c ♦•'ft .>'A'..\r ... 

camel, oont, shtntoor, naqu, fern, oontnee, sand- 
nee, {yoiaiff) bota, v. divmedary, {defect of) 

camel-driver, sar-ban, (vulg. surwan) shootcor- 
ban, mulik ; a person who rides a camel, shco- 
toor-suwar, sandnee-suwar ; a camel-liouse, 
shootoor-khanu ; a cameFs saddle, j uhaz , palan ; 
a earners hurden-bag, shuleetu ; a cameFs 
bridle, nukel, mcoliar; the two boxes used for 
conveying people across the Desart, muhniil, 
kujawu. ;.•)!» >rf»Jt«>i ,<y}n»^(»%«i(v 

cambium, girgit, booqulumoon, krikla, hirba, 
V. lizard. 

camelopard, shootoor-ga,o, ga,o-pulung, zurafu. 

camlet, soof or soof, slial, shal-bafee, puttoo, 
dhoosa. ; i«'»S »* >^u/!  V'iftt^Wi 

camomile, baboonu. .nnAim^i.mii^um'. ^y^iWK}^{ 

camp, pura,o, lushkur-gah, oordoo, [whence our 
horde^ {equipage) furash-khanu, v. army. 

campaign, {plain) muedan, {of an army) sufr, 
: lushkurguhee, chJia,onee, v. caiitonments. 

camphire, kafoor, kupoor, bhenisuenee kafoor ; 
a camphire candle, sliuniu kafborce. 

COM, cliookkur, kooUiyr, donga, dustukee, y, jm^, 
mug, CMj>, pO#,f|,s ^-irtvVV^rv .V .Ttrijurf:? ,-f{)ob 

to can, sukna. As in English, this verb is the 
..•I -sign of the potential mood ; thus, / can read 
hut cannot write, muen purh sukta boon pur 
nuheen likh sukta ; the reader may observe, 
that sukna is generally joined to the imperative 
singular, but seldom, if ever, to the infinitive, 
of which the former is a contraction ; ana, to 
come, andjana, to go, used inversely, often 
have this meaning, / can sing, nioojhe ga ata 
.hue; I cannot swim, moojhe puer nuheen ata, 
V. able, &c. ttfpv^ ,4teal-f.gft9a*^"««E« 

canaille, kumeene, puwaj, ur^al, rudd-khulq, v. 

mob, &c. .;—•!-, ■■•-:: 

canal, nuhr, nalu, nalee, khala, puen, khunduq, 

jurhee, kat, v. ditch, cmiduit. 
to cancel, metna, mitana, mtha-d. nestnabood-k. 

ootarna, dhona, ponchhna, munsookh- batil-, 

muhoo- rudd-k. v. to obliterate, {a hill, &c.) 

putana, v. to discharge, to efface, 
cancellated, char-khanu, jal-dar. (o iy«rt\». 
cancer, {the constellation) suTta.n,\nirk, {disease) 

surtan, v. crab, &c. bhukundur, bundur-gha,o, 

nasoor, v. fistula, ulcer. Sec 
candid, saf, nir-mul, khura, pak, rast-baz, pak- 

baz, rast, sadiq, suchcha, phurcliha, sutbadee, 

ni-kuput, be-riya, saf-dil, maDUjif, khalis, rast- 

go, saf-go, seenu-saf, be nmJiJCO fureb, be rueb 

o riya, be luga,o. ^ vi \'->'^.'. ■,:■■. 
candidate, talib, khwahan, khwast-gar, jacliik, 


to solicit, 
candidly, sufa,ee- &c. -se, ,v, th& adj. khoola 

khoolee, \. openly. -■},'■ \\ - 

candidness,, khura,ee, v. candour, 
candle, shumu, buttee, batee; a ica.v candle, 

mom-buttee, v. icick. 
candle-stick, shumu-dan. 
candour, sufaiCe,, sucha,ee, suchuotec, 

rast-bazee, rastee, saf-dilee, be-riya,ee, nir- 

multa, pak-bazee, dobroostee, sidq, insaf. ^ttwi 
to candy, v. a. pagna, v. n. pugna. 
cane, {staff') usa, chhurec, bed,(u7</^.bet) jureeb, 

huruotee, lathee, {reed) nue ; a sugar-cane, 

nue shukur, ookh, gunna, ganda, puonda, 

v. stick, {leaves of) ag, agla, {trash) kho,ee, 

{plantation) nue-stan, ookharec, {hot juice) 

lubee, uontec, v. sugar, &c. 
to cane, luthiyana, bans-marna, v. to cudgeL '\ 
canine, kulbee, v. dog, {appetite) joo,u kulbec, 


.jfi'jyHrnj.j , ,!«><> n.C'U^tvYj 




canister, clubba, katee. -o«fti9iia»^ .«i\j««»<j 

canker, mungur-mar, v. poison, (worm) keera, 
ghoon, (of a sore) muwad i fasid, bikar, khilti- 
fasid, V. corrosion, &c. 

to canker; v. a. surana, bigarna, v. n. surna. 

■cannibal, adum-khor, rachhis, munookh-udharee. 

cannon, top, top, zurb, is applicable to a stand of 
arms, &c. ; they say, do zurb i bundooq, two 
stand of muskets ; teen zurb i top, three can- 
nons, V. swivel, &c. 

to cannonade, topen-marna, -daghna, -chhorna, 
or -chulana, top undazee-k. gole-lugana, v. to 
hatter. a^A ,j'#si»i--utfc.jw*'i, 'f4j»*»i»vw\.j 

cannon-ball, gola. 

cannonier, top-chee, gol-undaz,/ro?« gola, a ball, 
and undakhtun, to throw. 

cannot, is expressed by the negative nuheen, not, 
and sukna, to can ; it cannot he, moohal hue, 
moomtunii hue, ghuer moomkin hue, v. can. 

canoe, Aonga, dengee. 

canon, qanoon, [whence qanoon-go, properly an 
expounder of the common law~\ qa,idu, rusm, 
a,een, tureeq, dustoor, zabitu, reet, neet, v. 

canopus, soohel. 

canopy, sa,e-ban, chutr, shamiyanu, chhutr, 
chundwa, nuota, megh dumbur, uth-khumba, 
chhutree-dar, v. turret, &c. 

cant, (word) bhunger khane kee bat, bazaroo 
bat, (language) zurguree, kumsula, chitkaree, 
V. technical, shekhee, bhugul, v. counterfeit, 
(hypocrisy, q. v.) zoor, cllmbh, v. particular. 

to cant, dhulkana, v. to toss, cast, &c. riya^k. 
shekhee-bugharna, v. to deceive. 

canter, riya-kar, mukkar, dimbhee, zahid- 
khooshk, V. impostor. . >^^rf 

to canter, (as a horse) poyon-chulna or chula- 

cantharides, zurareeh, soon keera, bindlee. 

canthus, (inner) ko, a, (oM^er) kor. ..3*tflc.iV; 

canticle, ustcnt, dhoorpud, v. hymn, ^■,h^■im 

cantilivers, nikasta. ,ir/o<) ..V^tva 

caw#/e, khoncha, khonda, konakatur,v._/r«^7ncw#. 

canton, zilu, purgunu, v. clan. 

to canton, tuqseem- him- zilubundee-k. (as 
troops) ch_huonee-d. ''*tf»<i,i> .ijWHoi ,a*d ,. 

cantotiments, chha|Onee or chhuonee. i»«lo^ > , 

canvass, wilayutee tat, ujar, kirmiz. 

to canvass, chhanna, janchna, jhar phoonk-dekh- 
na, kupurchhan-k. v. to investigate, duorna, 
tugapo-k. V. to debate, solicit,- &c. '.'jiiRtv}  

cap, topee, koolah, taj, (of a pole) bad reshu, 
kulus, (apron of a gun) svir-posh, v. cover. 

capable, qabil, la,iq, suzawar, qadir, uhl, sahlb- 
shu,qor, moostU|id, joga, suktee, duchhee, rusa, 
tuwana, joor-utee, v. susceptible. Sec. ,^';^is)'> 

to be capable, sukna ; thus, to be capable of sup- 
porting, sumbhal-sukna, &c. v. able, wise. 

capableness, capability, qabiliyut, v. capacity. • 

capacious, kooshadu, furakh, wusee,u, phuela, 
■wasi, V. extensive, &c..fu (*5'«$\njt,ijp'<^»q«ti 

capaciousness, kcoshadugee, "wnsiit, bura,ee, zur- 
fiyut, uorus chuorus, chuora,ee, chukla,ee, v. 
size, capacity, extension. 

door, shu.oor, v. ability, sulahiyut, huesiyut, 
istihqaq, isti,iidad, jogita, samurth, huosilu, 
zurf, pet, suwad, sha,istugee, puhonch, v. ge- 
nius, surishtu, seeghu, v. character, (state, 
q. V.) sumue, dusa, (room, q. v.) undaz, su- 
ma,ee, v. space, faculty, power, &c. <*3««^J 

cap-a-pie, surapa, nukh-sikh, sirse panw lug. 

caparison, jal, oortuk. 

to caparison, jal-d. tueyar-k. poozee putta-itiga- 
na, V. employment.  .v.nma'jr.inidi '•y-nd 

cape, (collar) gureban, (headland) tegh i koh, 
nak, beenee-koh, y. foreland. - ,-yAii .v ' 




caper, (a berry) kubur, (leap) bukur-kood, 

ax^hal, just, shaQtoor-ghumzu. 
to caper, koodna, oochhulna, shootoor ghumzu-k. 
caperer, koodukkur, v. dancer, 
capillary, moowaiee, bal-sa, v. minute, 
capital, (as a crime, &c.) sukht, ushud, shudecd, 
kubeeru, bura, uzeem, koosh-tunee, jeemar, 
arka suoda, (city) pa,e tukht, tuklitgah, raj- 
usthan, V. metropolis, sur, v. head, (stock) poon- 
jec, may u, sur-mayu, buza.ut, v. principal, &c. 

capitally, a person ofTending capitally, is called 
wajib-ool qutl, i. e. deserving death, v. greatly. 

capitation, sur-shcomaree, (ta.v) jizlyu, an odious 
tax, formerly levied on Hindoos, &c. hut abo- 
lished in the time of Muhummud Shah. 

to capitulate, ma3,amidut- &c. -k, sooluh shur- 
tee-k. \. to surrender. ^.^ ^iri, 

capitulation, moo,amulut, quol-qurar, uhd o pue- 
man, moosaluhu, quol-namu, v. agreement. 

capon, khusiya or ukhtu moorgh. 

caprice, capHciousness, khiyal, wuhm, bool-hu- 
wusee, tuluwwojn-mizajee, hurdum-khiyal, 
oochha-pun, tuzulzooi, be-subatee, v. whim. 

capricious, bool-huwus, hurdum-khiyalee, tulu w- 
woon-mizaj, ochha, ojt.hla, «hiba|Ola, hur-ja,ec, 
V. inconstant. /'*'4 -:;■ 

Capricorn, judee, mukur. 

capriole, bukur-kood, v. caper. uiu* <»• 

capsicum, {red pepper) lal-mirch, mircha, filfil- 

capeian, lungur ka churkh, duor. 

capaulated, ghilafee, qushiree, v. bag, case. 

captain, surdar, sur-guroh, surghunu, juma,ut- 
dar, peshwa, niuhunt, (naval) na^khooda, (of 
the sipahees) soobu-dar — but not proper, the 
Vord, agreeably to its etymology, signifying 
the governor of a province, v. lieutenant. 

captain-general,sipuh-salar,umeer ool ciomura,se- 
naput, bukhshee, a word wliich Europeans 

have strangely misapplied, misled, perhaps, 
by its apparent etymology. In Hindoostaa 
the treasurer, khuzanchee, performs the office 
of paymaster, v. commander, &c. 
captious, jhugraloo, bukheriya, mt»,uturiz., nook- 
tu-cheen, ueb-jo, quziyu-duUal, hmjjutee, tuk- 
raree, v. quarrelsome, touchy, carper, 
captiousness, kuj-buhsee, toonook-mizajee, nook- 

tu cheenee, v. peevish, perverse, 
to captivate, phunsana, qued- bund- giriftar-, 
pabund-k. lobhana, nioh-lena, ooljjia-r. fur- 
eftu- pa buzunjeer- hulqu bugosh-k. utksuia, 
beendhna, khuench-lena, v. to allure, cltami, 
marna, lena, le-chulna, moohna, (tlie heart) 
dilsitan-L v. to subdue, ensnare. 

captivated, muftoon, shueda, musroof, choor, 
I; tOm. enamoured. 

captivating, dil-fureb, jug-mohun, v. c/umning. 

captive, quedee, useer, muhboos, bundhoo,a, gi- 
riftar, mcubtila, bundee, v. prisoner, slave. 

captivity, giriftarce, useeree, pa-bundee, bund, 
qued, hubs, v. slavery, &c. .,,- 

captor, pukurwuya, pukurunhar, &c. (in comp.) 

rapture, tuskheer, pukura,o, v. seizure, (of cattle 
to make) bun muwashee-k. v. prise, to seize, 

to capture, sur-fc. v. to take, win, &c. 

car, garee, buhul, ruth, v. carriage. 

carabine, qurabeen, dhumaka. 

caracole, buelmootun- or luhriya-cliaL 

to caracole, luliriya-katna. 

carat, qirat, banee, 

caravan, karwan, qafilu, jatra. 

caravaTisary, kar\van-sura,e. 

caraicay, ujmod, so,a, kuruiya, ujwaiCn, zeeru- 

carbonado, qeemu-paru, bhus-tikka, v. colhp. 




carbimch, shub-churagh, {pimple) moohasa. 

carcanet, h!ma,il, v. chain, &c. 

carcass, lash, muota, dhor, dhur, v. corpse, thuth- 

ree, v. skeleton, &c.  • 

carcinomn, tetur, v. ulcer.' v-rr" 

card, wuruq, fiird, v. cotton; a pack of cards (or 

the game) gunjeefu, tas, v. 7iote. As with us, 

 there are a variety of games ; the most com- 
mon are the following: tas, sokht, nuqsh, 
chukmu, rung; to misdeal {the cards) ubturee-, 
ghulutee-k. ; to shuffle {cards) ubtur-k. dur- 

< hum-k. ; to cut the cards, wuruq-turashna. 
There are eight sorts, taj, sufed, chung, soorkh, 
ghoolam, shumsher, qimash, and burat, {a win- 
ning) besh-bur, {losing) kum-bur, {player) 
gunjeefu baz, (to play) tas- &c. -khelna. 
to carrf, toombna,dhoonna, dhoonukna, bichoorna, 

 V. to comb. 

cardamums, ilachee, qaqoolu, ela, {small) chhotee 
or gooji-atee ilachee, {large) buiee or poorbee 

carder, {of cotton, 8ec.) dhooniya, bihna, hullaj. 

cardialgy, wuoju-ool-fuwad. 

cardinal, u,uzim, uzeem, v, principal, zatce, v. 
ordinal. )-mA<ii\ ,vuv 

carding, nudafee, bichoora,ee, toomba,ee, dlioo-, {stick) moothiya, dustu, {bote) dhoon- 
kee, dhoonuetee, kumanee, kumanchu. 

card-maker, gunjeefu-saz ; the kuman gur {a 
low-maker, q. v.) is also a card-maker. 

care, {anxiety, q. v.) fikr, ghum, chinta, khurka, 
bak, {caution, q. v.) moahafuzut,hirasut,dasht, 
purdakht, teemar, ihtlmam, ruchha, sewa, 
hifz, ghuor, pritpal, siyanut, v. grief, solici- 
tude, {crazed) fikr-zudu, v. charge, attention, 

 ;&c. {regard, q. v.) pyar, preet ; to take care 

of, khubur-lena, purdakht-k. 
to care, fikr- &c. -k. or -r. {be inclined, &c.) 
chahna, moohubbut- &c. -r. ; have a care, 

khubur-dar, cheto, po,esh-po,esh. This last is 
used in India for clearing the way for a person 
of rank to pass, similar to, stand by, clear the 
way, used in this country ; to care for, khatir- 
men lana, v. to mind; to tafie care of, jqogana, 
V. to attend. Jrfilfj-; (^58 ,3<^iJ^tij »««.>) jisAity 

career, rue, surput, duor, v. course. Mtidu-i 

careful, khubur-dar, hooshyar, chutoor, soocheta, 
door-been, v. attentive, provident, alert. 

carefully, khubur-daree-se, ihtiyat-se. 

carefulness, khubur-daree, chuoksa,ee, chutoor- 
a,ee, aqibut-undeshee, door-undeshee, v. cau- 
tion, &c. 

careless, ghafil, tughafcol-shi,ar, be-khubur, be- 
ihtiyat, dheela, usoch, ucheta, la-purwa, be- 
\mdeshu, be-ghum, chi-ghum, be-ghuor, ul- 
hur, u-soojh, ra\\di-ho&h,v.indiffe)-ent,cheerful, 

carelessly, ghuflut- be purwa,ee- &c. -se. 

carelessness, ghuflut, tughafool, ke-khuburee,gha- 
filee, be-ihtiyatee, soostee, ihmal, dheel, be-.,, be-fikree, v. neglect, &c. ,')•?. 117/ 

caress, caresses, pyar, lar, hulbhul, shufqut, ul- 
ungkun, v. dalliance, &c. 

to caress, pyar- nuwazish-k. v. to fondle. 

cargo, bhurtee, khep, bar, v. lading. 

caries, poseedugee, surawut. . ,ait»4>i*j^ t^frtwh^^^o 

carious, sura, poseedu. ' lAwi taNAwvi'* 

carman, garec-wan, buhul-wan. ,•(! .ii<»j.> a,(\j 

carminative, bad-boor, ba|0-hurta. .i<)h»v. 

carnage, qutl, qital, mar, joojh, ghumsan, moo- 
qatulu, khoon-rezee, v. bloodshed. 

carnal, jismanee, nufsanee, budunee, {lecherous, 
q. V.) shuhwut-purust, tumash-been, k^mee, ' 
V. lust, lustfully, &c. [vuAtoqia a#i 

carnation, suorkhee, goolnaree-rung, {thejlower), 


.¥ ^JI,u.'<^1t!^ii>-J«U '>t»il 

carnelion, uqeeq*''j,itilii!irfi[ui}iB,v. ;>- /,<>7!(-o'v»S<t' 




carnival, eed, holee, dusuhra, beejee duomee, v. 

carnivorous, gosht-khor, mas-udharee, durindu, 
mojrdar- or kirm-khor. 

to carol, gana bujana, chohul-k. v. to sing, tvar- 
ble, &c. 

carousal, carotise, shadee, mue-kushee,piluwwiil, 

to carouse, khmshee- jiishn- iiesh- anund-k. 

carouser, ueyash, anundee, uobash, v. jovial. 

to carp, uebgeeree- khoordiigecree- kuj buhsee- 
-k, jhugurna, oolujhna, v. to cavil. 

carpenter, burhu,ee, khatee, mijjar, durod-gur, 
sootar, rana. 

carpentry, nujjaree, durod-guree. 

carper, tukraree, ueb-geer, kuj-buhs, soakhun- 
cheen, ueb-jo, nooktu-cheen, ma3,ariz, v. carp- 
ing. •'.>< flj''.'*>iilMi'l»»'>i) ( tJ-.l^,l .,V" 

carpet, fursh, bichhawun, cbandee, asun, moosul- 
lu, sujjadu, tat, busna, getuni, {large) qaleen, 
shutrunjee, gileem, jajum, (small) qaleechu, 

vulg. dooleechu, duree, (maker) shutrunjee- 

baf ; to he on the carpet, roobukar-h. 
carping, khoordu-geer, ooljheriya, v. captious, 
carriage, suwaree, bahun, rut, buhul, tanga, v. 
i cart, &c. purohun, v. vehicle (of loads) boj- 

ha,ee,, bar-burdaree, (behaviour, q.v.) 

chal, tuor, v. conduct, 
jcarrier, bar-kush, bar-burdar, hummal, hoon- 
'■ duet, bhuruet, v. hearer (messenger, q. v.) 

qasid, puek. 
carrion, lash, loth, dhor, moordar. 
carrion-eater, moirdar-khor. 
carrot, gajiir, zurduk, (wild-) shuqaqool. 
io carry, lejana, dhona, oothana, lechulna, nikal- 

na, V, to transport, (effect, q. v. &c.) kam-ni- 

kalna, jeetna, pesh-lejana, ghalib-h. (to take) 
• lena; to carry off, le-bhagna, (to manage) 

kurna, v. to conduct, (to behave) chal- chulun- 

chulna, (to have, &c.) rukhna, hona, (to im- 
ply) dikhlana, butlana, dulalut-k. (to run up,. 
&c.) duora- churha- kheench-lejana, (as trees) 
lana, dcna, v. to bear; to carry off, (to destroy) 
hulak-k. mar-d., to carry on, chulana, sumbh- 
alna, thainbhna; to carry through, nibalma, 
par-cotarna, nistara-k.; to carry himself well, 
(as a horse) kondhar-karhna. 
cart, garee, chhukra, lurhec, urabu, lurhiya, lur- 
lia, ruhroo, ruhkulu, [whence perhaps hakree, 
unless it come from chhukra, by dropping 
the ch; it is a word much used by the EngUsh, 
but to what language it belongs I cannot pre- 
tend to say], (part of) twlawa, phur; cart- 
rut, leek. 
cartel, shurt-mushroot, v. agreement, 
carter, garee-wan, urab-chee. «i V>»iw . 

cartilage, koorree, ghoozroof, chubnec huddee, 

moornimree huddee, v. ligament, &c. 
cart-load, garee kee khep. 

cartouch, tosdan, [perhaps from toshudan, a pro- 
vision wallet, much used among the Moghuls], 
saz, in which the natives carry their ammu- 
nition, &c. 
cartridge, tonta, (hall) jungee tonta, (light) ju- 

loosee tonta, soombu. <<» r.j pti- 

caruncle, chhichhra, v. wart, 
to carve, khodna, kundu-k. nuqsh- moonnub- 
but-k. chiturkaree-k. v. to engrave, (meaty 
qutu-k. V. to cut. 
carver, kundu-gur, chitur-kar, chittera, nuq- 

qash, (of stones) sung-turash. -riegiya ,s,-i 
carving, chitur-karee, nuqqashee, nuqsh o nigar, 

sung-turashee, v. carver. ^ 

cascade, ]h\xfaa, ab-shar, chadur. '■ 

case, (covering) ghilaf, nuyam, klio], miyan, (in 
comp.) dan, (of instruments) gunj, (razors, 
&c.) kisbut, (bow) sundooq, petee, dubba, 
(comlition, q. v.) hal, huticequt, suiuacbar, bir- 





tant, (in writing) soorut-hal, muh,rur, v.cattse, 
mooquddumu, soorut muslu, t. statement, {for 
books) jmz-dan, mooquwwa, jild-geer, (for pa- 
pers, &c.) chonga, (for needles) chhoonchhee, 
ghur, ghurara, v. pouch, (of a noun) karuk, 
halut, {representation, q. v.) tuqreer, zubanee, 
goozarish, urz ; to be in good case, tazu- pula-, 
tueyar- soond moond-h ; the truth of the case, 
nufs ool umr, fil-waqu, nishchue, v. indeed; in 
case, mubada, uhuyanun, kudachit; suppose the 
case, fvirz kuro, v. lest, &c. 

to case, murhna, tuh-jumana, v. to cover, plate. 

vasement, khirkee, tuttee, jhamp, jhuroka, v. lat- 
tice, tvindow, &c. 

cash, puesa, tuka, nuqd, rok, rokur, zur-nuqd, 
muojoodat, (paid in) nuqdee, opposed to jin- 
see,paidin kind ; a person who has much cash, 
or who pays always with ready money, nuqda, 
lukueta, v. money, &c. 

cashier, cash-keeper, tuhweel-dar, fotu-dar, khu- 
zan-chee, rokuriya, surkar, [this word pro- 
perly has no such meaning ; it signifies a dis- 
trict, government, &c. and is moreover a femi- 
nine noun : when a servant addresses his mas- 
ter he often says, surkar ke hookm sc, when he 
means to express by your orders. 

to cashier, nikal-d. door- burturuf-k, nam-katna, 
juwab-d. V. to dismiss. 

cashew-nut, v. acajow. 

cask, peepa, (casque) khod, v. barrel, &c. 

easkety dubba, sundooq-chu, butta, dooij, mooqa- 
wa, singar-dan, doorjuk, puotee, v. box. 

cassia, (woody) tuj, suleekhu, (the leaves) tej-pat, 
(purging) umultas, mughz i fooloos, khiyar- 
chumbur, bundur-lathee or -luor, goolphuree. 

cassock, joobbu, khurqu, v. cloak. 

cast, tuppa, dhuppa, v. throw, (of the eye) gur- 
dish, ghumzu, kujee, v. squint, (of the dice) 
dhal, paree, v. turn, (form) nuqshu, (shade) 

chhanw, bo, rumuq, (manner, q. v.) dhub, 
(tribe) zat, (Sunskrit, jat) quom, kootcomb ; 
having a cast in the eyes, uhwul, dhera. v w^ 

cast, (metal) dhalwan, qalibee, {in law) be-du,u- 
wa, la-du,uwri, (clothes) ootarun, 

to cast, phenkna, dalna, jhonkna, girana, beegna, . 
sutna, puerna, parna, v. to fall, throw, {atvay') 
phenk-d. door-k. (to scatter, q. v.) beetna, 
chhitkana, (to raise) oothana, bandhna, {in a 
trial) zurdroo- roosiyah- nadim-k. (to shed) 
jharna, kcoreez- khana, v. to moult, (to prepon- 
derafe) jhookana, (to plan) bunana, (to glance) 
nigah-k. (to fix) thuhrana, (to found) dhalna, 
(to place) rvikhna, (to inflict) lugana, (to drive) 
mama, lana, v. to bring, (down) puchharna, pu- 
tukna, putkana, de-mama, v. to overcmne, (a 
skin) chhorna, v. to let go, (off") ootarna, v. to 
tmdress, (lots) nam-nikalna, v. to search, (up a 
favour) ooghutna, oogulna, (in law) moonh- 
torna, V. to condemn, reject, (a calf) toona, v. to 
miscarry ; to cast away, (ruin, &c.) khona, gha- 
rut- chuoput-k. ; to cast down, (depress) ufsoor- 
du-k.; to cast forth, phuelana, nikalna; to cast 
up, (accounts, &c.) shoomar- hisab-k. meezan-, 
theek-d. jorna, v. to calculate, (vomit, &c.) 
chhant-k. dakna. Many of the above words 
are, as Johnson observes of the English verb, 
of multifarious and indefinite use ; it will be 
necessary, therefore, to consult Vol. II. for a 
more accurate account of each than can be 
given here. ' .i»uq, .aiiati 

Castanet, chukhchukkee, v. cymbal, bell, he. 

castaway, guya-goozra, ni-kumma, v. useless. 

caster, (in comp.) undaz, thus burq-undaz, (cor- 
ruptedly burkundos) a musqueteer, lit. a caster 
of lightning; gol-undaz, a gunner; teer-undaz, 
an archer, &c. \cm^l--fi»x{ .cv/ , .utiUai 

to castigate, tumbeeh- tadeeb-k. tarna-k. chun- 
ga-bunana. > ' u* 




castigatiofi, tumbeeh, tadeeb, v. punishment, 
castle, qulu,u, kot, v. bulwark, (small) j^urhee, 
(at chess) rcokh ; to huUd cantles in the aJr,ba,o 

-i bundee- huwa bundee-k. khij'al pola,o puka- 
na, v.fort. 

castling, suqtu, murunchh, v. abortion. 

castor, khoosiyut ool buhr, v. beaver, (tree) 

' urund, rund, rendee, bed unjeer, (oU) rendee 
ka tel, ruoghun i bed unjeer. 

Castor and Pollux, sunuk, sunundun. 

castoreum, joondi- or koondi-bedustur. N. B. 
kustoorec signifies musk, q. v. 

to castrate, (brutes) khusee-k. (men) khoju-k. 
(a horse) akhtu-k. (a hull) budhiya-k. (gene- 
rally) bet(ukhin- bekhayu- kootiya-k. 

casual, ittifaqee, arizee, naguhaQee, uchanuk, 
unchite. 'i'iJljKtai'.,dx>- .rj''.ijilfU^-' 

casually, ittifaq-un, unjane, unacliit. Aim^ 

casualty, ittifaq, arizu, sur-goozusht, duebce. 

casuist, moorshid, hadee, peer, gooroo, but-ucha- 
rij, niojjtuhid, alim, tuqreeree, v. reasoner, 
-doctor. ' f -i''' 

casuistry, ijtihad, tuqreer, v. logic, &c. 

cat, (male) billa, poosa, goorbu, billar, bila,o, 
munjar, fern, billee, poosee, mano, v. puss, 
(wild, or cat o' moxintain) junglee billee, ku- 
tas, V. civet, whip, &c.; cat o' nine tails, kora, 
qumchee, kel, (corrupted from cat) is much 
 used by the military people ; cat in pan, un- 
nee oop desa ; to let the cat out of the bag, 
bhanda-phorna; cat-eyed, goorbu-chushm ; cafs 
eye, uen rol hirru. •0.!i*t » 

catalogue, beejuk, siyahu, (of men) ism nuwee- 
see, V. list, &c. .^~-...>, 

catamite, gandoo, koonee, adutee, jllutee, buwe- 
siya, choollee, roomalee, hitiya, uondha, bud- 
adutee, gorasha, mufqol. This is the unfor- 
tunate sufferer, who is on such occasions hoot- 
ed and abused; the active person [gund-murji. 

niooghlim, zarib, lootee, luonde-baz] being 
considered as one who may almost boast of, 
but need not blush, like the otlier, for his 

cataplasm, zumad, lobdec. 

cataract, jhurna, abshai*, chadur, v. spout, pjio- 
la, tenth, tetur, putur, v. speck, (of t/ie eye) 
dhoond, motiyabind, (to extract) putur-karhna. 

catarrlu, nuzluy zookani, surdee, joora, thund, 
V. cold. 

catastrophe,2i<\ihuX, bula,bud-unjam, unjam-kar, 
V. tragedy, calamity. 

catch, pukur, girift, guh, qubzu, tuppa, khiyal, 
V. glee, ( prey) shikar, v. profit, (tuatch) ghat, 
dubkee, v. wait, (Iwok) ankree, qoollabu; to 
make a catch, chungool- hath-marna. 

to catch, V. a. pukur-lena, pukurna, durgirift-k. 
gochna, lokna, mar-lana, bujhana, lopna, slii- 
kar-k. v. to fish, &c. dhurna, bochna, v. to 
seine, (fire) phoonk-jana, oorna, ag-lugna, v. 
to kindle, (to charm) moh-lena, kheenchna, 
girweedu-k. v. n, (to be contagious) lugna, 
surayut-k. ; to catch cold, surdee-khana, v. to 
take, receive, &CC.; to be caught, pukra-j. phus- 
na, bujhna, utukna, oolujhua, ujhoorna, v. to 

catcher, shikaree, (in comp.) geer, mar. 

catching, chhoot, v. infectious. M^nUA^^t^ 

catch-word, turk, khariju. 

to catechise, suwal-k. poochhna, v. to examine. 

catechism, suwal-namu. 

catechist, sa,il, v. question, &c. 

categorical, seedha, saf, shafee,qutu,ee, be-luga^. 

categorically, sufa,ce-se. 

category, nuo,u or nuwu, v. class, predicament- 

catenation, ulaqu, luga,o, alsilu, v, lifik,^ 

to cater, kh;uiudaree-k. v. to provide. ,* '■.-.vr", 

caterer, khurch-burdar, khan salkr, v, butler. 

caterpillar, keera, jhanjha. t>.ait«V; ,w*i':»i 




to caterwaul, myoon myoon-k. bulbulana. 

cates, ni,umut, bhog, v. dainty. 

catgut^ tant. 

cathartic, joollab, moosliill, jhar, v. laxative. 

cathedral, jami-musjid. 

cattle, muwashee, duwab, goroo, ga,e goroo, dan- 

gur, dhor, godhun, hurha, nar, v. quadruped, 

cavalcade, suwaree, jiluo, qor, hushmiit, urohun, 

V. train, &c. 
cavalier, {horseman, q. v.) suwar, suwar-kar, 

bhul-ghoriya, moonh-rukha, uroh, v. brave, 

gay, haughty, 
cavalierly, tiikubboor-se, ghooroor-se, ukur-se. 
cavalry, ^WftaXyVulg. uswar, ghoor-churha, toork- 

suwar, '''*'"**'''''♦'' •^''^■'^' ■)*»:ai)lJivft\- 

caudle, ucbhwanee, hureeru, lupsee, hulwa, puth. 
cave, cavern, from — kuhuf, khoh, khop, ghar, 

duhuk, goopha, goha, moogharu, v. cell, vault. 
caveat, peshbundee, agum, v. intimation. 
cavil, nooktu-cheenee, hurf-geerce, zuban-geeree, 

khoordu-geeree, ueb-jo,ee, kconuh, v. captious, 

also objection. 
to cavil, nmktu cheenee- tukrar-k. v. to carp, 
caviller, hurf-geer, nooktu-cheen, klioordu-geer, 

hoojjutee, ucb-jo, zuban-geer, mootu,urriz, 

dokhee, v. critic. »> swyv^-i-fciiii'* ,'*'i.A-., 
cavity, gurlia, khoondkul, juof, v. socket, khokhra, 

kundra, gurbuia. 
caM/,chudur,churbee kee chudur or -jhillee, {net, 

q. V.) jal, {omentum) pet ka purdu, {of a child) 

jhillee. Kny- 

cauliflower, phool-kurum, kurum-kullu^, phool- 

causal, mcosubbib, {verb) fi,ul mootu,uddee mu- 

fcoluen, pur-adheen. >«•>.■» S. i 

cause, subub, ba,is, moojlb, jihut, wastu, karun, 

< ' iye, wuseelu, tuqreeb, illut, wuju, bhed, v. 

reason, {law-suit, q. v.) mosquddumu, moo,a- 

1 ji. if A 

mulu, mujhulu, bad, muhkumu, v. suit, {side) 
or, turuf, puhloo. \»,y, 

to cause, kurana, dena, bukhshna, nikalna, lana, 
burpa-k. dalna, oothana, muchana, kurna, lu- 
gana, chherna, v. to begin, excite, puhonchana, 
V. to bring, to make. 

causeless, causelessly, be-subub, na-huqq, mooft, 
be-tuqreeb, lil-Iali fil-Iah, yoonhee, be-heelu, 

causer, moojid, banee, fa,il, v. cause. 

causey, causeway, khurunja, v. road, pavement. 

caustic, tez, had ; a caustic, mooqurrih, kat, kliar. 

cautery, dagh, gool. 

to cauterise, dagh- gool-d. julana, chirka-d. v. to 

caution, ihtiyat, tudbeer, tu,uminool, huzur, un- 
deshu, hooshlyaree, socli, soochetee, fikr, dhyan, 
purhez, v. care, takeed, v. circumspection, 
hoozm, V. suspicion, carefulness, {security) za- 
minee, kufalut, {warning) tumbeehj nuseehut, 
V. notice, admonition, &c. f,tuVtt^„/vf ^i;^ 

to caution, khuburdar- agali- hoshiyar- moot- 
tulu- soocheta-k, jutana, chitana, kan-kholna, 

cautious, khubur-dar, hoshiyar, agah, door-un- 
desh, aqibut-undesh, be-dar, moodubbir,saorta, 
chuokus, soocheta, v. prudent. 

cautiously, khubur daree- &c. -se. 

cautiousness, be-daree, aqibut-undeshee, door-un- 
deshee, moodubbiree, v. caution, 

to caw, qan qan- kan kan-k. n.^-v>ifrr,s<^ -iff.t 

to cease, v. n. muoqoof-h. mooltuwee-ruhna, 
tluimna, sustana, thuhurna, hath-oothana, dust- 
bur dar-h. turk-k. baz-ruhna, chhootna, boojh- 
na, V. to expire, {to rest, q. v.) istirahut-k. 
{to end, q. v.) akhir-h. niburna, chookna, v. a. 
muoqoof- munii- &c. -k. thamna, chhorna, 
pher-ruhna, bus-k. v. to desist, jata-ruhna, 
ootli-j. puchna, murna, v. to fail, to stop, &c. 




ceaseless, da,im, moodamee, luga-tar, u-chhoot, v. 

cedar, surv, suro, v. cypress. 

to cede, huwalu-k. de-dalna, tusleem-k. 

to ceil, clijiut-lugana or -bunana. 

ceiling, chhut, suqf. 

to celebrate, suralina, tu,ureef- tuoseef- mush- 
hoor-k. (God) humd-k. (a prophet) ni,ut-k. 
(a day) manna, mmbaruk- mootuburruk-jan- 
na, (a feast) shadee- khooshee- kLmrrum- 
raee-k. (« wedding) byah-ruchana. 

celebrated, namee, nam-wur, nam-dar, numood, 
mushhoor, mu.uroof, muosoof, nushr, pritish- 
thit, V. to keep, sirwal, numood-dar, mumdooh, 
V. fame, &c. 

to be celebrated, namwur- &c. -h. nam-bajna. 

celebration, (praise, q. v.) suna, afreen, ustoot, 
(feast, q. v.) shadee, khooshee, khoorrumee. 

celebrity, shcohrut, ishtihar,naniwuree,v. rcnoum, 

celerity, juldee, choostee, cliabooke, begee, bee- 
gee, shitab-karee, scnbook-ruwee, sccrut, 
phojrt, churphurahut, beg, zoodee, v. speed. 

celery, ujwa.en khoorasanee, v. parsley. 

celestial, asmanee, bihishtee, junnutee, firdoosee, 
fulkee, (bodies) (ujram) tpluwee, ukasee, v. 

celibacy, ko,ar-pun, tujurrood, tiijreed, moojur- 

cell, goshu, koonj, golia, kothree, murhee, hmj- 
ru, khanu, kuolbu, tukiyu, ghur, mundup, v. 

cellar, tuh-khanu, bhoonhura, surd abu, bhoon- 
dhura, chor-khanu. 

cellular, khanu-khanu, khanu-dar. 

cement, (glue) suresh (mortar) rekhtu, guch (sol- 
der) missee-josh, tankee, jora, (_fig-) pue- 
wund, rishtu, silsilu, jor, v. junction, bond. 

to cement, jorna, milana, wusl- puewund-k. v. n. 
joorna, mil-jana, puewund- &c. -h. 

cemetry, muqburu, ruozu, muzar, (of saints, &c.) 

censer, dhoop-dan, bukhoor-dan, ahootee, lukh- 

lukhii, ood-dan, mijmiir. 
cetu-or, moohtusib ; an office which is now almost 

censorious, ueb-go, ueb-jo, khourdu-geer, hurf- 

geer, zuban-geer, ninduk, moo,uturiz, nicoftu- 

ree, v. severe, 
ccnsoriousness, ueb-go,ee, ueb-jo,ee, ncoktu-gee- 

ree, hurf-geeree, khooi'du-geeree. 
censorship, khidmut i ihtisab. 
censurable, qabil-ilzam, la,iq mulamut, zuboon. 
censure, ilzam, dokli, tu,un, tu,iin-tushnee,u, hu- 

joo, V. blame, (unjust) toohmut, iftira, ittiham, 

lim, tuotiya, dhansa, v. aspersion, (slight) gilu, 

shikvvu, shikayut, v. animadversioti, &c. 
to censure, ilzam- &c. -d. moolzim- mutoon-k. 

dokhna, tokna, pukurna, gophna, v. to back- 
censurer, dokhiya, tu,unu-zun, shakee, gilu-goo- 

zar, ueb-go, ahoo-geer, tokuha, bud-undesh, 

V. censor, slanderer, also the verb, 
cent, suekra, sue, sud ; one per cent., ek otra, v. 

Granunar, p. 98.; at ten per cent., dus rropue 

suekra, or fee sud dus roopue. 
centaur, quntoorus. 
center, murquz, mudar, nooqtu, naf, beech, dur- 

miyan, wusut, (of an army) qulb, v. middle, 
to center, khuench-ana, girna, purna, jhookna, v. 

to fall, (depend) moonhusur- muoqoof-h. (to 

rest on) thuhurna, thumbna, qa,im-h. 
centipede, kunkhujoora, gojur, kun-sula,ee, kun- 

central, centric, centrically, beechon beech, moo- 

tuwussit, V. middle. , 

centry, puhre-dar, puhroo, chuokee-dar, pas-ban, 

V. guard, 
centuple, sud-chund, suo-goona. 




centurion, tooraun-dar. 

century, sudee, sud-salu, sut-sumbut. 

cephalic, mooquwee-dimagh, {vein) qeefal, suri- 
roo, {-medicine) su.oot. , 

cerate, murhutn. 

cere-cloth, mom-jamu. 

ceremonial, ceremonious, tukuUoof-mizaj, zahir- 
dar, srishtacharee, v. custom. 

ceremoniously, tukuUoof- &c. -se. 

ceremony, tukulloof, tukuUoofat, moodara, srishta- 
char, zahir-daree, rusm, chal, v. custom, udub, 
tukleef, arhtee, negchar, man, v. respect, &c. 
(rite) reet, rookn, pi. urkan, shurt, pi. shura, it, 
bidh ; religious ceremonies, adab i deen ; without 
ceremony, be-tukulloof. 

certain, mooqurrur, moo,ueyun, mootu,yuqqin, 
mooshukhkhus, yuqeenee, mcotuhuqqiq, moo- 
tu,ueyun, suheeh, suchcha, uwush, nishchue, 
be-shuk, la-rueb, tuhqeeqee, priman, (171 comp.) 
ee,,Y. apparent ; certain, (some) bu,uzi,ko- 
ee ; a certaiti person, fulanu, umka-dhumka. 

certainly, ulbuttu, zuroor, kh^yah-mu-khwall, 
uor kya, bu-chushm, v. sui-e, also the adj. 

certai7ify, tuqurroor, tueyun, tueyuqqoon, thika- 
na, sucha,ee, sir-puer, yuqeen, tuhuqqooq,isbat, 
V. truth, &c. 

certificate, diistawez, razee-namu, sunud, sumj- 
huotee, chithee, v. bill, (of a soldier''s death) 
fuotee-namu, (of a horse's, &c. death) suqtee- 
namu, (of dismission, &c.) roklisutee-chithee, 
\. leave, (of service) sur-khutt, (clearance, he.) 
nikasee, rah-daree, safee-namu, muhzur-namu, 
shuhadut-namu, (of slavery) ghoolamee-khutt, 
V. bill, order, &c. 

to certify, sabit-k. tuhqeeq-k. mooqurrur- &c. 
-k. thuhrana, v. to fix. 

cerulean, asmanee-rung, abee-rung, kubudee, uk- 
asee, urzuqee, v. blue. 

ceruse, sufedu. __ . . i. , 

cess, khiraj, muhsool, lugta, baj, hissu russud, 

damasahee, bihree, dund, v. tax, fine. h 
to cess, khiraj- &c. -lugana. i-cv*"- ,'f':r'. finivs'i 
cessation, tuwuqqoof, moohlut, furaghut, foorsut, 

unjha, V. intermission, 
cession, tusleem, tufweez, v. to cede, 
chaff, bhoosee, sooboos, chhamus, kun, toos; 

chaffing of the foot, pcosht-pa, lit. the back of 

the foot, 
to chaff, mulna, malish-k. (to fret, q. v.) chhil- 

na, V. to gall, vex, &c. 
chajfing-dish, ungethee, burosee, kangree, mun- 

qul, mujmur, atush-dan, kanoon. 'u^mu • 
chagrin, khufugee, na-khooshee, runjeecfugee, 

burhumee, azoDrdugee, jhanjh, jhoonjhalut, 

kosrhun, V. vexation, 
to chagrin, jhoonjhlana, julana, sutana, koorhana, 

burhum- &c. -k. v. to irritate, 
chagrined, na-khoosh, burhum, bud-dimagh, v. 

vexed, &c. 
chain, zunjeer, sankur, silsilu, sungul, v. series, 

&c. (of an elephant) andoo, (fetter) pue-kura, 

hut-kura, (ornament) sikuree, bundhunee, v. 

garland, (for the neck) tuoq, v. prison, 
to chain, zunjeer- &c. -k. or -A. baodjina, hulqu- 

bugosh-k. V. to enslave, &c. .i>v<,V.i-«f..s 

chained, zunjeer-bund, bustu, bundhoo,a ; in 

chnhis, pa bu zunjeer. 
chain-shot, zunjeeree gola. 
chair, koorsee, chuokee, sundulee, sookh-asun, 

V. litter, tukht, (prop, a stool or bench) much- 

iya, peerhee, (of justice, &c.) musnud, guddee, 

V. throne, (sedan) of which there are various 

kinds, as the bocha, palkee, nalkee, miyanu, 

sookh-pal, chundol, chuwalu, chuopala; for a 

description of these see Vol. II. 
chairman, (presidetit) meer-mujlis, sudur, v. 

chaise, ekka, garee, bughee, ghoor-buhul. 




chalk, khuree-muttee,, doodhee-muUee, 

rani-khulce, j^-sufed. 
chalice, urgha. 
challenge, du.uwa, bad- 

to challenge {one tojight, &c.) lura,ee-inangna, 
Tnoo<|abulu-chahna, du,uwa-k. bana-bandhna, 
biida budoe-kulina, tukkur-lcna, punju-k. (to 
accuse) dokhna, gllii-k. («* « cenfry) tokua, 
rok tok-k. v. to reject, rokna, nikalna, v. to 
object, duputoa, hUkarna, v. to brave, 
challetiger, mcDddu,ee, badee. 
chamade. In Hindoostan there is no such cus- 
tom ; in lieu of it the besieged wave a wliite 
cloth as a token of surrender; tlierefore, chud- 
dur-doo putta-hilana, is equi\'alent to beating 
the chamade. 
chamber, kothree, hoojru, khanu, (court) kuch- 
uhree, (o/w ^2<?i) khuzanu, kothee, clihoon- 
chhee, nulee; a private chamber, khulwut-gali. 
chamberlain, (of the household) nazir. 
chamelion, girgit, booqulumoon. 
chamois, bcoz i kohee, puharee chheree, v.. goat, 

also leather. 
chamomile, baboonu, baboonuj. 
to champ, cliabna, chibana, v. to chew. 
champaign, muedan, v. open, tvide, Stc. 
champion, puhlu-Man,sliuli-zor, buha-doir, jung- 

awur, V. hero, brave. 
chance,(accident, q. v.) ittifaq, bhabee, (fortune, 
q. V.) qismut, bukht-bazee, duhr, (possibility) 
imkan, hurf-hikayut; by chance, ittifaqun, na- 
gah, unachit, (at dice) gintec, shoomar, v. 
throw, &c. « 

to chance, a-purna, nazil- waqi- ittifaq-h. v. to 

chancellor, sudr a3s-soodoor, qazee-col-qoozzat, su- 
durdeewan, ra^e rayan, (of the eAdiequer)dcc- 
wan i khalisu. 
chancellorship, sudarut. 

chnjicery, sudur-udalut, sudur deewance udalut, 

sudur ujs-soodoor. 
chancre, tankec, cliut, v. sore, 
chandelier, jhar. 

chandler, shumu-saz, 
change, tubdoel, budla,ee, budlee, tughueyur, in- 
qilab, imalu, phcr, beech, badul-ka)l, ibdal, 
istihalu, inhlraf, v. alteration, (of the moon) 
tuht cnsh-shoo,a,u, amawus, (ofseasoiis) dakiiil 
kharij ka u,cyam, (shift) jora, dust, (small 
money) rezgec, puesa-kuoree, mooradee, v. dif- 
ference, e.vchange; changes (of men, &c.) ook- 
har {tUchhar, tughceree-buhalee, tugheeree- 
I tubdeelee, uzl o nusb, v. revolution, S:c. ; a 
change for the better, oal budui. 
to change, budulna, udla budlee- iwuz mao.awu- 
zu- tubdecl- moO|awu7.u-k. phirana, budlana, 
. V. to alter, (mo?iey) bhunjana,bhoonana,torana, 
khoordu- moobbu,ee-k. v. to shift, v. n. phir- 
na, V. to turn, (as the moon) chand-chhipna or 
-(loobna, tuhweel meii-h. v. to revolve, &c. 
budul-j. moobuddul- mootubuddul- mootugh- 
buho-rungee, ghuer mnostuqil, be-subat, mco- 
tuzulzul, buhroopiya, oothla, budlunhar, mm- 
tughueyir, tubdeel-puzeer, do-ruga, v. capri- 
cious, Jickle. 
changeableness, tuluwwoon, huft-rungee, boolliu- 

wusee, be-subatee, v. inconstant, 
changeling, khodloo, budloo, Y.foti>idling,hhuk- 

wa, V. dotard, 
changer (of money) surraf, khoordiya, v. banker, 
channel, nala, nalee, dhara, kharee, sola, rah, 

mujra ; mid chamiel, munjh-dhar, v. gtUter. 
to channel, khueyardar-k. v. to /lute, 
chant, surod. 

to chant, gana, surood- iiirt-k. reghana. 
chanter, uirtee^ reglia,oo, v. singer. 




chanticleer, soobhu-khan, v. cock. 

chanting, neem surod. 

chaos, huyoola,e,oola, julmu,ee, purlue, lubdur, 
V. conftisioyi, medley, 

chap, durz, durar, sliigaf, rukhnu, jubha, v. jaw, 
{of the month) jubra, gulphura, kuUu. 

to chap, turqana, durkana, pharna. 

chape, (of a scabbard) kothee, tuh-nal, v. fer- 
rule, pukur, V. catch, (of a sword) pura, v. 
buckle, &c. 

chapel, musjid, dewul, dyohura, mu,ubud, chun- 
dee mundup, tusbeeh-khanu, moorut-geh, v. 

chaplain, pooranik, poojeree, v. priest. 

chaplet, sihra, sur-pech, v. garland, (rosary) tus- 
beeh, mala, (tuft) kulghee, chontee. 

chapman, khureedar, v. bidder, peddlar, &c. 

chapter, bab, fusl, uddhya, (of the Qmran) sooru, 
V. section. 

character, ank, nuqsh, uchhur, hurf, ruqum, 
y, figure, wusf, juohur, shukhsiyut, jus, v. 
fame, soorkh-roo,ee, v. credit, (in a play) poot- 
lee, \. puppet, (stamp) chinh, v. characteristic, 
bhes, V. habit, (office) qphdu, v. capacity, (lite- 
ral) khuttj .(writing) duskhutt, hust-achhur, 
(personage) shukhs, (discriminating quality) ma- 
hiyul, kuefiyut, (account, history) nuql, uhwal, 
(ra7ik, reputation) murtubii, munsub, slian, 
shuokut, abroo, hoormut, nam, nam-wurec, 
numood, (recommendation) sufarish, (disposi- 
tion) kho, khuslut, V. representation, quality. 

to characterise, mukhsoos- mooshukhkhus- moom- 
taz-k. V. to describe, &c. 

characteristic, puta, ulamut, nishan, puhchan, 

charcoal, ko,ela, ko,enjha, zooghal, v. to smoke, 
(used for hooqqus) gool. 

charge, umanut, tuhweel, huwalu, soopcord, tuht, 
tusurroof, uman, zimmu,rukhee, zimmu waree, 

tuohud, V. care, custody, (command, q.v.)umr, 
aggya, (office, q. v) khidmut, (accusation, 
q. V.) bad, gilu, shikwu, oolahna, toohmut, 
V. imputation, (thing entrusted) umanut, dhur- 
ohur, thatee, (exhortatio7i, q.v.) tulqeen, mus- 
luhut, (ewpence, q.v.) khurj, lagut, v. cost, &c, 
(onset, q. v.) liumlu, churha,ee, churhnee, (of 
a gun) chot, (signal) joojhar baja, dunka, v. 
assault, (of powder, &c.) soombu, v. cartridge, 
bqjb, V. burden, (in comp.) anu, ee, a,ee, v. fee, 
also the Grammar, page 170, &c. ; contingent 
charges, surinjamee khurch or ukhrajat,bU|Uzi- 
khurcli ; to sound the charge, maroo nuqaru- 
&c. -bujana. When the natives sound a 
charge, they beat the nuqaru (kettle drum) 
three times ; the first, to prepare; the second, 
to display their colours ; and the third, as the 
signal for attack. 

to charge, (entrust) umeen- nigahban- tU|eenat-k. 
(to impute, q. v.) thuhrana, muhmool-k. (to 
accuse) du,uwa- bad-k. (to command, q. v.) 
hookm- &c. -k. v. to bid, (to attack) humlu- 
churha,ee-k. (to load, q. v.) bhurna, thasna, 
V. to fill, (in account) liklina, lena, v. to insert, 
(to enjoin) takeed- tuqueyood-k. sumjhana, v. 
to warn, hid, &c. duorna, churhna, v. to at- 

chargealle, (expensive) bharcc, sxmgecn,^. heavy, 

charger, qab, mcnshqab, tusht, tubuq, purot, 
V. plate, khing, v. horse. 

chariot, garee, ghoor-buhul, ruth. 

charioteer, ruth-ban, garee-ban, saruthee. 

charitable, niookhueyur, sukhee, fueyaz, sahib- 
himmut, data, ghureeb-purwur, poonyatma, 
kooshadu-dil, danee, poonnee, am purwur, v. 
benevolent, (liberal, kind) sahib-soolook, sahib- 
dil, soolhi kool, nek, kumshur, ubirodhee, ueb- 




posh, purduposh, oopkar, khuta bukhsh, nek 
undesh, v. merciful, 
charitableness, shiifqut insanee, v. compassion, 
charitably, kooshadu dike- &c. -se. 
charity, (benevolence, q. v.) durd, pyar, lootf, mu- 
roh, fueyazee, v. kindness, {to the poor) birt, 
khuer, sudqu, poon, zukat, v. alms, pension, 
liberality; charity lands, ii,emmu,inilk, peeran, 
inu,afee, fuqeeran, burmhottur, dyottur, bu,ii- 
zee-zumeen, bisliinpreet, v. glebe, benefice, {the 
holder) u.emmudar, milkee, khueratee, v. far- 
mer, &c. {school) khueratee muktub, v. free. 

charlatan, buzariya-tubeeb, v. quack. 

Charles'' wain, doobbi ukbiir, bunat oon-nu,ush, 
supturikh, girdanuk, khutola, kishteo nooh, 

charm, {amulet, q. v.) tu.uweez, hima,il, du,ii- 
wut, nzeemut, tilism, tuntur, tonatamur, uf- 
soon, sihr, totka, lutka, v. spell, {attraction, 
q. V.) kushish, fureb, lia|Obha,o, lugawut, 
khichawut, numuk, buhar, v. delight. 

to charm, tu,iiweez-b. doo,a- muntur-phoonkna, 
jharna, beree-liankna, jadoo-k. or chulana, v. 
enchantment, {to captivate, q. v.) fureftu-k. 
moh-lena, loobhana, birbhana, ooljhana, phus- 

charmer, jadoo-gur, du,iiwutee, tonha, muntrec, 
V. co?ijnrer, nazneen, jan, v. mistress, {beloved, 
q.v.) janee, dil-bur, mun-mohun, mun-liurun, 
sunum. '<  ' ,-•. 

charming, mohna, soha,ona, dil-chusp, dil-rojba, 
uhsun, dil-awcz, khatirfureb, v. delightful, be- 
witching, charmer, agreeable, fine, beautiful. 

charmingly, dil kushee- &c. -se, v. pleasingly. 

chart, nuqshu, put, v. map. 

charter, uhd-namu, iqrar-namu, v. grant. 

chase, puchhera, rupet, v. game, {of a gun) nal, 
V. bore, {hunting, &c.) shikar, (a beast of 

chase) aher, {pursuit, q. v.) tu,aqoob, {park) 
rumna, shikar-gah. 

to chase, khedna, rugedna, khuderna, khukherna, 
peechha- tu,aqa3b-k. bhugna, rupetna, pu- 
chherna, chula-d. v. to scare, {to drive away) 
hankna, door-k. {to hunt) shikar-k. uherna. 

chaser, shikaree, khedoo, v. the verb, pursuer. 

chasm, durz, shigaf,chhed,nooqs,v. defect, break, 

chaste, pak, soodh, saf, tahir, pakeezu, shoostu, 
arastu, purhez-gar, moottuqee, pak-damun, 
ufeefu, soo-sheel, sooch, pubittur, puteebrita, 
koolwuntee, suttee, moohsinu, pakbaz, v. true, 
pursust, V. continent, virtuous, agnus, castus, 

chastely, pakeezugee-se. 

to chastise, chasten, suza- tumbeeh-d. or -k. ar- 
astu- dcoroost- tarun- theek- seedha-k. kan- 
uenthna, chunga-buuana, v. to beat. 

chastisement, suza, tu,uzcer, tarun, gosh-malee, 
nuseehut, tadeeb, kun-uenthee, thonk-thank, 
quhr, chabook, v. beating, whip, punishment. 

chastiser, tarunhar, v. punisher. 

chastity, chasteness, usmut, iffut, pak-damunee, 
purhez-garec, soosheelta, sufa,ee, pakee, pa- 
keezugee, arastugee, tuhzeeb, shoostugee, tu- 
liarut, sut, V. continence. 

chat, buk, gup, bur, kliotsh-gup, also chatty, su- 
tur putur, zuq zuq, urbur, ghen pen, khudur- 
budur, V. clack. 

to chat, bukna, bat but kuha,o- baton- gooftu- 
goo-k. gup-hankna. 

chattels, utala, clieez bust, ushya, Ufasu, muta,u, 
V. effects ; goods and chattels, mal o muta,u, 
mal o umwal. 
chatter, tenten, kilkilahut, kichkichahut. 
to chatter, tenten- chenchen- kankan-k. chur- 
churana, rutna, jhurjhurana, poot poot batcn-k. 
V, to prattle, jaw, &c. {as the teeth) bujna. 




f kutkutana, digdigana, {as a monkey) kilkilana, 
kiclikichana, v. to chat, &c 

chatterer, burbutiya, bacheechee, bukkee, ba,o- 

-'. jhuk, ghuogha,ee. 

icheap, susta, urzan, munda, kum-mol, kum-qec- 
mut, kum-khurch, phurhur, phuruhra, kum- 
buha, be-qeemut, umol, hulka, v. worthless, 

^ 'Common; cheap as dirt, muttee ka mol, v. 

to cheapen, molyaila, mol- qeemut-k. {to lessen) 
kum qeemut-k. 

cheapness, urzanee,, kum-qeemutee. 

cheat,, dugha, chhul, jool, bootta, ghubn, 
fureb, V. huhhle, mukr, heelu, tulbees, khiya- 
niit, gha,oghup, dhandhul, kued, v. trick, im- 

to cheat, thugna, chhulna, dugha bazee-k. dhut- 

**- oora-d. thugana, fitrut-lurana, v. to defraud. 

cheater, dugha baz, furebee, mooheel, dhutooriya, 
khajn, bootte-baz, luelot, gha,oghup, uUum- 
ghuUum, dhandhulee, nutkhut, butebaz, chjui- 

• liya, V. impostor, knave. "■■'■'■ > -" 

check, utka,o, rok, duba,o, ar, moozahumut, zubt, 
qued, snd, moomanu.iit, thokur, zuk, pech, 
V. blow, {in chess) shuh, kisht, v. reprimand, 
{in accounts) janchuk, {hill) teep, v. 7iote, {va- 
rious sorts of cloth, q. v.) soosee, banosee, elue- 
cha, gunga-ramee, gungam, ara, radha^nugu- 

' Tee, bhagul-pooree, dootaree, chuotaree. 

to check, utkana, rokana, barna, sumhahia, dub- 
ana, mama, burujna, hutana, bund- muoqoof-, 
zubt-k. katna, aga-b. mat-k. v. to repress, to 
curb, {to chide, q. v.) sur-zunish-k. datna, {a 
bill or account, &c.) mooqabulu-k. ja,izu-d. mi- 
lana, {in chess) kisht- shuh-d. 

to checker, chequer, doorung- ubree- ubluq-bun- 
• ana, mcnruqqu-k. 

checkered, rungarung, doo rung, teetur-budlee, 
* ' ' ' _j' '• i 1' '1 "• ■' - '' i ^-^ 

booqulumoon, v. varied^ dubba, . (tf^orA) moo- 
ruqqu-sazee. *,'•><-.•. .vf-r .r'f--f>*ivj 

checkmate, mat, shuhmat. , v^ 

cheek, gal, rookhsar, ariz, kupol, mzai; rrokh, 
kullu, gundus, V. side. 

cheer, uesh-ushrut, huz, uesh, asa,ish, rahut, 
aram, khoorrumee, anund, musurrut, bhojun, 
ni.umut, v. food, lulkar, urpun juekar, hooha, 
V. acclamation, shout, himmut, v. courage, {jol- 
lity) chohul, chuhul-puhul, v. merriment. 

to cheer, boolsana, khrosh-k. tuskeen- tushuffee-, 
dllasa-d. tazu- tur o tazu- dilburee- dildaree-, 
khatir jumu-k. lulkama, burhana, gud-d. v. 
to animate, {to encourage, q. v.) dharus-d. 
V. n. phoolna, khilna- hoolusna, khoosh-hojana. 

cheerer, aram-bukhsli, furuh-bukhsh, tuskeen- 
bukhsh, rahut-bukhsh. 

cheerful, khoosh, musroor, khundu-roo, khoosh- 
khrorrum, thuthol, huns-mookh, ulbela, rus- 
iya, rusik, chunchul, be-piirwa, be-fikr, koo- 
shadu-peshanee, khcosh-mlzaj, khoosh-dil, 
khmsh-hal, dil-shad, bilasee, v. merry, jovial, 
careless, gay. 

cheerfully, khooshee-se, shuoq-zuoq-se, bu-sur o 
chushm, bu-dil, sir ankhoii-se, dil dihee-se. 

cheerfulness, khundii-roo,ee, zindu-dilee, khqcsh- 
tubu,ec, shokhee, chunchula,ee, thutholee, tu- 
rub, be-purwa,ee, khroshee, musurrut, v. the 
adj. hans rus, v. gladness. 

cheering, giu-m, v. ivarm. 

cheerless, asdas, oocliat, bedil, nakhmsh, v. deject- 
ed, be-ruonuq, be-chohul, v. gloomy. 

cheese, puneer, {whole) qalib, chukkee ; ttvo 
whole cheeses, do chukkee puneer, v. form. 

cheesemonger, puneer-furosh. 

cheesy, puneersa. 

to cherish, {to protect, nourish, q. v.) palna, khu- 
bur geeree- nuwazish- sewa-k. sur subz-k. 

/  > • 




himayut-k. or nibahna, chohul- buqia-k. v. 
to caressy support, regard. 

cherisher, mcnrubbee, liamee, puchhee, oree, un- 
data, {in coitip.) piirwur, miwaz ; thus, ghur- 
recb-piirwur, a cherisher of the poor. 

cherry, aloobaloo, sliali-danu, {winter-) kakunj, 
uroos duipurdu, wilayutee-niuko,ee. ^fsgi 

cheruh, firishtu, kurroobee, niuluk. 

cherubim, kuroobiyan. 

chesnut, shah-bulootj {bay) sconing. 

chess, shutrunj. 

to play at chess, shutrunj-klieloa. 

chess-board, shutrunj-bisat. 

chess-man, ma:>lirii, \\u\-(\y^o\,{invC7iior o/)luj]aj ; 
tlie king, padshah, shah, moohru-milieen ; the 
queen, wuzeer, furzeen; the castle, elephant, or 
rook, rookh, hathee, feel, peel ; the knight or 
horse, usp, ghora ; the bishop or camel, oont, 
shootoor; the pawn, piyadu or beezuq, buezuq 
or bueduq ; \quere, may not peon come from 
pawn, as piyadu signifies a footman i^ 

chess-player, shatir, shutrunj-baz. 
• chest, sundooq, petee, {small) sundooq-chu, {of 
the body) kotlia, chhatee, peta, v. breast, trunk, 
&c. {of drawers) ulmaree, from ulmaria, Port. 
to be chest foundered, {a Aor«e)chhatee-b,hurja- 
na, jabund-h. 

chevalier, shuh-suwar, buhatloor, ghorchurha, v. 
brave, horseman, &f. 

to chew, chabna, chubana, koochuhia, koochna, 
chublana chikulua, {the cud) joogalna, kuo- 
ree-parna, v. to ruminate. Sec. 

chicane, r/ticawery, luetolu.ul, talmutol, lieelu-hu- 
walu, sutur-putur, dhan-dhul, chukur-mukur, 
V. artifice, cheat, &c. 

chicaner, tuqreeree, hoojjutee. 

chick, chicken, cliinga, peel, {fig) nuokhez, nir- 
lomee, choozu, buchu ; whence chooze-baz, 

.. un old woman fond of striplings. 

chickeii-broth, nukhood-ab. v. soup. • > 

chicken-hearted, bcBZ-dil, (i e. goat-hearted) dur- 
pokna, moorghee, geedur. 

chicke7i-pens, unktee, v. retch. 

chicken-pox, motiya-seetlee, koduwa, punsa, v, 
small-pox, cow-pox. 

to chide, V, a. {to reprove) datna, dokhna, sur-zu 
nish-k, ghcorukna, jhoonjhlana, chii-chirana, 
jhurukua, ghoorkce- jhurkce-d. sansn^, khce- 
jhna, dugudhna, nuktora-k. zujur-k. dudlana, 
V. to scold, blame, rebuke, he. 

chider, dokhiya, chirchira, anjhiya. 

chief, adj. bura, puchla, uwwul, sudr, mcoqud- 
dum, V. principal, &c. 

chief, chieftain, surdar,meer, peshwa, ru,ees, mu- 
hut-jun, walee, mundul, chuodhree, muhto, 
putel, ria,ek, kurumcharee, surwur, surkhuel, 
surduftur, imam, khan ; chiefs, mukhadeem, 
V. leader, head, governor. 

chief-justice, sudur ool-huqq. 

chiefiy, uksur, khoosoosun, uwwullun, puehle. 

chiefship, bure-sahibee, chuod,hra,ee, muhta,ee, 
imamut, v. lordship, Ssc. supra. 

chilblain, biwaiCe. 

child, buchchu, lurka, fern, lurkee, dhota, fur- 
zund tifl, baluk, koduk, v. innocent, bala, poo- 
twa, pisur, rezu, noordeedu, noorcliushm, 
sisoo, baba, v. babe, {in comp.) zadu, v. son, 
{of, or belonging to) buchganu, {having) lur- 
kora, labour; to be with child, pet se- humulse-, 
oommedse-h. y. fruit. Sec. 

child-bed,. zuchngee, suor. ^ 

child-birth, '^unma., wilabur, v. labour. \ 

childhood, buchugee, buchpun, luruk-pun, too- 
foohyut, tiflee, lurka,ee, bal-pim. 

childish, clihcnlcohla, clioolboola, chiba,ola, tifl- 
mizaj, lurke ka sa, tifla, tiflanuiaofj ^vV^- . 

childishly, lurkon ka sa, tifla, tiflanu. »4i»V» 




childishness, choolboolahut, chiblUa-pun, tifl-ml- 

zajee, chhichhor-pun. 
childless, be-uolad, lawulud, ni-poota, ni-suntan, 

nirbuns, pootmoo,a. 
children, lurke bale, kuch buch, uyal, utfal, 

(^descendants, q. v.) bunee ; thus, the children 

of Israel, bunee Isra|eel. 
chiliad, huzaru. 
chill, chilly, surd, thundha, seera, khconook, ba- 

rid, thundha- &c. -sa, juraha, v. cold. 
to chill, thundha- &c. -k. sirana, {with cold) 

thithurana, {depress) ufscordu- &c. -k. 
to be chill, thithurna. 
chilliness, phcoruhree, qushureeru. 
chillness, surdee, thundh, seer, thunduk, ufsojr- 

dugee, boaroodut, khconookee. 
chime, kook, tal, tal-mel, {of a belt) thunaka, 

thoonkar, v. harmony, {horal) gujur, whence 

gujur-bajna, to chime, v. to sound. 
to chime, milna, lugna, hum a hung- eksan- bur- 

abur- moowafiq- mila- theek- shamil-h. v. 

alike, ektal-h, v. concordant, also to agree, ul- 

aqu-r. {as verse) hum wuzn-h. muozoon-h. 

V. a. milana. 
chimera, conqa, kiyal, wuhm, dhokha, pindar, 

surab, khiyal la ta,il, khiyal poola,o, mun-lud- 

doo, V. dream, deception, 
chimerical, wuhmee, khiyal ee, v. imaginary, 
chimney, dood-dan, dood-kush, bookharee, gool- 

khun, dhoo.anra, v. vent, fire-place, &c. 
chin, thooddee, thorhee, zunukh, zunukh-dan, 

zuqun, chimbook. 
China, {the country) Cheen, seen, qinya, {ware) 

Cheenee burtun, ghoree, {root) chob-cheenee ; 

the emperor of China, fughfoor. 
chincough, daba, hubba dubba; to have the chin- 
cough, punjur-lugna. 
chine, poot, dhopur, kumur, v. loi7is. 

chink, durz, turuq, durar, shigaf, chak, ruozun, 
soorakh, rukhnu, chhed, v. crack. 

to chink, khun khunana, chhun chhunana, v, to 

chints, chheet, rungee. 

chip, chipping, chhiptee, turashu, chuelee, tookra, 
rezu, chheelun, choonnee, v. fragment. 

chiromancer, bhudree, samoodrikee. 

chiromancy, samoodrik. 

chirp, rez, jhunkar. 

to chirp, choorugna, jjiunkarna, rez-k. choon- 
choon-k. cheen-cheen-k. ,Kr-,,,r> 

chisel, tankee, chhenee, rookhanee^ hukkee. > 

to chisel, tankee-marna. 

chit, is much used in India for a note, letter, 
&c.; it is corrupted from the Hinduwee word 
chithee, q. v, under letter. 

chitchat, gup-shup, bat-cheet, bol-chal, qal-mu- 
qal, qeelkal, kulmu kulam, v. chat, dialogue, 

chivalry, suwarkaree, shuhsuwaree, v. prowess. 

chives, soot, v. thread. 

chocolate colour, kakrezee, khueree, lakhee. 

choice, ikbtiyar,, khooshee, pusund, reejh, 
khwahish, chah, mun man, husb dil khwah, 
mun bha,o, chokha, v. excellent, also election, 
munbus, qaboo, v. poiver, istisna, buchwa, 
choonwa, v. selection, &c. {care in choosing) 
ihtiyat, tulash, kudd o kawish, khoj, v. to 

choice, adj. khassu, bihtur, nufees, toohfu, mU|U- 
qool, nadir, pusundeedu, v. careful, nice, &c. 

choicely, ihtiyat-se. 

choiceness, lootf, toohfugee, nufasut, chokha,ee, 
V. delicious, nicety. 

choir, ta,ifu, v. band. 

to choke, gula-phansna, gula-ghontna, nuretee- 
dabna, dum bund-k. ookbookana, phunsna, v. 
to suffocate, niwalu- tookra-lugna or -utukna, 
V. to strangle, {to block up) bund- tegha-k. 





choon-lena, {to overpower) dubana, v. to sup- 
choke-full, nak o nak, khuchakhuch, lubalub, v. 

choler, pit, sufra, v, bile, pitta, zuhru, tuesh, v. 

miger, {ntrabilis) suoda ; his choler will rise, 

cos ka pitta bhuruk oothega, v. gall, bladder, 

cholera morbus, sect-rus, huez.u,tuhobala,nioonh- 

pet, ola-cntha, surus-nirus, v. surfeit. 
c7io/mc, ghoossu-wur, toond, atushee-mizaj,gunn- 

mizaj, tulkh-inizaj, krodhee, sufrawee-mizaj ; 

he is a vei-y choleric man, wooh buru zuhre ka 

adraee bue. 
cholic, qoolinj, ba,o-sool, bad-sool, krorkooree. 
to choose, pusund- &c. -k. chahna, {to select, q. 

V.) choog- bin- bachh- chhant-lena, moontu- 

khub-k. burana, karhna, rukh-lena, roochna, 

V. choice, to like, pick, appoint, 
chop, V. chap, chip, tokra, tlulce, paru, tikka, 

kootiya, v. collop, pi. moonhana, v. jaw. 
to chop, qulum-k. kat-k. kat koot-k. v. to hack, 

ooiu-d. ootarna, v. to cut, e.vchange, {meat) 

qeemu-k. kcothurna, {to chap) turqana, {to de- 

'vour) bhucbh- hubuk-lena, bugharna, v. to 

chatter, to batidy, prate, &c. 
clu)pping-knife, boughda,chhoora, gundasa,v.c/fa- 

ver, chubby, 
chord, tar, wutur, dhooii, poornija, v. cord, 
chordee, kurk, ling-bitha. 
chorus, {of a song) juwabee, v. bob, jiiwab, ku- 

ree, tal o soor, v. burden, {to join in) a\vaz-mi- 

lana, v. concert, 
cliosen, muqbool, munioor, nicostusna, moortuza, 

moostufa, V. to choose, select, 
to chouse, thugna, chhulna, dugha-d. v. to cheat. 
Christ, eesa, museeha or museeha. 
to christen, nam-r. namkurun-k. 
christening, iiqeequ,, nioomlun. 

christian, eesuwee, nusranee, nusai'a, tursu, mu- 

seehee, v. Messiah. 
Christianity, eesuwec-muzhub, eesuwiyut, nusra- 

Christmas, ecd nusaran, biira-din, \. feast, 
clironic, mu)zniin dince, der-pa, suree,u-a)l-mi,ud, 

V. old. 
chronicle, wuqayii, iikhbar^ tuwareekh. 
chronogram, tareckb. 
chronologer, chronologisf, moGWiirrikb, tareekh- 

dan, gunuk. 
chronology, ilm i tuwareekh, jlin i tareekh. 
chrysalis, badaniu. 
chrystal, biluor, qulum, v. glass, whence qulmee, 

chubby, clmffy, thothul-mothul, soond-moond, gul- 

phoola, gool-goothna, bota, v. plump, 
chuff, bhuensa, iirna, sand, v. fcwW. 
chuck, kcotkoot, V. chicken; my chuck, mere pu- 

tlic, V. youth; chuck-chuck, tee-tee. 
to chuck, chuckle, kootkootana, koorkoorana, {un- 
der the chin) thooddee-hilana, v. to fondle, khi- 

liyan-k. biighl-bujana, v. to giggle, 
chuck-fa rtliitig, ghotee-chiinga, goochee-paru. 
chum, hiim-khanu, hum-hmjru, luini-subuq -suf- 

ru or -tu,am, v. comrade, companion, 
church, girja, kulesa, v. mosque, 
churl, gunwap, diliqanee, v, clown, {miser, q. v.) 

bukheel, hiqoondra, v. curmudgeon, 
churlish, suklit, kuttiir, ukhur, uojhur, goostakh, 

oojud, sung-tbl, be-ruhm, dubiing, v. harsh, 
churlishly, goostakhee- &c. -se. 
churlishness, sukhtee, sung-dilce, kurukhtiigee, 

be-ruhmee, gaistakbcc, v. harshness, 
churn, dood-handee, niutkee, chafee, cbuttee, 

{staff) nuidhanee, miithnee, bilonee, niihanee, 

to churn, muthna, muhna, bilona. 




chyle, kueloos, rus, kuemoos, perhaps doodh, v. 

chymisf, keemiya-gur, rusa,enee, keemiya-saz, 
moohuwwis, rus-bhedee. 

cliymistry, keemiya, rusa,en, keemiya-guree. 

cicatrix, dagh, chinh. 

cicatrization, iltiham, bhura,o, v. to heal. 

to cicatrixe, bhurna. 

cimefer, tegha, slmmslier, tulwar, v. sivord. 

cincture, bund, bundhun, {of a pillar') gola, v. 
girdle, ring. ,■[ ■• .jfiwri 

dndeTj (cold) ko.ela, (Jiot) ungara. 

cinnabar, shungurf, eengoor, durdur, v. minium. 

cinnamon, darcheenee, (vulg. dalclieenee) {wa- 
ter) uruq i darcheenee, (oil) utr i darcheenee, 

cinquefoil, punj-ungoosht. i^ra\-\ -t'-WvA- 

cion, kulghu, {graft) puewund, v. shoot, sprout. 

cipher, sifr, soonna, boonda, bindee, {person) 
dhooha, nuqsh deewar, v, nobody, nothing, 
{writing in-) goopt putree, {figure) ruqum, 
ank, {engraved) tooghra ; to write in ciphers, 
rumz nuweesee-k. kumsila-likhna, v. to count, 
&c. a mere cipher, (person) wujood i raao,uttul. 

circle, ghera, hulqu, da|iru, chunibur, koondulee, 
chukkur, duora, duor, girdu, koondul, v. cycle, 
coil, &c. bhuonree, applied to a ring or curl 
of horse's hair, and considered as a blemish, 
y. feather; a geometrical circle, sliukl i moos- 
tudeer, koondul-akar, (halo) halu, mundul. 
Many of these words, as in English, are ex- 
tensive in their application, v. assembly, &c. 
An inconclusive form of argument is termed 
duor, V. inconclusive. 

to circle, circuit, gird- duoru- moohasuru-k. gher- 
lena, ghoomna, duor-chulna, da,ir-h. v. to re- 
volve, enclose. 

circuit, gurdish, pher, ghooma,o, ihatu, phera, 
chukkur, duor, hisar, gusht, gird, (visiting) 
gushtsulamee, v, circle. 

circuiteer, sa,ir, da,ir, girdawur, gushtee. 

circular, mooduwwur, gol, hulqu-dar ; a circular 
motion, hurkuti istidaru. 

circularity, gola,ee. 

circularly, gird bu gird. 

to circulate, v. n. phirna, ghoomna, gurdish-k. 
(as the blood) suoran-k. duorna, churkh-mar- 
na, nicDstudeer-h. chulna, buhna, v. to move, 
(to be dispersed) phuelna, moontushur-h. v. a. 
phuelana, moontushur-k. chulana, jaree- ru- 

Wan-k.  i,r:; i; • '-.v, 

circulation, gurdish, ghcoma.o, plier, ijra, chulun, 
buha,o, (of the blood) suoi'an, (succession) tu- 
watoor, V. revohdion. 

circumambient, mooheet, byapuk, gird a gird, v. 
around. r <,  

to circumambulate, girdawuree- &c. -k. ghoom- 
gham-k. dur bu dur-phirna, i. e. circumfora- 

to circumcise, khutnu- soonnut- moosulmanee-k. 

circumcised, mukhtoon. 

circumcision, khutnu, soonnut. 

circumference, gird, gird-pesh, ghera, duora, gi- 
ruo, pher, gher ghooma,o, mooheeti da,iru, 
birdhprut, (of a tree) kumur, gher, (of a well) 
jugut, mun, V. margin, girth, circle. 

circumjluent, circumfluous, mooheet, byapuk. 

to circumfuse, phvielana, moontushir-k. 

circumjacent, moottusil, qureeb, nuzdeek, lug- 
bhug, chuhoodis, (places) nuveah, utraf, pue- 
ramoon, juwar, suwad, huwalee, v. adjacent. 

circumlocution, ibarut, bukhan, ghooma,o, pech, 
pecheedugee, marpech, pher, tool-kulam, gur- 
dish-lufzee, v. winding. 

circumlocutory, pecheedu, gol, v. round about. 

to circumscribe, bemuqdoor- bebus-k. mujboor-, 
tungdust- duba- zubtmen-r. gherna, chhenk- 
na, hudd-b. nurghu-k. v. to confine. 




circumscribed, tung, be-muqdoor, nachar, bebus, 

ajiz, luibul, V. confined, 
circumipect, circumspective, chuokus, chuokunna, 

hojshiyar, munsoobu-baz, chuonkel, urgutee, 

ilitiyatee, v. caiittoH.s. 
circumspection, chuoksa,ee, chuonkelta, door-un- 

deshee, v. vigilance, prudetwe, caution. 
circtMiisfafwe, ittifaq, arizu, kuefiyut, huqeequt, 

halut, hal, gut, chigoonugee, bat, uhwal, wuqt, 

pi. uoqat, hudoosat, v. particular, accidetit ; in 

easy circumstayices, asoodu-hal, khmsh-hal. 
to circumstance, circumstantiate, thuhrana, moo- 

qurrur-k. thanna. 
circumstantial,, ittifaqee, {full) mojfussul, 

wazih, bisturit, v. particular, 
circumstantially, moofussulun, mushroohun, tuf- 

seelwar, v. fully, 
to circumvalate, char deewaree- &c. -bunana. 
circumvalation, char-deewaree, shuhur-punah, 

to circumvent, thugna, dhokha- iieyaree-k. pech- 

marna or marpech-khilana, rah-marna or -kat- 

na, V. to overreach, delude, deceive, 
circumvention, thugu,ee, kuput, ullum-gliullum, 

chukur-mukur, pech-pach, v. fraud, 
circumventor, ueyar, dugha-baz, fuelsoof, mootu- 

funnee, chhidee, kuptee, pecheela, nmr-pechee, 

circumvolution, gird, gurdish, v. revolution, 
circus, da,iru, ukhara, v. stage, &c. 
cistern, huoz, chuh buchu, v. reservoir, 
citadel, qulu,u, gurh, gurhee, shuhr-punah ; this 

last is, properly, the fortified wall of a town. 
citatum, iulam, dustuk, iqtibas, bolahut, tulub, 

du,uwut, istih,, v. call, summons, quotation, 
to cite, i,ulam-bhejna, boola-bhejna, tulub-k. v. 

to quote. 
citizen, shuhree, uhl i shuhr, nugraha, putuniya, 

sliuhr- or nugur-wal, v. inhabitant. 

cithern, tumboora, sitar, kingiiree, v. harp, &c. 

citrvn, chukotra, kurna, toorunj, ghagus, gulgul, 
bujuora, utriij, v. lemon, &c, 

city, shuiir, nugur, buldu, niiguree, lok, v. people, 
town, {in comp.) abad, thus, ukbur-abad, the 
city of Akber, viz. Agra. 

civet, zubad. 

civet-cat, mooshk-bilaee, v. cat. 

civil, {polite, q. v.) milun-sar, niilapee, uhl, sa- 
hib-soolook, murde-admee, sahib-ukhlaq, moo- 
la,iui, nurm, soo sobha.o, soo seel, sutkaree, 
bhula-manoos, v. criminal, {opposed to military) 
moolkee, nialee, deewanee, {war) khanu-jun- 
gee, bundh bigreli, v. discord; a civil employ- 
ment, malee-kam ; the civil power, tooru, t. 
civilixed, intestine, &c. 

civilian, {Jinancier, &c.) uhl i nizamut, amil 
peshu, uhli qulum, v. laivyer. 

civilities, tuwazco,u o tu.uzeem, rusmiyat zahiree. 

civility, khoolq, uhliyut, scolook, tumullooq, in- 
saniyut, moodarat, awabhugut, srishtachar, 
seel, bhul-munsee, nurmee, v. politeness, nii- 
lunsaree, nuotu,ee, a,o bha,o, tukreem tuwa- 
zco,u, hifz mcoratib, sunman. 

civilization, admiyut, turbiyut, v. reformation. 

to civilixe, admee- insan-k. or bunana, arastu- 
dooroost- humwar- turbiyut-k, sunwarna, sud- 
hana, v. to polish, reclaim. 

civilized, arastu, dooroost, moohuzzub. 

civilizer, sukul sunwaroo. 

civilly, ukhlaq- udub-se, v. politely. 

clack, qeel qal, qalmuqal, bukbuk, lublubahut, 
V. rattle. 

to clack, bukbukana, burburana, lublubana, v. to 
cackle, {the tong^ie) titkaree-mama, titkarna. 

clad, {in comp.) posh ; thus, silah-posh, clad in 

claim, du.uwa, bad, durkliwast, mootalubu, istih- 
qaq, du,uwa suwal, purpuch, v. right.\ 
N 2 




to claim, du,uwa- tuqaza- tulub-k. mangna. 

claimant, mooddu,ee,badee,talib,tulub-gar, da,ee, 
du,uwa-dar, dad-khvyah, (just) mopstuhuqq. 

to clamber, churhna, bilungna. 

clamminess, lus, luslusahut, lublubalmt, chipchip- 
ahut, luzoojut. 

clammy, lus-dar, luslusa, lijlija, cliipchipa, luzij. 

clamorous, ghuogha,ee, shoree. 
^clamour, shor, gliool, shor-sliughb, gliuogha, josh- 
khurosh, dhoomgujur, hanka hank, v. uproar, 
boolara, v. cry. 
^ to clamour, ghool- &c. -k. puokarna, goharna, 

clamp, puttur. 

to clamp, puttur-jurna or -lugana. 

clan, quom, zat, kool, buraduree, khandan, ghur- 
ana, v. race, &c. 

clandestine, posheedu, chhipa, goaput, nuhooftu, 
mukhfee, khoofiyii, nihaii, pinhan. 

clandestinely, chhipake, goopchoop, khoofiyutuij. 

clang, clangour, (of arms) kliutakhut, jhurajhur, 
turatur, dhuradhur, (of a trzimpet) too too, 
bhoii bhon. 

to clang, clatik, khuta khut-biijna, khurukna, 

clank, jhunuk, jhunkar. 

clap, khutka, khutiik, jhuraka, chumeta, v. rap, 
tal, talee, thupkuree, dustuk, (peal) gliun- 
guruj, bhurbhuraliut, V. crash, clash, kc. (of 
thunder) kuriik, (blow) tuinachu, tliuppur. 
(gonorrlwsa) sozak, prinie,o, ba,o, gurmee, 
atushuk, abilu-furung, purma, v. po.v. 

to cla}}, lugana, lukhna, bhirana, bujana, thopi- 

, yana, .putputana, thupukna, v. to strike, de- 
marna, putkana, marna, chulana, v. to dash, 

. drive, &c. (the wings) koonde-jharna or phut- 
phutana, V. to beat, (to disease) julana, zukh- 
mee-k. v. clap, (the hands) talee- thupree-bu- 
jana, [generally as a mark of disapprobation] ; 

to clap or rattle as a door, bhurbhurana, v. to 
applaud; to do any thing hastily, jhupse-k.; 
thus, he clapt his hand on his mouth, con ne 
jhup se moonh pur hath diya, v. to imprison, 
place, &c. 

clapper, jeebhee, loluk, lolnee, lutkun. 

claret, lu,ul- or lal-shurab. 

to clarify, muel-chhantna, saf-k. muel-katna, v. 
to purify, (butter) marna, v. to melt, &ec. 

clarion, kurna|e, booq, tournee, nur-singha, soor- 

clash, clashing, khutka, jhunkar, jhunuk, tuk- 
kur, V. oppositioti, jhura jhur, shupashup, v. 
clang, bhuraka, v. explosion, (contradiction, q. 
V.), tuzad. 

to clash, khutkhutana, jhunjhunana, tukrana, 
khuencha khuenchee-k. niza,ii-r. (to oppose) mookhalufut-k. v. to disagree, ojipose, con- 

clasp, chupras, pukur, v. catch, hook, &c. jor, 
V. joint, kuknee, v. gripe. 

to clasp, bund-k. lupetna, pukurna, lena, guhna, 
kukniyana, (to embrace) gule lugana. 

clasper, soot, v. tendril. 

clasp-knife, chakoo, v. knife. 

class, nuo,u, qism, zat, tufreeq, jins, prikar, (or- 
der, q. V.) durju, payu, zilu, v. family, jat, 
firqu, furd, ras, burun, khund, v. sort. 

to class, bu turteeb- qism bu qism-r. 

classic, classical, moo,utubur, mcahuqqiq ; a clasSr. 
ical author, moosunnifi moo.utubur. 

class iJicatio7i, tujnees, jinswaree, zilu-bundee. 

clatter, khurkhurahut. 

to clatter, khurkhurana, thukthukana, turturana, 
V. to rattle, (chatter) zuqzuq buqbuq-k. 

clavicle, bans, hunslee, turqoo,u. 

clause, fiqru, joomlu, fusl, (article, q. v.) shurt, 
dufu, mudd, mooquddumu, a,een, khund, y. 
particular, stipulation. • .-jkn'.-' 




claw, nakhojn, nooh, chungool, punju, nukh, v. 
clutch, foot, (of a crab) quenchee. 

to claw, nochna, khurochna, chonthna, noch-d. 
khcojlana, nukhiyana, bukotna, punju- &c. 
-marna, v. to tear. 

claic-ltack, {instrument) poosht-khar, v. syco- 

clay, pindol, chiknee mittee, chuhla, kuchla, v. 
earth, pit, (cold) panee, v. ice, &c. (prepared) 
gara, gilawu, pukhshu, (mixt with straw) 


clayed, (as sugar) sewaree. 

clayey, mutiyar, v. mud, &c. 

clean, cleanly, saf, pakeezu, pak, soochh, oajla, 
oojjul, tahir, mootuhir, soothra, chokha, kora, 
V. spotless, pure, clear, bimul, (lawful) hulal, 

to clean, cleanse, saf-k. oojlana, manjna, jila-d. 
chhantna, chhurna, v. to winnow, (a well, &c.) 
oodahna, oogarna, kumana, oojalna, opna, 
mandna, dhona, v. to icash, sweep, scour, wipe. 

cleaning, rooft rob, jhar jhutuk, oodahee, chhun-, v. t/ie verb. 

cleanness, cleanliness, sufa,ee, pakee, tuharut,pa- 
keezugee, oojla,ee, soochhta, nirmulta, nufasut, 

cleanly, adv. ba-tuharut, ba-wuzoo, soothra,ee- 
&c. -se, V, purity, &c. 

cleanser, jhar, kat. 

clear, v. clean, shuiFaf, burraq, tab-dar, ab-dar, 
phurcha, cbikna, nooranee, nirjhul, nithra, 
sufa, nichhul, v. bright, innocent, numood, ba- 
riz, V. evident, acute, poora, (as voice) oottim, 
V. complete, without, (apparent, q. v.) xahir, 
suheeh, sureeh, khoola, ashkara, burmula, ul- 
aniyu, pritichh, moobueyun, liuwueda, (free) 
azad, khulas, riha, mookt, v. safe, altogether. 

to clear, v. a. saf- &c. -k. jhalna, opna, ootarna, 
ootha-d. jila^dena, phurtiyana, nikharna, kat- 

na, jharna, v. to clean, kholna, sooljhana, v. to 
disengage, (woodlands) khet-nikalna, jungul- 
booree-k. v. to cut, (the way) po,esh po,esh- 
ihtiman-k. (to remove) surkana, rufu- door-k. 
talna, (to free) cbhorana, azad- &c. -k. (to 
gain) pusundaz-k. buclia- nikal-r. saf- 8ec. -h. 
V. n. nithurna, khoolna, v. to brighten, acquit, 
clear, absolve. 

clearance, ruwanu, chulan, nikasee, v. certificate. 

clearer, v. cleanser, mul-kat, v. rubber. 

clearly, sufa,ee- &c. -se, la-kulam, \. fairly, (evi- 
dently) zahira, sureehun, v. clear, wholly. 

clearness,, pakee, shufFafee, burraqee,ooj- 
la,ee, sihhut, numoodaree, v. brightness, per- 

clear-sighted, tez-nuzur, pesh-been, door-been, 
door-undesh, prubeen, moobussir, beena, v. jm- 

to cleave, v. n. luga- lipta- chimut- gutha-ruhna, 
V. to adhere, phutna, chirna, kutna, bilugna, 
(split) V. a. pharna, cheerna, katna, chuorung- 
mama, v. to divide, crack. 

cleaver, koolharee, tubur, phursa, chhoora, boogh- 
du, kuttan, kutta. 

cleft, durar, turuq, rukhnu, chhed, phat, chak, 
V. crevice, (in comp.) shuq ; thus, shuqoolurz, 
a large cleft or opening in the ground, inconse- 
quence of an earthquake. 

clemency, ruhm, rulimut, amcwrzisb, shufqut, 
muya, nioola.imut, hilm, nurmee, durd-mun- 
dee, V. mercy. 

clement, ruheem, niooturuhhim,moola,im,huleem, 
kuroonawunt, ghufoor, v. merciful. 

clergy, mooUa mukhdoom, bruhmun-pande, v. 

clerk, nuweesindu, nirotusuddee,katib,nioohurrir, 
lekhuk, mooshrif, surishtu-dar, putwaree, v. 
register, (of the warAe^) nirkhee (in comp.) nu- 
wces, V. writer, (among the English) kranee. 




'r' {in contempt) likhnee-das, a Qazee's clerk, 

sukkak. » (vM^'y 

cfetJer ,chalak-dust,sooba5k-dust, chutoDr, chabook- 
., dust, hooshiyar, v. evpert, dexterous, chutak, 
V, soochet, chutkeela, prubeen, soonaree, soojan, 
kamil, v. cunning, smart, &c. (,/it) charbank, 
cha,en, theek, dooroost, mcowafiq, v. able, 
cleverly, dust karee- &c. -se, v. alertly, properly, 
cleverness, chalak-dustee, hooshiyarce, chuoksa,ee, 

V. dexterity. 
elew, pinda, pilinda, gola,>v. ball, moya, kookree, 
tuggee, dusee, pechuk, v. skein, {guide) sur- 
rishtu, V. direction. 'Uu^ ^y^/- , 

to click, kut-kut-k. 

client, mcDiieeb, mcowukkil, v. depetidant. 
cliff, puharee, teela, sring, dhang, v. precipice, 
climate, clime, surzumeen, uqleem, khittu, deep, 

shuhr, V. region, air, &c. 
to climb, churhna, bilungna. 
climber, churhwuya, {in cowjj.)churh^,v. creeper. 
to clinch, {t/iejist) moothee-b. ghoosa-tanna, {to 
confirm) sabit-k. {a nail) morna, moonh-mar- 
na, V. to fix, {a bargain) bandhna, pookhtu-k. 
pookhtpuz-k. muzboot- &c. -k. v. valid, to 
to cling, luttuk- vituk- hllug- luga-ruhna, gurha- 

ruhna, liputna, chlmutna, v. to cleave. 
to clink, khurkhurana, jhiiijhinaiia, toontoonana, 

thuntjiunana, tutkarna. 
to clip, kutu'rna, katna, turashna, kutur-d. cblmnt- 
na, miqraz-k. {the wings) koot-k. {ufords) 
clipping, kuturun, turashu, v. chip, paring, &c. 
clitoris, tuna, soonga, teela, rihla,bhugtun,bicha, 
putaka, kont, toomkuna. 
~ cZoaA;,furgbool,lubadu,ghongree,ja3bbu, baranec, 
(which the servants have a trick of calhng 
brandy-koortee) chokha, pamree, bursatee ja- 
mu, V. mantle, veil, &:c. {cover) purdu. 

to cloak, cbhipana, dhampna, gooput- ikhfa-k. 

khusposh-k. lupetna, v. to mask, 
cloak-bag, khoorjee, mufrush. 
clock, ghuree, ghuriyal, sa,ut, dhurum ghuree, sa- 
ut nooma, v. hell, also beetle, hour, &c. what 
o'clock is it? kuon ghuree hue, kuothee ghu- 
ree hue ? it is going to twelve, do puhur ka 
umul hue; come at nine o''clock in the morning, 
puhur din cliurhe a,o; it is about to strike 
twelve, do puhur buja chahta hue, or bujne 
pur hue. 
clock-maker, sa,ut-saz, ghuree-saz.  *"») (ts^yn'r^ 
clock-work, kul-kanta, t. machinery, 
clod, dheema, dhela, koolookh, pinda, londa, dula, 
thoo,a, (also a dolt) v. blockhead^ leda, v. lump, 
load, &c. ') .!>ni!r<i .\toV» .'wtiui .v.v.' 
clog, bojh, utka,o, bar, wuzn, hurj, qubahut, 

sudd or sudd, {shoe) khura,oon, chuina,oon. 
to clog, bharee- wuzunee- guranbar- bund-k. 

.utkana, {to load) ladna, bhurna. 
cloister, gosbu, tukiyu, hoojru, murhee, kootee, 

V. piazza, monastery, li^ /'oi ' 
close, {end, q. v.) tumamee, akhir, unt, v. cessa- 
tion, pause, &c. 
close, adj. bund, moonda, rooka, {concise,narrow, 
q. V.) tung, {literal, q. v.) tuhti-lufzee, v. re- 
served, {joined with) puewustu, mila, luga, 
bhira, {near, q. v.) moottusil, luge luge ; close 
by, lugbhug, v. at hand; close-handed, tung- 
dil or chushm, v. narrow, {hidden, q.v.) duba, 
chhipa, {secret, reserved) rooka, rookha, {sly 
q. V.) pukka, ueyar, {thick) ghuna, goonjan, 
{compact) thos, sungeen, {as the weather) gun- 
du, musdood, khumus, v. sultry, 
to close, V. a. bund-k. moondna, niU|Umoor-k. 
bherna, nieechna, moonchnaor moochna,v. shut, 
chhopna, dhanpna,lugana,bhirana,oothungna, 
hirkana, v. to shut, fill, &c. {to finish) niptar- 
na, V. to settle, {to end, q. v.) khutm- sumpoo- 




run- sumapt-k. ; to close up, milana, bandh- 
na, rokna, v. n. mcnndna, miclina ; to close in 
with, mrowafuqut- ittifaq- mel-milap-k. ; to 
close with, bhirna,jcotna, liputna, bund-h. lug- 
na, miliia, hirukna, sutna, bundhna, v. to join, 
heal, meet, &c. 

closely, tuqueyud-se, v. close, sute sute, bjhirake, 
V. the verb, luga lug, peetiya thonk. 

closetiess, (nnrrowness, q. v. &c.) ihtibas, rooka- 
wut, kotahee, v. straitness, khumsahut, {vici- 
nity, q. V.) nuzdeekee, puewustugee, {thick- 
ness) gunjanee, {compactness) sungeenee, inji- 
mad, {of tite weather) gundugee. 

closet, khuhvut-gah, kliulwut-khanu, goshu, kot- 
hree, hoojru, khoorkee. 

to closet, {a person) khulwut-k. ; the king closeted 
the minister two hours to-day, aj padshah ne 
wuzeer se do ghuree khulwut kee. 

chsh, khunguol. 

clot, thukka, antjiee, chukkan, chukka. 

to clot, jumna, thukka-b. 

cloth, kupra, parchu,bustur, looga, jamu,v. cover- 
ing, carpet, sheet, &c. There are many varie- 
ties, some of which are as follows, garlia, put- 
ha, giizee, guzeenu, maghur, chuoka, v. doiv- 
la^, umirtee, baflu, udhursa, khassu, udhotur, 
huzaree, puchtoliya, sitara, suhun, muhmoo- 
dee, jhola, v. cambric, damask, check, &c. {red) 
kharwa, v. canvas, &c. jharun, v. ivrapper, 
towel, ikc. {as a carpet) chandnee, {web of) 
jamuwar, {for t/te table) dustur khwan, cha- 
dur, (prop, a sheet) ; woollen cloth, banat, su- 
qurlat, puttoo, {shawls, kc.) pushmeenu; to 
lay the cloth, mez-lugana, chadur-bichhana. 

cloth-merchant, parchu-furosh, kupriya. 

clothes, clothing, kupre, parche, bustur, libas, 
poshak, poshish, uqmushu, puhrawa, (cast) 
ootarun, chharun, {bed) orhna, bicbhawun, v. 
sheet, apparel, Stc I 

to clothe, kupra-orhna or -puhunna, kupra-orhna 
or -puhrana ; to feed and clothe, rotee kupra-d. 
tun pet kee khubur-lena. 

clothed, {in comp.) posh ; thus, in Najee, mah- 
roo jub sufed posh hoo,a, iiur turuf chandnee ka 
josh hoo,a, tctien my mistress was clothed in 
white, the moon shone with new lustre around. 

clothier, banat-baf. 

cloud, ubr, budlee, badul, ghun, megh, gbuta, 
suhab, {in wood, &c.) ubr, juohur, {crowd, q. 
V.) ifrat, bouhtat, v. obscurity. 

to cloud, purdu-r. ojdas- &c. -k. {to variegate) 
ubr-r. juohur-d. v. to obscure. Sec. ; to be 
clouded {as the sky) ghirna, rookna, chhana, 
gherna, chha-lena, v. to darken. 

clouded, {cane, &c.) gundedar. 

cloudiness, undhera, teerugee, tareekee, zoolmut, 
{of zvond) jvjohur-daree. 

cloudless, be-ubr, nir-mul. 

clouds, {pearl dropping) ubri-nuesan. 

cloudy, ubr i ghuleez, ubri-siyah, dhaondla,ghuta, 
ghera, rooka, chhaya, jhur, v. dusky, ootra, 
pheeka, v. sullen, {with dust) undha-dhoond, 
gurd-aloodu, {uariegated,) juohur-dar, ubree, 
{gloomy, q. v) rook ha, roorha, v. obscure. 

clove, luong, qurunfool, mekhuk, {of garlick) 
pot, andee, juwa, {from juo, a barley-corn.) 

cloveu, V. to cL are, {footed) khcoree-dar, phuta- 
soom, {foot) khooree 

clover, turfeel ; he is now living in clover, ooskee 
panchon ungliyan ghee men huen, (lit. his five 
fingers are in butter); to live in clover, khood- 
men-h. V. barley. 

dough, sokht, sookliun, v. allowance. 

clout, puewund, paru, jor, purkhunda, v. patch, 
rag, lungotee,loongee,v.K;rajojBer. {hippin)po- 
tra, V. towel, boor, kochna, huezee lutta, lon- 
retha, boojia, v. pessary ; a dishclout, safee. 




ponchhna ; a clout which the Hindoos use for 
wiping their bodies, ungochha. 
to clout, puewund- &c. -lugana, puewundkaree-, 

paru dozee-k. v. to mend, 
clown, gunwar, kisan, dihqanee, rosta,ee, moo- 
rukh, V. rustic. 

clownish, unchheela, ungurh, gunwaroo, na^tura- 
sheedu, goostakh, jut, buel, ukhur, jubud, v. 
dolt ; clownishness, dihqan-pun, gunwar-pun. 

to cloy, asoodu- ser-k. ughana, chhukana; moonli- 
phirana, oomthana, v. n. oomuthna, oobhna, 
{ v. to disgust ; to he cloyed, ser-h. jee-bhurna, 
chhukna, moonh-phirjana. 

club, chob, sonta, lathee, luth, thenga, dubboos, 
chuogan, goorz, gudka, guda, v. bludgeon, ba- 
ton, lubeda, buesakhee, deng, mootuhra, {of 
hair) chonda, {assembly, q. v.) mujlis, moosh- 
a,uru. This last is restricted to a friendly 
meeting of poets. There are several such in 
Lukhnuo, Dillee, &c. in which the members 
criticise and correct one another's works, pre- 
vious to their publication. 

to club, shurakut- damasahce- bihree- puttee-k. 
milna, mojtufiq-h. v. to join. 

club-footed, terh-pawan. 

club-law, lubed ; whence bed nuheen lubed hue, 
there is club-law, but no other. 

to cluck, kootkoot-k. kootkootana. 

clump, {of wood) kcondu, lukra, (q/^ree*) jhoond, 
{of bamboos) kothee,. tbana, v. block, stump. 

clumsily, besuleequgee-se. 

clumsiness, bud-oosloobee, bud-wuzUiCe, unaree- 
puna, bc-suleequgee, bud-duolee, v. clumsy, 

clumsy, unaree, koorh, bud-duol, bhudesul, bud- 
undam, na-turasheedu, bud-wuzu, phoohur, 
be-hoonur, koo bhakhur, khujbela, bud-suj, be- 
duol, hubra, ghaghur, kham-kar, v. unhandy, 
ugly, heavy, inexpert, bu7igler. 

cluster, khoshu, goochha, ghuor, {bunch, q. v.) 

dustu, toorru, {bevy, q. v.) juma,cp, bheer, v. 

crowd, &c. 
clutch, mooth, guh, pukur, hath, chungool, pun- 

ju, qubzu, girift, da|0, v. grasp, 
to clutch, pukurna, guhna, men-lena, 
clyster, hooqnu, v. injection, 
coach, ghoor-duor, ghoor-buhul, garee. 
coachman, garee-wan, buhul-wan. 
coadjutor, rufeeq, simreeq, sajhee, sathee, yawur, 

sunghatee, y. assistant. .t ,.v.>i .■,»;>■.■ 

coagulable, juma,oo, qabil i injimad. 
to coagulate, v. n. jumna, bundhna, bustu- moon- 

jumid-h. V. a. jumana, bandhna. 
coagulation, jumawut, injimad. 
coagulator, jamun. 
coal, ko,ela, teliya, puthur, v. charcoal, {live) 

ungara, ukhgur, chingara, ag ka dula, v. spark; 

black as a coal, ko,ela sa kala. 
to coalesce, milna, joorna, jcotna, amekhtu- mukh. 

loot- mumzooj- moonzum-h. 
coalition,coalesc£nce,v(\e\,xm[aip, ittifaq, amezish, 

ikhtilat, imtizaj, iltiyam, inzimam. 
coarse, {as cloth)moyi,g(xmA\i,{unreJined)\i\xc\\a, 

kham, {rude, q. v.) un-chheela, dooroosht, 

{clumsy, q. v.) be-hoonur, bud-duol, khudhur, 

ghaghur, V. broad, gross, mean, {vile, q. v.) 

ghuleez, na-pak. 
coarsely, be-duolee- be-hikmutee- be-suleequ- 

gee- &c. -se, v. rudely, 
coarseness,, khamee,, gooiidu- 

gee, doorooshtee, sukhtee, kurukhtugee, ghu- 

lazut, V. coarse, 
coast, kinaru, lub i duriya, teer, par ; tJie coast 

is clear, khalee muedan hue. 
to coast, kinare pukur ke jana. 
coat, koortee, unga, quba, jamu,ulkhaluq, gudla, 

V. jacket, {of mail) jhilum, dugla, buktur, 

chihll-tuh, {habit) bhes, bana, koarta, chup- 




'■■ kun, v. gown, le,o, -v. fur, skin, (tunic) purdu, 
(layer) tuh, purt, (in painting) the first coat, 
ustur ; the secmid, &c. rung; coat of arms, ula- 
niUt, nishan. 
to coat, ustur-lugana, tuh-churliana, ustur karee- 
-k. (a crucible, &c.) kupruotee- gil i hikmut- 

coated, ustur-kar. 

to coax, phcBslana, bulilana, dum-dilasa-d. dum- 
bazee-k. chaploosee-k. choomkarna, chooch- 
karna, puhlana, bodhiia, luhkarna, lubbo shub- 
bo-k. V, to wheedle. 

coamer, dum-baz, phoosla.oo, phoolasre-baz, chap- 

to cobble, gantjina, tankna, ghoonghchana, v. to 

cobbler, chumar, paru-doz, (mean persons) telee 
tumbolee, (bungler) koorh, unaree. 

cobweb, mukree ka jala, nusj i un,kuboot, jhool, 
V. snare, thin. 

cochineal, qiniiiz i furungce, kirm danu, v. ker- 
mes, (the plant) nag-phunee, phunee munsa, 

cock, moorgh, moorgha, kookra, kookkut, khoo- 
roos, v.garne, (male) nur, nurooka, (of a gun) 
tola, kul, ghora, (leader) s\irlioh,v. commander, 
wuzu, bundisli, v. manner, (spout) tontee, (of 
. hay) dheree, (of a balance) kanta, jeebhee, 
(of an arrow) soofar, v. arroiv, notch. 

to cock, V. a. khura-k. oothana, (a gun) kul- 
kheechna, ghora-churhana, (the ear) kan-boch- 
na or -chuprana, (the nose) nak-phoolana, v. to 
erect, (the turban) terha-k. v. to set, v. n, uk- 
urna, uenthna, v. to strut. 

cockade, phool, goochha, phoondna. 

cockcrow, moorgh-bang. 'i '^ "** ' "' 

to cocker, phoons phans-d. v. to pamper. 

coc/cet, dustuk rahdaree, ruwunnu. 

cockjighter, moorgh-baz. 

cockpit, palee, ukhara. 

cockrel, putha. 

cockroche, til chotta, jhingoor. 

cockscoml), kesur, tnorru, v. comb, coxcomb. 

cockspur, moorgh ka khar, v. heel. 

cocksure, yuqcen, (to Ite) bhoolna, nazaii-h. dum- 

marna, v. to crow, 
cocoa, naryul, narjeel, (green) dab, domala, (dry) 

jhoona, (the kernel) khopra, guree. 
cocoon, pelu, k0|a. 
cod, dhendhee, tant, v. testicle, (of pease) phulee, 

chheemee. ^) .'iitwi 

code, kitabjjoong, pothee, grunth, poostuk, potha, 

V. collection, hook, 
to codle, neemjosh- udhpuka-k. v. to parboil, 
coequal, hum-sur, hum-chushm. 
to coerce, &c. v. forcible, to compel, 
co-eternal, hum-qa,iin, hum-da,im. 
coeval, hum-jolec, hum-qomr, hum-slnn, hum- 

zad, -usur, -zuman or -wuqt, sunjookt. 
to co-exist, moojtumij-h. v. to exist, 
co-existence, ijtima,vi. "ufw .''(too 

co-existent, hum-muojood. 

coffee, quhwu, bcun, (house) bhunger- or ganja- 
khanu, quhwu-khanu, v. tavern, ((nip) finjan, 
(drinker) quhwu-khor, (pot) quhwu-dan. 
coffer, sundooq, petee, doorj. 
coffin, sundooq, taboot; a coffin or a crown, tukht 
ya tukhtu, v. throne, &c. ; the winding sheet, 
kufun, whence, perhaps, the word coffin, 
to coffin, sundooqmcn-r. kufunana, v. coffin, tuk- 

cog, khoonta, v. tooth, to wheedle, cheat. 
cogency, zor, qoowut, bul, zuroorut. 
cogent, quwee, pribu],z.uroor, labood, \. pressing, 
to cogitate, undeshu- &c. -k. sochna, bichama. 
cogitation, undeshu, fikr, chinta, turuddood, 

khiyal, v. reflection, 
cognissable, musmoo,ti, soonne-jog, v. admissible. 




cognixance, cognition, baz-poorsee, baz-khwast, 
furiyad- rusee, v. knowledge, istima,u, tuhqee- 
qat, tujweez, v. trial, to investigate. 

cognominal, hum-nam, hum-ism, meet. 

to cohabit, hum khwabu- hum aghosh- hum bis- 
tur-h. qoorbut-k. uorut- &c. -r. bheetur-sona, 
hum soohbut-h. v. concerned, to know. 

cohabiiation, lium-bisturee, hum-khwabee, hum- 
aghoshee, scnhbut, sungut, v. connexion. 

coheir, hum-waris or -wursu, ek-unsee, v. heir. 

to cohere, jumna, moonjumid- &c. -h. v. cohe- 
rent, (to Jit) theek-h. v. to agree, adhere. 

coherence, coherency, cohesion, injimad, ittisal, 
bustugee, juma,o, ulaqu, tu.ullooq, tutabooq, 
tutbeeq, rubt, qureenu, silsilu, sur-rishtu, mil- 
ap, suta,o, wusl, v. consistency, adherence. 

coherent, moonjumid, bustu, {connected, q. v.) 
mootu.uUiq, chuspeedu, (fiaasistent» q. v.) 
moow fiq, theek, rast. • -' ! .-  ...  \ 

coherently, surrishte- luga,o-se. v. supra, ^•[^i, 

cohort, ooloosh, risalu, guroh. 

coif, orhnee, jalee. 

coil, koondlee, goondlee, hulqu, goonda, gendoor, 
V. bustle. 

to coil, goondlee-bunana, koondlee-marna, v. cir- 
cle, &c. 

coin, sikku, zurb, mooddra, tuka, puesa, zur mus- 
kook, hqon or boon, fulum, toonga, v. current, 
money, (counterfeit) nasoorru, nazooru. 

to coin, zurb-d, sikku-marna, puesa-bunana, (in- 
vent) eejad-k. jorna, bandhna. 

coinage, coining, zurrabee, (invention) ee]ad,ik\i- 
tira,u, Iftira, bundish; charge of coining, gur- 
ha,e, buna,ee. ,« .vu? .«•>.»• 

to coincide, milna, moowafiq- ekdil-h. v. to accord. 

coincidence, ulaqu, tu.uUooq, moonasubut, ittisal, 
tutabooq, luga,o, tutbeeq, buna|0, v. concur- 

coincident, mconasib, moowafiq, moottufiq, eksan, 
V. consistent. 

coined, muskook, muzroob. 

coiner, zurrab,tuksaliya,qulb-baz, (cownier/eifer) 
tughuUoobee, (inventor) moojid, mookhturi, 
banee. ,^^,,,,^, ^ . m-%.'«f ,^- 

coition, jima|ii, mcobashurut, wusi, milap, sun- 
gum, prisung, rut, mel, kel, moojamU|iit, soort. 

colander, chhunna, v. sieve. 

cold, thundh, surdee, khoonookee, booroodut, seer, 
jara, surdee-gurmee, hem, joor, joora, rezish, 
V. catarrh, tvinter, (to catch) jhola-marna; the 
cold season, surma; the cold Jit of an ague, ^oo- 
ree, lurzu ; a cold, (disease) surdee, zookam, 
nuzlu, huwa^zudugee. 

cold, adj. thundha, surd, khoonook, seetul, seera, 
joora, basee, shubeenu, v. stale, barid, kunkun, 
panee, v. ice, (frigid) khoonookmizaj, v. luke- 
warm, soost, z.u,eef, boda, v. feeble, (indifferent, 
q. V.) dheela, ufsoordu, dheela, v. coy, chiU. 

coldly, ghuflut-se, v. carelessly. 

coldness,, thundha,ee, seetulta, v. cool- 
ness, knrci-mgahee,v .disregard,{neglect) ^vL^- 
lut, surd-mihree, ufscordugee, v. coyness, chas- 
tity, isC. ;){oorirj(i 

colic, qoolinj, ba,o-sool. 

to collapse, miljana, chupukna, bueth-jana, puch- 
ukna, V. to shut. 

collar, qoolabu, gooloo-bund, v. neck, throat, (of 
a garment) gureban, (leather) putta, (metal) 
tuoq, hunslee, bans ; the collar-bone, turqoo,u. 

to collar, gureban-pukurna. 

to collate, mooqabulu- moowajuhu- buraburja,i- 
zu-k. milana. ,,* ,, a/wu-iM 

collateral, collaterally, burabur burabur, luge 
luge, puhloo bu puhloo, hum-furu, hum-puh- 
loo, ek-judee, v, parallel, concurrent, 

collation, mooqabulu, moowajuhu, (repast, q. v.) 
tunaqool, nooql, jul-pan, v. comparison. 




colleague, rufeeq, shureek, sajhee, sathec, sun- 
get", suheem, hum-oohdu or -mirasub. 
to collect, V. a. juinu,ti- ekja- ekhirthan-k. sum- 
etna, butorna, buhooma, sungorna, le- or 
bachh-r. sukelna, v. to gather, (animals) bce- 
ra-b. (revenues) tuhseel- wusool-k. tuhseelna, 
oogahna, (to gather from jyremises) nikalna, 
istikhraj-k. ; to collect one's self, sumbhalna, 
uql- hosh-pukuma, tu,ummool-k. 

collected, jumu,ii, furahum, v. to collect. 

collection, ijtinia,u, sungruh, jumueyut, mujmu, 
V. heap, (of poems) deewan, poonj, v. stock, (of 
kuchkol, V. code, (revenue) malgoozaree, ooga- 
hee, tuhseelat, wasilat, v. receipts, (district) 
tuhseel- or -umul-daree, v. jurisdiction, (the 
sum collected) jumu,u, muhsool, mahusul, v. 
revenue, bachh, v. subscription, (account of) 
tuozeeh, V. statement,(pn co7»7Ki««M>»)huqq oot- 
tuh?eel. ''"':>'^ 'i'i'r 

of) poonnee, shugoon, (half of the) udh-kuree. 

collective, mujmoo,u, sugra, ekuthan, (noun, q. 
V.) ism-jins. 

collectively, hueyut i mujmoo,»3e. 

collector, batoroo, oogahne wala, v. the verb, 
(compiler, &c) jamj, nnx),ullif, sungruhee, 
(tax-gatherer) tuhseel-dar, mrohussil, baj-dar, 
(of a district) fuoj-dar, umul-goozar, cliukle- 
dar, zillu-dar, umul-dar, suza-wul, maUgoo- 
zar, ihtimamee, (superintendant) amil. When 
this office is held in trust, the person so trusted 
is an amil umeen, if by contract, amil mcos- 
tajir, V. trustee, contractor, &c. ; a collector of 
huldar or deepdar. 

co/fe^e,mudrusu,path- or sikh-sala, v. school; there 
are several such establishments in liindoostan. 

collegiate, collegian, talib ilm, v. stttdeTit. '^ 

coUiJlower, })hool-kuram. 

colliquative sweat, sitlec. 

rollisiim, dhukka, tukkur, Ihes, thokur. 

collop, dulee, moochchu, parchu, bhustikka, v. 

colloquial, (phrase, &c.) rozmurru, moohawuru. 

colloquy, bat-cheet, gooftugoo, bol-cha],zikr muz- 
koor, juwab suwal, kuh-pooclih. 

to collude, satbat- &c. -k. v. league, gatj[uia»8un- 
thna, V. to unite. .Ux.iif \\ > 

collusion, bundish, sazish, ittif'aq, satbat, sutta- 
butta, jog sunjog, goorbut, kar-saz-ee, sakht, 
V. fraud. 

collusively, bundish- &C. -kurke, v. collusion. 

collyrium, unjun, shiyaf, soonnu, koohul, v. anti- 

colon, (gut) qooloon, (point) mootluq. 

colonel, salar, huzar-ee, risaludar, ooloDsh-dar. 
The last corresponds to a major, in the king's 
service ; as there are, or ought to be, two 
ooloosh-dars with every salaree, (a body of a 
thousand men) v. regiment. 

to colonise, busana, abad- burpa- mU|Umoor-k, 
nuo abad-k. 

colonnade, chihil-sootoon. 

colony, abadee, nuo abadee, bustee, guroh, jutha, 

jummi-ghufeer, bundhan, v. settlement, 
coloquinteda, colocynthe, indra,en, hunzul, bhus. 

looml)ha, khurboozu tulkh. 
coloration, rungsaz-ee. 
colossus, de,o, v. giant. 

colour, rung, burun, luon, roop, v. hue, (of a 
horse) changla, v. flag, (in oil) rung ruoghun, 
(in comp.) goon, fam, (room) thikana, juguh, 
ja,e; there was not the lecLst colour for excuse, 
mcotluq ja,e oozr nu thee, (appearance) bhes, 
bana, soorut, shuki, (presence) buhana, heelu, 
mis, hcujjut, V. excuse. 




to colour, rungna, rung-churhana, rungeen-k. (to 
palliate, &c.) bunana, tuojeeh-k. khusposh-k. 
V. to excuse, v. n. (to blush, q. v.) shurm-khana, 
lujana, chupna. 

coloured, rungeen, rungburung, rata,goonagoon, 

colouring, rungawut, runga|ee, rungeenee. 

colourless, shuffaf, moosufFa, nir-mul, v. colour. 

colours, {statidard) nishan, ulum, bueruq, jhun- 
da, v.flag. 

colt, buchhera, (foal, bucheree) ukhund, kcxirru, 
nakund, dok, v. horse, {a young foolish fel- 
low) ullhur; a coWs tooth, (Jigurat.) doodh ka 

colter, (of a plough) phar, nusee, phala. 

coltish, shokh, dheeth, ubtur, ulola. 

columbo, pupeeta. 

column, (pillar, q. v.) sitoon, peel-payu, thumb, 
(of men) qutar, pant, (of a book) mudd, kha- 
nu, ghur. it'i'-Sfff- 1. of >ii.'{s<Vi'<'j'«^'wt jfcaf *!i 

comb, kunghee, shanu ; a cocWs comb, kes, taj, 
muor, phool, kulghee, v. tuft, also honey ; a 
honey comb, shuhud ka khanu, 

to comb, kunghee-k. (wool, Stc.) toomna, dhcwn- 
na, jharna, v. to card. hnda oi- 

comb-maker, kunghee-gur.;,ii*!.Ii(({il,> ,'jfejuV4' 

combat, lura,ee, jnugra, moobaruzut, jung o judl, 

to combat, v. n. lurna, mooqabulu- &c. -k. 
V. a. rudd- murdood- i,utiraz-k. kat-d. 

combatant, hureef, mcoqabil, luraka, y. fighter, 

combination, ittifaq, rifaqut, mel, milap, shu- 
rakut, sajha, (collusio7i, q. v.) bundisli, &c. 
(union, &c.) ittisal, irtibat, ikhtilat, (conjunc- 
tion) puewustugee, amezish. 

to combine, v. a. milana, jorna, ganthna, puewus- 
tu- &c. -k. V. n. milna, joorna, puewustu-, 
ek-h. V. to unite. 

 ' ■•■ 8-0. - i '. 

combined, moottufiq, moottusil, mukhloot, mila, 

amekhtu, puewustu. ^misd ^uvyMluy. '.-yy^, • 

combless, moondla, nirkes. 

combustible, sozindu, julunhar, baroot-sa, v. pow- 

combustion, sokhtugee, sozish, julun, v. bustle. 

come, {be quick) a,o, la,o, aja, chulo, lo, bus ; 
come away, a.o chulo ; come here, chule a.o, 
hule ; come off, goorez, nikal, v. pretext; come 
read the lesson, a,o subuq purhiye. 

to come, ana, puhoonchna, ajana, purna, girna, 
hona, V. to hefal, warid- sadir-h. v. to arrive, 
(out) nikulna, v. to issue, ookhurna, v. to drop, 
oobhurna, phootna, v. to break, (in season) oo- 
turna, choona, v. to become, (on) churhna, v. to 
hajjpen, (to) lugna, v. to cost; how comes that? 
yih kyoon kur hue ? (to proceed) nikul-ana ; 
to come about, hojana, (to change) phirna; to 
come to himself, ap men-ana, hosh men-ana; to 
come, (speaking of a superior) tushreef-lana. 
This word is too extensive to be fully inserted 
here ; the reader is therefore referred to the 
several meanings of its almost unlimited com- 
binations, in their proper places; and for fur- 
ther information on the subject, he may con- 
sult Vol. II. under the word ana, to come, 
Sjc. ; the time to come, a,indu. 

comedian, buhroopiya, nuqqal, suwangce. , 

comedy, nuql, suwang, pekhna. 

comeliness, khoob soortee, khcosh-undamee, hoosn, 
sujawut, V. beauty. i 

comely, khoob-soorut, khrosh-undam, soondur,su- 
jeela, huseen, shukeel, wujeeh, nek-munzur, 
turuh-dar, soo-duol, khoosh-chhub, gubhroo, 
V. seemly. 

comer, a,indu, ane-wala, awuya, puhonchne-wala, 
awunhar, (in comp.) warid, ruseedu, amudu ; 
comers and goers, a^md-rvLwiadi. ,., .,,.,, 

... fa, N 




comet, sitaru doomdar, jharoo, burhiniya, poon- 

comfit, &c. ghilafee mewa, v. sweetmeat, also to 
candy, preserve. 

comfort, sumadhan, qoowwut, bul, tuqwiyut, tus- 
keen, dheenij, aram, khatir-daree, dheer, diU 
dihee, ni,umut, v. consolation. 

to comfort, qojwwut- tusuUee- &c. -d. ,i/fi!i 

comfortable, {in circumstances) asoodu-hal, (giv- 
ing comfort) tuskeen-bukhsh, furuh-bukhsh, 
itmeenanee, sookhee, fuezbukhsh, v. conve- 
nient, sahib ni,iimut, nii.eem, v. pleasant, easy. 

comfortably, aram-khooshee-se. 

comforter, moon-jm, walee waris, ghum khwar, 
khubur-geer, v. protector, &c. 

comfortless, be-kus, bc-charu, na-moorad, dil-shi- 
kustu, dil-tung, oodas. ■L{'f ,p. ,T;»«gji>M) 

comical, comic, thuthhe-baz,hunsor, khoosh-tubn, 
thuthol, choohla, zurcef, iijeeb, zor, uchum- 
bha, bhula, zutullee; he is a comical body, 
wooh Zor huyoola hue, v. droll. 

comically, muskhurgee- &c, -se. 

comicalness, muskhura-pun, thuthol-bazee, thu- 
tholee, muskhurgee, khrosh-tubu,ee, zurafut. 

coming, ana, awa,ee, amud, {arrival) muqdum, 
qoodoom, ruseed ; coming and going, amud- 
shood, amud-ruft, awa-ja,ee, ahur-jahur, ana- 
jana, tana-bana, gora-pahee, ara-jaree; to pur- 
pose coming, awun awun-k. 

command, commatidment, hookm, umr, irshad, fur- 
man, furmoodu, furma.ish, aggya, hookoomut, 
tuhukkoom, surdaree, riyasut, kuha, nimue, 
nirnijjV. station, also the verb, charge, mandate, 
authority, &c.; divine command, fiirz. 

to command, furmana, hoDkm- &c. -d. or -k. sur- 
daree- &c. -k. V. authority, (to overlook) dekh- 
na, surkob-h. &c. v. to charge, (to have the com- 
mand) tuhukkoom-k. v. to superintend, order. 

commander, hakim, surdar, salar, sur-guroh, mu- 

I hunt, surtaj, v. generalissimo, sahib, jumu^ar, 
pesliwa, uggya-kar, meer, v. o^er, suendhiya, 
surkob, V. leader (of 7000) huft-huzarec, 
whence punj-huzar-ee, &c. v. colonel, &c. also 
Jive, seven, (in chief, q. v.) sipuh-salar, mookh- 
tar-fuoj, umeer ool oomura, bukhshee, (or ra- 
ther mcer-bukhshee) senaput, qilu,u-dar, v. 
captain-general, &c. 

commanding, (situation) surkob, raaroo,sur-jeet, 
dulthumb, V. bold. 

commaterial, hum-maddu. 

commemorable, qabil-yad. 

to commemorate, cprs-k. yad-garee- or -dihee-r. v. 
to keep, celebrate, &c. ,,^ 

commemoration, shadee, nors, fatihu, yad-dihee, 
soort-kar, v. memorial, &c. also celebration. 

to commence, v. n. shooroo.u- &c. -h. nundhna, 
lugna, churhna, v. to originate, dust undaz-h, 
V. to enter, v. a. shooroo,u- &c. -k. nandhna, 
V. to begin. 

commencement, shooroo.u, agliaz, v. beginnitig. '' 

to commend, (to recommend) sifarish- tuqreeb-k. 
(praise) surahna, tu,ureef- tuoseef- Sec. -k. 
(to deliver) huwalu- tusleem- sipoord-k. 

commendable, suralioo, qabil-tuhseen, la,iq-tu,u- 
reef, mojstuhsun, pusundeedu. 

commendation, tu,ureef, muduh, afreen, ustoot, bu- 
ra,ce, muehma, v. praise, recommendation. 

commender, suna-khwan, muddah. 

commensurate, &c. hum-undaz, v. equal, propor- 

comment, commentary,s\mruh, hashiyu, tu,uweel, 
tu,ubeer, teeka, tippun, bhash, ijtihad, (on the 
qoran) buezawee, v. interprettUion. 

to conmient, shuruh- Stc. -Iik,hna, v. to expound. 

commentator, commenter,mcai\xss\r,mai\yashs\\ee, 
sharih, moo,ubbir, teeka-kar, bhash-kar, mooj- 
tuhid. ,:.,,•, • ... 




cow/reerce,suoda-guree, tijarut,bunj,byoliar,mu- 
hajunee, khureed furokht, mcnbueyut, ban, v. 
traffic, soohbut, v. conneonon, barter, &c. {in- 
tercourse, q. V.) rah-ruwisb, rah-rusm, awa- 
jahee, reet-preet, tu,ulk)oq, luga,o^chulun-byo- 
har. ^f'f -tViii'^-i . 

commercial, suodagiiranu, tijarutee, v. commerce. 

to cotnmiserate, ruhm- &c. -k. v. to sympathixe. 

commiseration, ruhm, riqqut, turuhhoom, muroh, 
shufqut, duya, v. pity. 

commiserator, mooturuhim, ruheem. 

commissary, daroghu, ariz, kurora, v. superinten- 

commissaryship, daroghgee, v. delegate, deputy. 

commission, (wan-ant, q. v.) sunud, putr, dusta- 
wez, mookhtar-namu, v. order, power, creden- 
tial, (trust) umeenee, dut?/, (on collections) moj- 
hussil-anu, v. charge, fee, &c. (command, q. v.) 
furma,ish, (delegation, q. v.) wikalut-namu, 
(perpetration) irtikab, kurtub, kriya, kiya; 
cowi»Jt««ionongr)od*, &c.huqqcx3s-sU|ee,roosoom, 
tuhreer, dustoor. 

to commission, sunud- &c. -d. wukeel- na|ib- goo- 

commissioner, \xmeex\, kurora, daroghu, mookhtar- 
kar, V. arbitrator, delegate. ;!!;>««.%('. 

to commit, (to intrust,(\.\.) huwalu-k. dena,dalna, 
V. to consign, also to insert, (to keep place, &c.) 
rukhna, dhurna, (to imprison) qucd- bund-k. 
(to perpetrate) kurna, irlikab-k. ; to commit 
adultery, zina-k. 

commitment, qued, djiur pukur, v. to apprehend, 
also the verb. 

committee, puncha,et, mujlis. 

committer, moortukib. 

commodious, mu,uqool, moowafiq,, qabil, moD- 
nasib, khoob, khcnsh-nooma, soothra, (useful, 
q. V.) moofced, fa,idu-bukhsh, goon-karee. 

commodiously, oosloob- soothraiCe-se. 

commodiousness, soothra,ee, kh(i)sh-nooma,ee, khoo- 
bee, aram, goon, fa,idu. .ri!3J--!i/ffrfa 

cotnmodity, jins, mal, bust, suoda, suoda soolf, v. 
trade, muta,u, v. article, advantage. 

common, adj. raooshturik, v. usual, mooshtumil, 
moostu,uniil, niushhoor, mojshtuhur, v. gene- 
ral, &c. (inferior, &c.) chhota, kum, aer- 
dust, ooturta hoo,a,nirs, rasee, bazaroo,riwajee,. 
V. ordinary, beshtur, dustyab, buhoo brindee, 
V. abundant, sajha, seeree, v. public, (practice) 
kuseer col isti,umal, v. idiom, (verb) fi,ul moosh- 
turik, kurumidweebid,ha, (law) umul, dus- 
toor, chulun, (right) huqq i mooshturik, seer- 
or sujh-uns, (consent) kool ka ittifaq, v. whole, 
fashionable ; a common, sa,ir, v. pasture, plain, 
(public) wuqf, la-waris, (plenty, q. v.) buhast,. 
(vulgar, q. v.) kum-qudr, v. cheap, udna, du- 
nee, zuleel, (general) am, (usual) ra.ij, moo- 
ruwwuj, (prostitute, q. v.) hurja,ee, fahishu, 
shuttah, V. whore; common sense, hiss i moosh- 
turuk ; in common, burabur, ulus-siwiyu, v. 
equally; in the common way, moowafiq dustoor 

a common, muedan, sa,tr, v. plain. 

commonalty, commons, uwam oon-nas-, uwam, pu^ 
waj, neech-log. 

commoner, neech, udna, pajee, kumeenu, amee, 
V. private, also partner. 

common-law, riwaj, qorfi am, v. common. 

commonly, uksur, ulul-cpmoom, uksur uoqat^ 
beshtur, barha, buhoot wuqt, bulioot-kal, ud- 
buba, V. generally ; commonly called, oorf. 

commonness, kusrut, tudawool, ishtirak, buhoo- 
brind, v. frequency, participation, meanness. 

common-place book, bueyaz., sufeenu, joong, chuo> 

commons, khana, v. food, allowance. 

a common-shore, nalu, budur-ruo, nab-dan,.mooh- 
ree, purnalu, muzbulu. 




commonweal,commoiizecaUh,inU7.aru,hund o bust, 
nuzm o nusq, v. community. 

comtruiHan, hiirukut, hila,o, tuzulzcnl, bulwa, fit- 
nu, jhunjhut, gurmee, liulcliulee, khulbulec, 
hulbulce, lughzish, doond, v. uproar, tumult, 
&c. (^perturbation, q. v.) quluq, iztirar, bya- 
kooleo^ V. disturbance, bustle. 

to commune, butiyana, bolna, liutn sookhun-h. v. 
to advise, converse, &c. 

to communicate, v. a. kuhiia, butlana, nuql- bue- 
yan-k. likhna, v. to write, to tell, {to give) dc- 
na, de-dalna, buklishna, v. n. {to he connected) 
milna, ulaqu- &c. -r. mcoshtumil- &c. -h. 
lugna, V. to join. 

luga,o, mel, rubt, ittila,u, v. information, com- 
munion, conference, &c. 

communicative, fueyaz, chushmu,i fuez. 

communicativeness, fuezan. 

communion, amud-ruft, amud-shood, awa-jahee, 
mel, sungut, cons, oonsiyut, mcosahubut, v. 

community, jutnhoor, ri,aya, prija, kbulq, khil- 
qut, alum, guroh, v. kingdom, company, sung- 
hut, khass o am, uhalec muwalee, v. society ; 
the good of the community, rufahiyut i khulq. 

commutable, mcomkin oot-tubdeel. 

com/nutation, budul, tubdeel, iwu2.-nia3,awuzu, 
udla budlee, v. barter. 

to commute, tubdeel-k. budul-d, iwuz- &c. -d. to 

compact, shurt, hor, iihd, bacha, becj, quol-qurar, 
iihd o pueman, ittifaq, qubtwliyut, likhtung. 
(in conip.) namu, v. stipulatimi. 
compact, adj. tjios, poor-kar, ghufs, bustu, sift, 
poor, V. dense, gcxlkoon, kusmusa, v. stout, 
(brief) mcnkhtusur. 
safut, bu&tugee. 

companion, rufeeq, (pi. ropfuqa) sathec, hum-ra- 
hec, yar-gliar, hum-<lum, hum-nisheen, bum- 
julsa, unees-julecs, nudcem, asbna, shureck, 
sajjiec, moonis, yar, moosahib, bum-zanoo, 
-soohbut, -qureen, -buztn, -kasu or -qudu, su- 
k,ha, go-ya, or -ee, v. friend, intimati, ( part- 
ner) us,hab, V. disciple ; a bottle companion, 
hum-nuwalu, bum-piyahi, v, comrade, chum. 

company, (guests) oiihman, (assembly) mujlis, sub- 
ha, (fellowship) lifaqut, sung, moorafiqut, oon- 
siyut, humrahee, V. society, (partnership, q. 
V.) ?,K\ra(\\\X, (corporation) firqu, (body of men) 
buraduree, guroh, jutha, sumooh, mundu- 
lee, toomun, tolee, v. troop, (accustomed to) 
mujlis deedu, v. meeting, &c.; a company of 
dancing girls, &c. ta,ifu ; to bear or keep com- 
pany, soohbut-r. rifaqut- Sec. -k. hurarah-h. 
sathee-h. humrahee-k. 

comparable, burabur, hum-sur, hum-chushm, 

comparative, (degree) seeghu tufzeel, purkurkh, 
V. accidental, fortuitous. 

comparatively, bu-nisbut, bote, nisbutun, uz-roo, 
kee-roo, ke mooqabil, ke ruhte, v. comparison, 
uesee zindugee ke ruhte muot bhulee hue, 
death comparatively with such a life is prefer- 
able; this book comparatively with that book, 
yih kitab bunisbut oos kitab ke, or is kitab 
ke bote wooh kitab. 

to compare, mccqabulu-k. milana, tuolna, tush- 
beeh- mooshabuhut- &c. -d. 

juhu, tutbeeq, v. match, milanee, buraburee, 
V. sitnilitude, pitrikta, (simile, q. v.) moosh- 
abuluit, tumseel, cnpma, (proportion, q. v.) 
nisbut, V. comparatively. 

compartment, khanu. 

compass, duor, duoru, ghera, ghcoma,o,chukkur, 
pher, girdu, gurdish, ihatu, mu.uruz, v. circum- 




ference, &c. (reach) puhoonch, rusa,ee, (extent, 
'"' q. V.) miqdar, wusut, v. space, moderation, thi- 
■■'■ kana, hudd, v. limit; a pair of compasses, pur- 
gar; the mariner''s compass, qootb-nooma, qib- 
-'■ • lu-nooma ; this last is used by the Moosulmans, 
-^' to point out the situation of Mukku, on parti- 
cular occasions. 
to compass, gherna, gurerna, chhenkna, mroha- 
suru- gird-k. (to attain, q. v.) hasil-k. rast- 
lana, v. to grasp, procure, 
compassion, durd, peer, shufqut, ruhm, riqqutj 

durd-mundee, v. pity. 

compassionate, sahib-durd, durd-mund, shufeeq, 

ruheem, mooshfiq, mihrban, nurum-dil, mom- 

\'" ' dil, murohee, kuroona-wunt, v. merciful, bhu- 

"^''' la, V. kind. 

to compassionate, ruhm- &c. -k. ghum khwa- 

compassionately, ruhm- &c. -se. 
compatible, la,iq, qabil, shayan, \.Jit, consistent, 
compatibly, liyaqut, &c. -se, v. consistency, 
compatriot, hum-wutun, hum-shuhuree, soode- 

compeer, hum-sur, hum-chushm, burabur, hum- 

jolee, V. equal, hum-murtubu or -durju. 
to compel ; this word is generally expressed by a 
causal verb and the words zor-se, bu-zor, zu- 
bur dustee-se; thus, to compel one to speak, zor 
se bolana, bu zor kuhlana ; to compel one to 
write, zubur dustee se likhana, v. to force, 
compellation, luqub, (pi. ulqab) sungiya. 
compeller, zubur-dust, zalim. 
compend, compendium, ikhtisar, intikhab, ijmal, 
khoolasu, doputtee, moojiz, v. epitome, compen- 
c<m.pendious, mookhtusur, moontukhub, moojmul, 

kotah, sunchhep. 
compendiously, ikhtisar- &c. -se, v. brevity. 
fp compensate, tulafee-k. iwuz- 8ec, -d. 

compensation, tulafee, iwuz, ujr, juza, v. reward, 

(damage, q. v.) dand, goonah-garee, mukafat. 

competence, competency, (of fortu7ie) furaghut, 

asoodu halce, poorun, wuju kufaf, koosha- 

ish, furakhcnr, v. sufficiency, huqq, v. power, 

enough, capacity, &c.; I have a competency of 

wealth, mal bu qudi'i ihtiyaj mere pas hue. 

competent, qabil, la,iq, mcnwafiq, burabur, kafee, 

bus, \. Jit, qualified, able, (reasonable) wajibee. 

competently, uch-chhee turuh, undaze-se, buqu- 

dri zuroorut, bu-qudri ihtiyaj. 

competition, mooqabulut, moonazU|Ut, riqabut, 

(contest, q. v.) buda budee, buhsa buhsee, 

' hoora hooree, v. below, dekha dekhee, hiska 

hiskee, churha churhee, mooqawimut, mooka- 

birut, V. emulation. 

competitor, mooqabil, hureef, hum tulub, v. 

compilation, taleef, mujmoO|U, joong, sunchue, 

to compile, jumu- furahim- taleef- &c. -k. v. to 

compiler, moO|Ullif, jamj, sunchue-karee. 
complacence, complacency, khooshee, bushashut, 
dil-jumu,ee, khatir-jumu,ee, anund, hoolas, v. 
complaisance, pleasure, 
complacent, m(x)la,im, huleem, v. complaisant, 
to complain, (lament) ha,e- ufsos- furiyad-k. huo- 
ka-bhurna, nalu-k. (to inform against) nalish- 
&c. -k. (to ail) manna, nasaz- &c. -h. v. in- 
complainant, complainer, furiyadee, gilu-goozar, 

shakee, gilu-mund, v. plaintiff, 
complaining, nalan. 

complaint, ha,e, ufsos, ah, shikwa, istighasu, v. 
invective, lamentation, nalish, furiyad, ghum, 
humoghum, dadbedad, ulghiyas, doha,ee, gilu, 
shikwu, shikayut, oolahna, v. accusation, &c. 
(disease, q. v.) beemaree, kahilee. 




complnisnnce, uhliyut, khoolq, mooruwvvut, seel, 
adum-guree, insaniyut, moola,imut, tuniullooq, 
uklilaq, soobha,o. 

complaisant, khuleeq, uhl,sahib-mooruwwut,soo- 
seel, bhula, khoob, nurm. 

complaisaiitly, khoolq- &c. -se. 

complement, {jiiimiter) shcomar, ti,i}dad, gintee, 
bhurtee, tumanee, v. completion. 

complete, tumam, poora, ukheer, akhir, kliutm, 
tiieyar, sur-amud, sub, surub,be-baq, nikhund, 
V. total, (month) mas ka bar, v. etitire, perfect. 

to complete, tumam- kamil- &c. -k. niberna, un- 
jam ko-puhonchna, v. tojinish. 

completely, surapa, surasur, dur o bust, niput, 
mull?., ek qulum, ek lukht, v. totally, charon 
turuf, \. fully. 

completion, completeness, tukmeel, tymanee, inti- 
ha, ikhtitam, kumal, moontuha, nibera, it- 
mam, tutmeen, tumamiyut, tukmilu, v. ac- 

complex, complicated, pech-dur-pech, cbund-dur- 
chund, coljha, pecheela, bhoonjal, tub bu tub, 
ubtur, V. intricate. 

complexion, rung, roop, (constitution, q. v.) mizaj, 
V. disposition. 

cotnplexly, pech-se. 

compliance, istirza, ruza-mundee, murzee, eejab, 
qubool, V. accord, inqiyad, tubueyut, v. sub- 

compliant, moola,im, n\iTm,'h\i\eem,v. stibmissive. 

to complicate, pech dur pech-k. ooljhana, v. com- 
plex. '' ••'^' "■'■'■ .'■ 

complication, pech, ooljhera, ooljha,o. 

compliment, tukulloof, mnodara, srislitachar, tu- 
mullooq, tukulloofat, moodarat, sulam, purnam, 
numuskar, dunduot, buridna, moonh poora,ee, 
khanu abad, duolut ziyad, 8ec. v. blessing, (of 
course) tuwazoou, sumbundee, bundugee; give 
my compliments, humara sulara kuho. 

to compliment, moobaruk badee- moobaruk bad-d. 
(to flatter) zaiiir daree-k. khmsh aniud-k. 

complimentary. Sec. shuoqiyu, sulamee, tukulloo- 
fanu, tumullooqanu, v. ceremonious. 

complimenter, khcnsh-amudee, zahir-dar. 

compline, jsha. 

to complot, humbundish-h. 

to comply, razee- ruza mund-h. ungeekar-k. buja- 
lana, qa,il-h. v. to obey. 

compotient, (parts) »]za,pl. of jcoz, apart; ufrad, 
pi. o/furd, single. 

to compose, bukhanna, v. to form, (to make, q. v.) 
bunana, kuhna, kurna, jorna, bandhna, v. to 
settle, (verse) fikr- &c. -k. (music) turuh-d. 
soor-karhna, soz-nikalna, (place) rukhna, 
dhurna, (as an author) tusneef- insha-k. (to 
calm) tuskeen- dheeruj-d. thambhna, zubt-k. 
(to adjust) dcoroost-k. islah-d. (to arrange) 
turteeb-d. (in printing) hurf-jumana or -bueth- 

composed, sunjeedu, moostuqil, v. ca/TO,semM«; to 
be composed of, moojussum-h. 

composedly, istiqlal- &c. -se, v. composure. 

composer, (writer, q. v.) moosunnif, kurta, insha- 
purdaz, v. autfu>r, turuh saz, soorkarhee, v. 
musician, (of music) na.ek, furrah. 

composition, turkeeb,milavvut,v.67</)j'a, tubi-zad, 
bunawut, sakht, kuha, kur-toot, krit, tukh- 
leet, kurnee, v. contrivance, (of a debt) dama- 
sahee, hissu rusud, damee burabur, bant bukh- 
ra, V. division, (of medicine) duwa sazee, uok- 
hud-kar, v. mixture, (arrangement, q. v.)' oos- 
loob, duol, (work) tusneef, insha, (of a diffe- 
rence) mcDsaluhu, V. adjustment, compound. 

compost, khad, v. manure, 

compound, compounded, moorukkub, mukhloot, 
mumzooj, amekhtu, amez, sunjookt, turkee- 
bee, V. mixture, (word) pudbirt, lufz i moo- 




Compound, turkeeb, ikhtilat, imtizaj, amezish, 
mila|0, V. the adj. 

to compound, milana, mukhloot- moorukkub- &c. 
-k. turkeeb-k. (io adjust) moosaluhu-k. bu- 
nana, damee rusud- &c. -k. v. to compromise, 
to bargain, 

compounder, {of medicines) duwa-saz. 

compounds, raoorukkubat. 

to comprehend, {conceive, q. v.) sumujhna, duri- 
yaft- &;c. -k. bodhna, puhonchna, puhchanna, 
dur-ana, v. to understand, {to comprise, q. v.) 
mooshtumul- hawee- mootuzummin- byapuk- 

comprehended, khatir- or dil-nusheen. 

comprehender, moodrik, hawee. 

comprehensible, qabil ool fuhtn, boojhne jog. 

comprehension, {intellect, q.v.) duriyaft,fnhmeed, 
boojh, sutnujh, gyan, viql, zihn, moodriku, tu- 
suwoor, bodji, puhonch, bichar, v. perception, 
tiikhueyool, dil- Stc. -nusheenee, v. concep- 
tion, capacity. 

comprehensive, zuheen, sahib-tubu, fuhmeedu, 
tez-fuhm, v. acute, thore men buhmt, quUu o 
dullu, quleel osl lufz kuseer ool mu,unee, soo- 
diim sumbroh, goonja,ishee, v. compendious, 
also capacious, bura, v. extensive. 

compreheiisiveness, juolanee, zukawut. 

compress, guddee. 

to compress, dubana, dabna, nichorna, sumetna. 

compressible, dubunhar, simta,00j v. contractioti. 

compression, compressure, duba,o, v. the verb. 

to comprise, {to include, q. v.) lana, dalna, moon- 
durij-k. dhurna, mooheet- shamil-h. v. to com- 

compromise, shurt, hor, uhd, mcosaluhu, putka, 
hum-shurtee or -quolee, sooluh bu jwuz, v. 

to compromise, shurt- mcosaluhu- &c. -k. putka- 
&c. -k. hum shurt-h. v. to adjust. 

to comptroul, &c. v. to controul. 

compulsioji, compulsiveness, zor, zoolm, tu.uddee, 

bidut, zubur-dustee, zor-awuree, ziyadutee, v. 


sukht, purbul, v. forcible, jubree, be-ikhtiya- 

ree, zalimanu, also the adv. jubrim, quhrun, 

V. nolens, volens. 
compulsively, bu-zor, zoolm- &c. -se, jubrun. 
compunction, {contrition) ufsos, tu,ussoof, puchh- 

tawa, khudshu, khulish, v. remorse, 
computable, qabil ti|Udad, shoomar puzeer, ginne- 


computation, moohasubu, ti|iidad, gintee,v. calcu- 

to compute, ginna, shoomar- &c. -k. minna, v. to 
reckon, to calculate. 

computer, moohasib, moohurrir, hlsab-dan, lek- 

comrade, chum, hum-khanu, rufeeq, sathee, sun- 
gee, buradur, bha,ee, sunsurgee, ukhare ka- 
yar, v. companion. 

comrades, {of the same profession, &c.) 
jins, bha,ee-buiid. 

con, CO, com, cor, &c. besides the su in Hinduwee 
words, are expressed in Arabic by moo or mco, 
Stc. as appropriate inflexions of the original root 
for this purpose ; instances of which will often 
occur in these pages. This inseparable prepo-. 
sition is likewise often expressed by the Persian 
particles fium and ek, as may be seen in many of 
the foregoing and following words. The redu- 
plication noticed in page 404 of the Monitor, 
Vol. I. is also useful in forming the compounds 
alluded to here. Thus, dekha dekhee, compe- 
tition ; udla budlee, commutation ; and many 
others, which appear in the present series, q. v. 
also the words under together, &c. 

to concatenate, silsilu bund- zunjeeru bund-k. 




concatenation, silsilu-bundee, zunjeeru-bundee, 

tussulsool, lurbundec, v. comurrence. 
ha, khalee, quosee, v. hollow. 

concavity, qu.iir, juof. 

to conceal, chhipana, gcnput- posheedu- pinlian-, 
mukhfee- khoofiyu-k. purdu- sutr-k. bucha- 
na, ot-ojhul- mustoor- mojzmur-k. v, to hide, 
dhanpna, v. to bury, nuzur-bochana, v. to 

concealed, purdu-posh, nihooftu, purdugce. 

to be concealed, rooposh-h. 

concealer, purdu-posh, satir. 

concealment, ^osheeAvigee, ikhfa, roo-poshee,chhi- 
pa,o, istitar, v. cover, shelter, 

to concede, manna, hanheen-bhurna, mcosullum-, 
dooroost- ja,iz- ruwa-r. razee-h. qubool-k. de- 
dalna, huwalu-k. 

conceit, fikr, khiyal, ra,e, undesliu, luhr, chuot- 
koola, luteefu, y. fancy, sunut, ulungkar, v. con- 
trivance, khood-purustee, v. affectatioji, {con- 
ceitedness) pindar, ghumund, unaniyut, tukub- 
boor, istikbar, kibr, v. self-conceit, conception ; 
to be out of conceit, khiyal-chhorna, baz-ana, 
dust burdar-h. 

to conceit, v. to conceive. 

conceited, (proud, q. v.) khood-been, khojd- 
pusund, uhung-karee, ubhinianee, upkaree, 
khood purust, chikkun-put, gooman-ee, di- 
magh-ee, v. vain. 

conceitedly, ghumund- tukubboor- &c. -se. 

conceitedness, khnod-pusundee, tukubboor, luntu- 
ranee, uhungkar, abhiman, v. variety. 

conceivable, mcotusuwwur, moomkin ool-fuhm, 
'- qabil-idrak, sumujhne-jog. 

to conceive, sochna, janna, mu,ulooni-k. duriyafl- 
&c. -k. boojhna, sumujhna, bicliarna, v. to 
comprehend, (in the womb) humiil-lena, hami- 
lu-h. pet se-hona, oommed se-hona, akhiz-moo- 

akhiz-h. humul giriftu-k. pukurna, pet-ruhna, 
gabh-lena, v. to retain, Irreed. 

rwiceiver, moodrik, bicharik. 

concentration, hum-murkuzee, chhunkahut, v. to 

to concentre, concentrate ^nm. murkuz- sumud_h-k. 
sungorna, v. to collect, chhunkana, v. to distil. 

concentric, hum-murkuz. 

conception, idrak, khiyal, dbyan, duriyaft, fuh- 
nancy) humul, (-uterine) qoowwuti-akhizu, 
tu,ukhooz, V. mole, apprehension. 

concern, concernment, (business, connexion, q.v.) 
mcio,amulu, sur o kar, kar o bar, ulaqu, luga,o, 
dena-pana, v. affair, (interest, regard, q. v.) 
fikr, undeshu, (affection, q. v.) durd, (regret, 
q. V.) ghum, dil-geeree, oodasee, v. grief, (im- 
portance) zuroorut ; of great concern, ahum, 
moohim, v. care, chinta, v. matter, wastu, 
dukhl, V. consequence, interference. 

to concern, ulaqu- &c. -r. (to make sorrowful) 
dilgeer- &c. -k. ; to concern one's self, hath-d. 
duklil-k. V. concern, concerned, also to affect, 

concerned, (grieved, q. v.) dil-geer, mootufukkir, 
mooshuwwlsh, (for) ghumkhwar, v. affected, 
(with) shureek, ek-jor, v. associate, (to be with, 
a woman) bhirna, joorna, v. to cohabit, (cwi- 
nected, q. v.) mootu,uliiq, iilaqu-dar; to be con- 
cerned, dilgeer- &c. -li. ufsos- &c. k. puchh- 
tana, v. to regret. 

concerning, waste, liye, ko, pur, sir ; / have 
come concerni7ig some business, koichh kam sir 
aya hoon, v. about. 

concert, (of music) chuokee, (inst.) puch-bujna, 
ta.ifu, rag rung, gana bujana, v. music, huma- 
wazee, &c. v. concordance, band, (symphony) 
suma ; to be in concert or tune, suma-bundh- 
nichna, v, collusion. 
. P2 




to concert, theek- sijil- bundobust- doormst-k. v. 

to adjust, ittifaq- bundish- &c. -k. musluhut-k. 

bandhna, v. to contrive, 
concession, qubool, murzee, ijazut, Istirza, ija- 

but, (grant, q. v.) murhumut, inayut, ri,a- 

yut, V. indulgence, to concede, 
conch, sunkh, kuora, moahru, naqoos. 
to conciliate, (gain) hasil- pueda-k. (to reconcile, 

q. V.) milana, tusfiyu-k. upnana, upna kur 
■. lena, mlla-lena, ganthna, taleef qooloob-k. 
conciliating, sooluh kool, v. amiable, 
conciliator, shufee,u, v. reconciliation, 
concise, kotah, tung, mookhtusur, raoojmul, sun- 

chhep, (writer) mookhtusur-nuwees. 
concisely, ikhtisar- &c. -se. 
conciseness, kotahcc, ikhtisar. ijmal, sunchhepun, 

V. shortness. 
to conclude, (terminate, q. v.) tumam- aklur-, 

khutm- poora- sumpoorun- sumapt-k. unjam- 

&c. -k. chookana, (to determine, q. v.) thuh- 

rana, (to infer) nikalna, (to suppose, q. v.) 

janna, utkulna, qiyas- khiyal-k. (to end) tu- 
' mam- &c. -h. ho-chookna ; to be concluded or 

inferred, nikulna, moontij-h. ; to conclude an 
. alliance, rah ruwish-k. ; to conclude, (adverb) 

ul-qissu, ul-ghuruz.. 
conclusion, tumamee, akhirut, insiram, intiha, 

aqibut, ikhtitam, khutm, unjam, unt, kha- 

timu, akhlru, v. end, (result, q. v.) nuteeju, 

mahusul, urthat, v. decision. 
conclusive, qatj,, shafee, khatim, untkar- 

ee, V. unanswerable, 
conclusively, qutu,un. 
concoction, huzm, tuhleel, puchao, noozj, puka,o, 

V. digestion, 
concomitant, lazim, lahiq. 
concomitance, concomitancy, loozoomj, loohooq, v. 

concurrent. .<>. *,.aM.p-. ..: Ji .a •^^c^ii. 
concord, concordance, moowafuqut, mel, milap, 

tutabooq, tuwafooq, eka, buna.o, sunjog, saz- 
garee, ashtee, soolh, wifaq, soohbut burar, 
ghal mel, mila|0, v. agreement, ni,unt, v. 
union, (Ingram.) rubt, (harmony, q. v.) hum- 
ahungee, dum-sazee, suma. 

concordant, mcowafiq, moDtabiq, moottufiq, moot- 
-soor, -suot, or -rag, v. harmonious, ek-jihut, 
ek-roo, ek-jee, v. unanimous, (in grammar) 
murboot. .!,.o'n. 

concourse, confluence, juma,oo, hoojoom, mujmu, 
V. crowd, (junction, q. v.) milap, ittifaq. 

concrete, moonjumid, bustu, (noun) ism sifut, si- 
fut-mooshubbu, sumbodhun, v. abstract. 

to concrete, bundhna, jumna, bustu- moonjumid- 
-h. V. a. jumana. 

concretion, juma|0, injimad, bustugee, jumun. 

concubinage, mudkhooliyut, sooruet puna. 

concubine, hurum, sooruet, chor-muhul,mudkhoo- 
lu, suhelee, rukhnee, puranee, khuwass, omm 
col wulud, oorhuree, (to take as a) dola-nikal- 
na, V. mistress, whore. 

concupiscence, shuhwut, mustee, chodas, urman, 
V. lust, kam, (whence, kam-de,o, Cupid, in 
the Hindoo mythology) v. virility. 

concupiscent, must, shuhwutee, shuhwut-purust, 
urmanee, kamee. 

to concur, (to unite) moottufiq- moowafiq- bahum-, 
ekdil-h. milna, (to agree, q. v.) manna, qu- 
bool-k. V. to join. 

eka, moowafuqut, tuwafooq, mel, ikhtilat, ir- 
tibat, V. coincidence, (combination) silsilu, sur- 
rishtu, (help, q. v.) himayut, suha|e, (consent, 
q. V.) qubool, istirza, v. assistance, tutbeeq, 

concurrent, moottufiq, moottuhid, moowafiq, ek- 
dil, jora, bahum, mootu,ariz, moosulsul, v. 
joint, together, concomitant. 




concussion, joombish, lughzish, tuzulzool, hila,o, 
doIa,o, hurukut. 

to condemn, futwa-d. hookm-k. ; the judge con- 
demned him to die, qazee ne oos ke qutl ka futwa 
diya; goonahgar- &c. -thulirana, v. criminal, 
mulamut-k. phitkarna, dandna, v. to doom, 
damn, (to censure) gilu- shikwu-shikayut- nin- 
diya-k. oolahna, ilzam-d. dokhna, (to reject, 
q. V.) rudd-k. nikal-d. 

condemnation, futwa, hookm, qisas, v. sentence, 
istirdad, v. to reject, the verb. 

condensation, tukseef. 

to condense, condensate, v. a. j umana, garha- mcon- 
jumid- bustu- ghuleez- kuseef-k. gurhiyana, 
V. to inspissate, dubana, v. to compress, v. n. 
jumna, mconjuinid- &c. -h. 

to condescend, furo tunee-k. mootuwujjih-h. tu- 
wujjooh-numirta-k. (to stoop) dubna, nihoorna, 
(to consent) qubool-k. 

condescension, furo-tunee, inkisar, adheenta,ee, 
ma3la,imut, hilm, numirta, ukhlaq-moohum 
mudee, tuwazoo.u o tu,uzeem, niyaz. 

condign, la,iq, moonasib, lazim, wajib ; condign 
punishment, suza, uzab. 

condition, (state, q. v.) hal, halut, uhwal, gut, 
kuefiyut, alum, dusa, wuzu, murum, v. pos- 
ture, manner, (rank, q. v.) uoj, shan, munsub, 
bibhuo, bibhoot, (stipulation, q. v.) uhd, hor, 
iqrar, beej, (bond) uhd-namu, v. attribute, qua- 
lity, disposition ; conditions on both sides, uhdo 
pueman dooturfee, v. agreement. 

to condition, shurt-b. or -k. 

conditional, shurtee, mushroot, (bill) juwabee, 
(m^ram»jar)shurtiyu; a conditionalcanjunc- 
tion, hurfi-shurt. \'>'i!ii r^- tiVAt>'^c«, 

conditionally, bu-shurt. 

condolance, condolement, ghum-kh\yaree, tu,uzi- 
yut, matum-poorsee, poorsa, sapa. 

to condole, malum poarsee-k. 

condoler, ghum khwar, hum durd, dookh buta,oo, 
V. sympathy, 

to conduce, mudud- qoowwut- tuqwiyut- poosh- 
tee- suhara-d. moomid-h. v. to aid. 

conducive,conducible, moomid, mcD.awin, suha,ee. 

conduciveness, moo.awunut, i,anut. 

conduct, soolook, kirdar, v. treatment, (manage- 
ment, q. V.) ijra, mudar, tudbeer, kurtub, (be- 
haviour, q. V.) chal, chulun, utwar, ruwish, 
tureequ, shewu, wuzu, hurukut, (pass) pur- 
yraau i rahdaree, (convoy, q. v.) budruku, (of 
army) lushkur-kushee, fuoj-kushee. 

to conduct, le-chulna, le-jana, le-ana, rah nc»m- 
a,ee-k. puhonchana, uriyatna, v. to lead, di- 
rect, (to manage, q. v.) chulana, ruwan-k. kar 
ruwa,ee- ihtimam-k.; to conduct an army, lush- 
kur kushee-k. 

conductor, rah-nooma, agwa, rah-bur, peshwa, 
pesh-roo, rah nuwal, ijra,e-kar, v, director, 
leader, (spiritual) hadee, moorshid, gooroo, 
(manager, q. v.) ihtimam-chee. 

conduit, nuhr, ab-rez, v. aqueduct. 

cone, mukhroot, ga,o-doom, wurtuh khat, soo- 
rung, V. pyramid. 

to cotifabulate, bat cheet-k. 

confabulation, bat-cheet, bol-chal, gcoftugoo, 
zikr-muzkoor, qeel-qal, qal-muqal. 

to confect, moorubbu-bunana, pagna, gliilafee-k. 

cotifection, confect, racorubbu, nntha|ee, pag,shee- 
reenee, hulwa. 

confectioner, hulwa,ee, rikab-dar, moorubbu-saz, 
mitha,ee-furosh, hulwa-saz. 

confederacy, uhd o pueman, rah-ruwish, quol- 
qurar, ittihad, eka, milap, bundish, sazish, 
goosht, V. association, compact, 
confederate, rufeeq, sathee, sajhee, moo.ahid, v. 

ally, also the verb, 
confederate, adj. moottufiq, mcottuhid, milapee, 




to cimfederate, rah ruwish- hum shurt- hum 

uhd-k. V. to combine. 
to confer, (to converse) kuhna. juwab suwal-k. 

butiyana, v. to talk, (in private) khulwut-k. 

(to give) dena, bukhshna, murhumut- inayut-, 

uta- inam-k. v. to conduce, 
conference, juwab-suwal, moozakuru, raookalu- 

mu, bat but-kuha,o, musluhut, moobahusu, v. 

consultation, kuh poochh, v. discourse. 
to confess, manna, qubool- iqrar- &e. -k. qa,il- 

&C. -h. han-k. quboolna, such-kuhna, v. to 

own, (lo, and as a priest) surwun-k. or -kura- 

na, gosh goszar-k. v. confessor, to declare, &c. 

(to disclose, q. v.) butlana, kuhna, v. to attest, 
confessedly, qutU|Un, yuqeenun, be-shoubhu, moo- 

qurrur, be-shuk, qusdun, umdun, hanka han- 

kee, buda budec, v. avowedly, 
confession, iqrar, i,utiraf, kuha, qubool, hoonkar, 

eejab, izhar, shuhadut, v. avoival, surwunkar, 

gosh goozaree, v. creed, 
confessor, (declarer) qa,il, nicD,uturif, mooqir, 

(martyr) shuheed, (father) peer. 
confest, badee, mushhoor, hunkara, v. known, 

open, &c. 
corifidant, confidential, raz-dar, hum-raz, bhe- 

diya, muhrum, dum-saz, hum-dum, niuhrum- 

kar, purdu-dar, ma);a.tun\\A,\ .companion, also 

to confide, bhurosa-k. or -r. putiyana, bhoolna, 

V. to trust. wil^twc;-., 

confidence, bhurosa, as, oommed, i,utiqad, tuwuq- 

qco, yuqecn, tueyuqqoon, nishchue, kliatir-ju-, purteet, itmecnan, putiyara, v. reliance, 

belief, (boldness, q. v.) istiqlal, dileree, bu- 

tu,ummcDlee, v . firmness,rashness, (arrogance, 

q. V.) shokhec, kliood-beenee, v. assurance, 
confident, moU|Utuqid, rommcd-war, miBtuwuqqii, 

(bold, q. V.) moostuqil, nidhuruk, be-tu,um- 

mool, be-tudbeer, v. rash, (impudent) goostakh, 

shokh, V. dogmaticaT,, asrik, v. posi- 
tive. .)• ,'l,a!nij 

confidently, istiqlal- &c. -se, be-khutfu, ytiqeen- 

im, V. the adj. 
configtiration, turkeeb, bunawut, ruchawut, v. 

formation, ^aahrush .lu itkam. 

confine, hudd, Intiha, sur-hudd, danda, siwanu, 

V. border, 
to confine, (imprison) bund- &c. -k. (to bound) 

mconhusur-k. (to restrain) rokna, utkana, v. 

to limit, &c. .. v^ .9 Ai 

confined, bundee, quedee, mcuqucyud, muhboos, 

pa-bund, v. prisoner, (narrow, q. v.) kotah, 

comfinement, qued, bund, useeree, giriftaree, ihti- 

bas. .ri- .;»-yt -h'fuiijWud ..eiit-ouf 

to confirm, sabit- &c. -k. isbat- &c. -k. thuhra- 

na, V. to ratify, muzboot- munsoob- &c. -k. 

V. to fix, suheeh-k. v. to certify, (a brahmun) 

sunskar- &:c. -k. v. to prove, (a disease) jura^ 

na, V. to establish, (to appoint) qa,im- khura- 

-k. (as a pox) moozmin-k. 
confirmation, isbat, souboot, tuhuqqooq, tu.ueyun, 

tuhqeeq, istihkam, istiqlal, muzbootee, thuh- 

ra,o, muqurruree, v. establishment, settlement, 

(proof, q. V.) dal, dulalut, primaxi. flftai^ 
confirmatory, moomid, raoowueyld, moD.awln. 
confirmed, sabit, mcoqurrur, nioo,ueyun, mootu- 

huqqiq, mooshukhkhus, (established, q. y.), moohkum, v. appointed, bu-hal, bur- 

qurar, v. certain, sunskaree, burt-bundhee. 
to confiscate, zubt- qoorq-k. khalse-lugana, tek-, 

chlienk- rokJcna, v. to seize, buet ool mal 

confiscation, zubtee, qoorqee. 
confiscator, zabit. .nij«i».|«i ,»>«i«<\.i»non 

confiagration, ugwahee, atush-2i*dugee, agmwut, 

V. fire, 
conflict, lura,ee, khurkhushu, karzar, mu,uiiku, 




jung, coljhera, sutczu, dar o geer, jhiita piitee, 
V. contest, &c. {ngony) kuliip, dookh, koft, 
quluq, V. altercatioH, elmlittion. 
confluence, conflux, sungum, mel, railap, (a crowd, 

q. V.) iiinboh, kusrut, v. concourse, 
cmfliuent, (small-pox, q. v.) klrueya, musooriya. 
to conform, inoowafiq- &c. -k. hurabur- &c. -!i. 
ekduol-k. or -h. (to comply w«4A),.mibool-k. 
razee-li. v. to agree. - ,■• 

conformable, hurabur, eksan, humwar, nioowafiq, 
mootabiq, suman, shajstu, niu.uqool, la,iq, 
{submissive) huleem, ina3la,im, b(X)rd-bar, moo- 
tuhummil, ghureeb. 
conformably, bur-hookni, bu-moojib, v. the adj. 
conformatvon, turkeeb, bunawut, v. the verb, also 

conformity, moowafuqut, mcotabuqut, mcnshabu- 
hut, tutaboDq, ulaqu, mila,o, luga,o, humvvarce, 
V. consistency. 
to confound, tnilana, mukhloot-k. durhum bur- 
hum- ubtur-k. gur bur-k. v. to mingle, bhoond- 
lana, hudiyana, hukka bukka-k. surgurdan-k. 
{f,o abash) panee panee-k. v. to perple.v, {to 
astonish, q. v.) be huwas- purcshan- surasee- 
mu- byakcnl- moozturib- mmshuwwish-k. {to 
destroy) gharut- pa,cnial- sutiyanas-k. v. to 
confuse, &c. 
confounded, v. the verb, ushud, sukht, kutta, ni- 
put, buetoolmal; this confounded business dis- 
tresses me much, yih huet ool mal kam masjhe 
huhoot ajiz kurta hue, v. detestable, &c. 
conjoundcdlij, bu-shiddut, nihayut,bu durji utum. 
to confront, rooburoo- doobudoo- cliarchushiii-, 
mcDqabil- samne- suiimonkh-k. or -li. juiuog- 
na, moowajihu-k. v. to oppose, 
confrontation, rnojoo,u, mooqabilu, v. opposition, 
to confuse, ghubrana, hurburana, ajljhana, ukla- 

na, mootufurriq- &c. -k. 
confused, mootufurriq, moontushur, ubtur, tarpu- | 

tar, durhum burhum, pech dur pech, tuhobala, 
ookijh poohijh, ulira tuhree, v. topsy-turvy, to 
confound, di.striicf.ed, amaxed. 
confusedly, ubtur, v. confused, 
confusion, confusedness, ubturee, burhumee, inti- 
shar, ooljjiera, {disturbance, q. v.) ghuogha, 
bulwa, fitoor, sliorish, oodniad, {distractiwi, 
q. V.) iztirar, ghubraliut, hueranee, chuondh- 
yahut, pureslianee, surgurdanee, ashroftugee, 
V. shame, ooljhun, ghun mundul, bugra, v. dis- 
order, undher, V. anarchy, hudiyahut, v. per- 
turbation, destruction, 
confutation, ibtal, bcotlan, eerad. 
to confute, moolzim- la juwab-k. batil-, 
rudd- raurdood-k. ootfia-d. jhoothana, hurana, 
puchharna, katna, pulit-k. v. to disprove. ., 
to congeal, v. ti. jumna, bundh-jana, moonjumid-, ' 

bustu-h. V. a. jumana, bandhna, bustu-k. 
congealment, congelation, j umawut, Inj imad, bus- 

tugec, anthee, chukka, v. curd, clot, 
congenial, moowafiq, ek-dil, hum-durd, ek-rung, 
hum-rung, dum-saz, hum- or ek-jins, hum- 
muzhub, ek-roop, {agreeable, q. v.) khatir- 
khwah, V. pleasant, 
to conglobate, goliyana, goothlana. 
conglomerate, ghcorchiyana, v. to ravel, 
conglomeration, ghoorchcc, pechtab, ghojrchiya- 

hut, gcnljjiuree, v. perplexity, 
to conglutinate, jootana, bhur-lana, v. to cement, 
to congratulate, moobaruk bad kuhna, moobaruk 

badee- &c. -d. juejukar-munana. 
congratulation, mmbaruk-badec, tuhniyut,''moo- 
barukcc,, budhawa; letter of congra- 
tulation, tuhniyut-namu, opposed to tu,uziyut- 
namu, a. letter of condolence. 
to congregate, butorna, jumu-k. mundlana, v. to 

co7igrega.tioti,congress, juma,v,jum\ie^\xt^suhhak, 
V. assemhly, ••{tscaut 




congrtnty,mco'wa.fu({\it,kti{aq,me\,v. consistency, 
congruous, theek, la,iq, sha.istu, humwar, moo- 

wafiq, mojnasib, v. suitable, 
conic, conical, ga,o-doom, soorungee,mukhrootee, 

ga,o doomee, minaree, v. cone, 
conjectural, khiyalee, qiyasee, wuhmee. 
conjecture, utkul, undazu, wuhm, qiyas, khiyal, 
gooman, zunn, iiql, tujweez, tukhmeenu, ihti- 
• mal, zoo,um, bhurum, unooman ; a mere con- 
jecture, utkul-puchchoo. 
to he conjectured, mcxihtumul-h. 
conjecturer, tar-baz, utkul-baz. 
to conjoin, milana, lugana, jorna, puewustu-, 

wusl- &c. -k. V. n. milna, joorna, v. to unite, 
conjoined, baliumee, v. together, muqroon, moo- 

qarin, mootuqarln, v. joint, 
conjoint, moottufiq, mooshturik. 
conjointly, shurakut-se, bil-ishtirak, bil-ittifaq. 
conjugal, zuojee, sum bundhee, v. nuptial, 
conjugate, tusreef-k. gurdanna. 
conjugation, bab, surf, gurdan, v. declension, 
cooijunction, mila,o, luga,o, ittisal, ijtima,vi, mi- 
lap, mel, jor, puewund, wusl, inziman, moo- 
wasilut, sumbundh, v. junction, {of planets) 
' qiran, sunjog, mooqarinut, umawus, {copula- 
tive) bhoo,iyo, {in grammar) utf; a fortunate 
conjunction ofjikmets, qiran oos-su,uduen, op- 
posed to qiran-oon nuhusuen, an unfortunate 
' conjunctive mood, shurtiyu, muzari, jookh mudh. 
'■ conjunctively, milke, bahum hoke. 
conjuncture, ittifaq, halut, gut, {occasion, q. v.) 

zimn, guon. 
cow/wra^ioM, jadoo-guree, sihr-karee,sahiree,ban, 
dU|UWut, totka, v. conspiracy, jhar, pjioonk, 
tona, ■tamur, chhoochha, tonhaiCe, v. incanta- 
tion, enchantment, 
to conjure, jadoo- &c. -k. {to importune) ilhah-, 
sumajut- bmtee- arzoo-k. wastu- qusum- gu- 

onh-dilana, chhoochhwana, to exorcise, implore ; 
I conjure you, by God, not to mention this busi- 
ness to any one, muen toomhen khooda ka wastu 
dilata boon ki yih bat kisee se nu kuhna. 
conjurer, jadoo-gur, ufsoon-gur, sahir, sihr-kar, 
toonha, hazratee, du,uwutee, namit, ojha, bun- 
ha, syana, v. enchanter, juntree, jan, goonee, 
sihr-gur, sihr-saz, shu,vibidu-baz, y. fortune- 
connate, bizatihi, junumee, khilqee, hum-zad, 

V. natural, 
to connect, v. a. jorna, lugana, milana, puewund-, 
wvisl- &c. -k. bandjina, ganthna, v. n. milna, 
lugna, guthna. 
connected, moottusil, mootu,ulliq, puewustu, moor- 
tubit, mooshturik, mootuwussil, mcnlhuq, v. 
conjoined, {with) wuseelu-dar. 
to be connected, ulaqu- &c. -r. {to be carnally) 

bhirna, v. to copulate, 
connexion, jor, wusl, puewustugee, imtizaj, tu- 
wussool, V. conjunction, ulaqu, rubt, moonasu- 
but, nisbut, tu,ullooq, sur-risbtu, arhut, v. re- 
lation, qureenu, wastu, jihut, surokar, tuna- 
stnb, sabiqu, jinsiyut, v. correspondence, {per- 
son) wuseelu, V. means, {carnal) soohbut, ash- 
na,ee, v. cohabitation, intercourse, &c. 
connivance, ighmaz, chushm-poshee, tughafool, 
tusahool, anakanee, mutiyahut, tusamih, v. to- 
leration. ,»>p.i!,v'V; 
to connive, ighmaz- &c. -k. bhanjna, mutiyana, 

soon-kheenchna, ankh-chhipana, v. to wink, 
conjioisseur, ullamu, v. doctor, mahir, waqif-kar, 
beena, purkhiya, purkhee, naqid, sliuoqeen, 
goodiya,v. judge, adept. httn -'' 
to conquer, futuh- ghulbu- tuskheer-k. jeetna, 
futuh- &c. -pana, le-lena, adheen-k. sur-k. 
shikust-d. mughloob-k. ghalib-h. puclihama, 
marna, girana, wur-ruhna, dust boord-k. du- 




bana, v. to subdue, (to overcome) ootha-d. turk- 

tooh, also cmiquerable, mughloob, lene jog, v. 
the verb. 

conqueror, fiituh-mund, ghalib, jue-man, futuh- 
nuseeb, mtDzuffur, zufur-yab, ghazee, moosul- 
lut, nasir, munsoor, feeroz-mund, zubur-dust, 
soobhman, v. sfrmig, (in comp.) koosha, sitan, 
geer, whence moolk geeree, conquest,^, victory. 

conquest, futuh, zufur, tuskheer, v. the verb. 

cojisanguineous, qureeb, yeganu, ek-lohoo or ru- 
kut, V. related. 

consanguinity, qurabiit, yeganugee, apna,et,khe- 
shee, sugawut, buraduree, qoorbut, goree-awuj, 
V. fraternity. 

conscience, dil, khatir, mun, zumeer, tumeez, 
jee, munjot, batin, mu,urifut, v. mind, bibek, 
V. discernment, (justice) insaf, nya,o, {hones- 
ty) eeman, dueyanut, ibrut, huqeeyut, dhur- 
um, purlok, v. principle, {scruple, doubt, q. v.) 
undeshu, dhurka, sunsue, v. consciousness, rea- 

conscientious, eeman-dar,diyanut-dar, mootudue- 
yun, rast-nioo,amulu, dhurmatma, khooda-turs, 
saf-batin, seenu-saf, pak-dil, huqq-shinas, agah- 
dil, dhurmee, jagtee jot, purlokee, uhli ibrut, 
V. upright, conscionahle. 

conscientiously, khooda tursee- &c. -se. 

man-daree, rast-moo,araulee, suchuotee, huqq- 
shunasee, &c. above, v. probity, waqif-karee, 
V. knowledge. 

conscionable, sucha, mu,uqool, moonsif, khura, 
rast-baz, wajibee, theek, v. reasonable. 

conscious, waqif, khubur-dar,agah,moottulu,hus- 
sas, waqif-kar, muhrum-kar, khnod-khubur, 
jan-kar, suchetee, alim, mabir, v. aware. 

to be conscious, waqif- &c. -h. khubur-r. mu,u- 
loom-k. chetna. 

consciously, wuqoof- &c. -se. 

conscious7iess, wu(ioof, khubur, ittila.u, agalifie, 
ilm, mojtlriku, tumeez, hiss, v. perception. 

to consecrate, mukhsoos-k. thuhrana, nuzr-k. 
suukulp-k. iqaniut-k. v. to purify. 

consecration, v. the verb. 

consecutive, consequent, mootu,aqib, mootusulsul, 
tallee, v. successive. 

consent, murzee, qubool, ruza-mundee, khooshee, 
munuotee, eejab, v. concord, concurrence, ija- 
but, ungeekar, rrokhsut, v. leave, also to assetit, 
agree. The woman's consent in matrimony is 
expressed by kunniya mookhbur, opposed to, 
pita mcokhbur, the father's, which last is the 
only one now required in Hindoostan, though 
formerly the reverse. 

to consent, razee-h. qubool-k. ruza-d. manna, qa- 
il- moottufiq-h. hazir-h. v. to acquiesce, willing, 
han-k. kurana, v. to agree. 

consequence, {effect, q. v.) mahusul, urthat,mu,al, 
khuniiyazu, chot, v. upshot, {end, q. v.) un- 
jam, unt, v. event, chinta, v. importance, roo, 
V. estimation, cmisideration, {weight, q. v.) 
qudr, wuzn, i.utibar, nuqshu, shukhsiyut, {r)io- 
ment) mooza,iqu, purwa; it is ofnoconsequence, 
koochh maoza,iqu nuheen ; an affair of conse- 
quence, moohim, v. conclusio7i, concatenatimi. 

consequent, moontuj, moo,ukhkhur, v. antecedent. 

consequently, bu-nuteeju, luhuza, zuroorutun, biz- 
zuroor, khwah mukhwah, be-shoobhu, v. ine- 

conseroatimi, hifazut, moohafuzut, jutun, nigah- 
banee, bucha,o, v. preservation. 

conserve,{of roses,) goolqund, gc»l-shukuree, jool- 

to conserve, moorubbu-bunana, pagna, uchar-d. 




~ {flowers) goolqund-bunana, v. confection, to 
preserve, pickle. 

to consider, sochna, boqjhna, utkulna, janna, 
dhyan- &c. -k. tuolna, uql-duorana, fikr-k. 
dekhna, sumujjina, yad-r. v. to reflect, er- 
amine, kuhna, thuhrana, turashna, liigana, 
kurna, v. call, consideratioti, (to hold, q. v.) 
rukhna, v. to esteem. 

considerable, {respectable) numood, roo-dar, sa- 
hib i i,iitibar, V. great. /.«an»l 

considerably, kum-besh, thora buhoot, ziyadu. 

considerate, mcadubbir, sahib-tudbeer,fuhraeedu, 
aqibut-undesh, door-undesh, bicharwan, gum- 
bheei', dhyanee, imtivazee, tudbeeree, raootu- 
ummil, V. prudent, serious. 

consider ately,i\i;axn.mco\-indhe.Q.i:- he. -se. aqila- 
nu, thuhrake, dekh bhalke, v. the verb. 

consideration, dhyan, khiyal, turuddood, tudbeer, 
lihaz, moolahuzu, tumeez, imtiyaz, qureenu, 
boojh, V. reflection, study, {importance, q. v.) 
wuzn, bojh, rooyut, roo-daree, i.utibar, mur- 
jada, man, v. regard, shoomar, v. loelght, {com- 
petisation) iwuz, ujr, juza, budlu, {motive) su- 
bub, ba,is. 

considering, dekhiye, lihaz. keejiye, sochiye, v. 
the verb. 

to consign, huwalu- tufweez- tusleem- soopoord- 
-k. de-dalna, bukhshna, umanut-sompna, dena, 
dilana, de-bhejna. zimmu-k. v. to transfer, 
{to appropriate, q. v.) thuhrana, mukhsoos-, 
nioo,ueyun-k. v. to commit. 

consignment, tufweez, soopoord, v. the verb, {the 
writing) hibu-namu, v. assignment. 

to consist, bona, muojood-h. mukhlooq- mooruk- 
kub- nioojussutn-h. bunna, wujood-pukurna, 
bhurna, thuhurna, ruhna, numood-h. v. to rest, 
depend, {to agree) moowafiq-h. mootabiq-h. 
milna, v. to exist, subsist. 

consistence, c&7isistency, {uniformity. c[.y.)mcavra- 

fuqut, tuwafoDq, mootabuqut, liyaqut, moona- 
subut, thikana, thulbera, sha,istugee, v. cow- 
gruity, {state) halut, gut, dusa, {existence) 
wujood, hustee, {de^isity, q. v.) jumawut, bus- 
tugee, quwani, pag, v. coherence, {stability, 
q. V.) qiyam, sooboot, istihkam, v. form, sir- 
panw, luga.o, thuor thikana, v. connexion. 

consistent, {tmiform, q. v.) raootabiq, moonasib, 
suman, la,iq, sazgar, {firm, q. v.) bustu, inoon- 
jumid, kuseef, v. coherent, coincident, compati- 
ble. 5 .7. (TJOtUVjiJ ,'iu'liji; ^fiifiat .' 

consistently, liyaqut- &c. se. 

to consociate, miljool-ruhna. 

consolation, tusuUee, dilasa, dil-buree, dharus, 
tushuffee, dil-jumu,ee, khatir-juniu,ee, istima- 
lut, itmeenan, ghuneemut, tumaniyut, jumue- 
yut, thunduk, dum dilasu, v. comfort, also sa- 
tisfaction ; it is some consolation that one of 
them escaped, ghuneemut hue ke ojn men ek 
bucha, '0&iwn jj^iflj -.»i«/^'*"t«#b ..(iBifos <-, 

consolatory, consoler, tuskeen-bukhsh, aram- 
bukhsh, mootmuyin, ghura-goosar or -turash, 
dookh hurun, tusuUiyanu, v. condoler. 

to console, tusullee- &c. -d.-'«»m«') -kaul* 

to consolidate, v. a. sukht-k. jumana, bandhna, 
bustu- mronjumid-k. v. n. jumna, bundhna, 
bustu- moonjummid- &c. -h. {a wound) bhur- 
lana, burabur-k. jorna, v. to join, heal. 

consolidatioti, juttiawut, injimad, bustugee, ilti- 
yam. iu^^ii^-iiiu!htl:>-'^4-!i 

consonance, v. concord, consistency. 

consonant, ■v. consistent; a consonant, hxirfi suheeli, 
wurn, {letter) hul or hus. 

consonous, ek-soor, hum-awaz or -mukhruj. 

consort, priyu, zuqj, khusum, joroo or jooroo, 
V. wife, conjunction, companion, huxn-%WT, hum- 
dum, jora joree, v. associate, {royal) padshah- 
begum, V. spouse, match. 

conspicuous, zahir, ulaniyu, pritichh, khoola, pri- 




kash, mushhoor, mu,uroof, uzhur, julee, nu- 
mood, roodar, numoodar, oojagur, noomayaii, 
mu,uloom, roo-shunas, oobhra, oogharcx), v. 

prominent, eminent, evident. 
conspicuously, zaliirun. 
conspicuousness, zahiree, ruoshunee, roo-daree, 

conspiracy, bundish, sazish, grosht, ittifaq, eka, 

V. imifiny, bandhnoo, ek-sulah, goonnut, jog- 
sun jog, V. sedition, concurrence. 

hum-raz, v. cahaller, plotter, also incendiary. 
to conspire, bundisli- &c. -b. mcnttufiq-h. tnilna, 

humsulah-h. musluhut-k. v. to consult, unite, 


et, V. messenger, watchman, nazir, kotwal, v. 

constancy, sooboot, subat, istiqrar, oostoowaree, 

muzbootee, qurar, tika,o, porha,ee, qiyani, 

istihkam, v. continuance, (resolution, q-v.) is- 

tlqlal, dhceruj, teha, dhoon, himmut, {fidelity) 

wufa-daree, sabit-qiidumee. 
constant, uchul, utul, sabit, mcostuhkum, racos- 

tuqeem, quraree, porba, v. Jirm, {practice) 

kusrut isti,umal, v. lasting, {determined, q. v.) 

sabit-qiidiini, qaim-mizaj, {faithful) wufa- 

dar, wufa-punist. 
constantly, bur-qurar,ulud-duwam, hur an,chhin- 

chhin, nit-ooth, dum bu dum, hurdura, an iin 

fu-an un, V. ever, always. >-niii *.; 
constellation, bcorj,ras, sitaru, ukhtur, tara, nuk- 

but, suorl kuwakib, v. star, Aries, Capricorn, 
consternation, huerut, sur-gurdanee, hueranee, 

pureshanee, iztirab, ghubrahut, dhurka, bhuo- 

chukkee, be-hnwasee, chuondhiyahut, dung, 

bulchul, V. apprehension, terror, 
to constipate, qubz- bund- bundhej-k. 
constipation, qubz, qubziyut, inqibaz. 

constituent, adj. uslee, khilqee, jibillec, zatee ; 
the conatituefit part, i'lsm i juohurce {corutitu- 
ter) niounecb, moowukkil, sah, v. author^ 
to constitute, {to produce) pueda- mukhlooq-k. 
bunana, {to establish, q. v.) raoo,ueyun- mukh- 
soos-k. thuhrana, v. to depute, ajypoint. 
coyistitution, {of the body, &c.) mizaj, tubiyiit, 
tubu,u, teenut, jibillut, surisht, untuhkurn, 
V. naiure, kotha,v. s#o»M?c7t, constructum,estah- 
lishment, {temper, q. v.) seerut, khuslut, adut, 
nihad, {state, &c.) halut, {government, q. v.) 
bund o bust, zubfc-rubt, nuzm o nusq, intizani, 
nuqshu, {institution, q. v.) zabitu, rusm, v. 
constitutional, khilqee, zatee, uslee, jibillee, ju- 
numee, pueda.ishee, dehuj, {legal, q. v.) shu- 
ru,ce, ja,iz, moobah, priman. 
to constrain, {restrain, q.v.) utkana, barna, bu- 
rujna, bund- qued-munu-k. {to press) dubana, 
dabna, {to tie) bandhna, v. to compel, con- 
stringe; to be constrained, mujboor-h. 
constraint, {restraint, q. v.) rok, duba,o, qued, 
{compulsion, q. v.) zor, zubur-dustee, jubr, 
constriction, sikor, simta,o. 
to constringe, {cmisfriet) sikorna, sumetna. 
constringent, bundhej, sumet. 
to co7istruct, bunana, bina- tu,umeer-k. imanit- 
bunana, or -oothana, nuqshu-b. duol-d. v. to 
construction, tn,nmeer, nuqshu, imarut, bunawut, 
buna,o, sakht, just-bust, turkceb, v. make, 
{meaning, q.v.) niuzmoon, {explanation, q.v.) 
tuqreer, tu.ijweel, v. interpretation, suma«, 
{arrangement, q. v.) rubt, mel, v. judgment, 
to constrtie, rubt-d. murboot-k. rubt-khilana, or 
-khana, {to interpret) tuiircer- &c. -k. v. to 

Q 2 




consubstantial, hum-zat, hum-jlns, eksan, ekhee. 

consuhstantiality, hum-zatee, hum-jinsee. 

consul, wukeel, na,ib, v. resident. 

to consult, (to deliberate, q. v.) musluhut- sulah-, 
mushwurut- puramursh-k. (to ask advice') 
musluhut- nuseehut- &c. Jena, (to regard) 
dhyan- nuzur-k. (a hook) dekhna, v. to com- 
mune, (an oracle) istikharu-dekhna. 

cotisultatioti, musluhut, budan, mushwurut, goor- 
muta, moDshawiru, shooru, v, advice, the verb, 
also assembly. 

consumable, tuhleel-puzeer, julne-jog, v. perish- 

to consume, v. a. (to spend, q. v.) surf- shurt- 
burt-k. gharut- tuluf- zayu- pa,emal- suttya- 
nas- goodaz-k. pughlana, khana, leelna, ni- 
gulna, ghutana, v. to squander, bhusum- khak- 
-k. gulana, v. to hum, destroy, waste, v. n. (to 
decay) zu,eef- nuqeeh- natuwan- doobla-h. 
sookhna; to consumeone''stime,t\^u uoqat-k. 
• kal-khona. 

consumer, moDsrif, foozool-khurj, oora|Oo. The 
English have ccarupted (perhaps with some 
propriety) the word khan-saman (lit. lord of 
the furniture) into consumer, or consuman, v. 
butler. , ^ 

consummate, poora, pukka, pookhtu, kamil. 

to consummate, akhir- tumam- poora-k. nibahna, 
busurJejana, v. to end. 

consummation, tukmeel, tumamee, surunjam, akh- 
irut, aqibut, itmam, insiram, unt, sumapt, 
(nuptial) guona, dooraguon, ruona, khilwut, 
kamilu, shubi zcofaf, nukh-purchalu. 

consumption, khurj, khuput, kuttee, v. to con- 
sume ; the consumption (disease?) sil, chhu,ee, 
nufs ood-dum, v. atrophy. 

consumptive, (diseased) muslool, mudqooq, v. 


contact, luga|0, mila,o, ittisal, mus, lusooq, v. 

reach, touch. 
co7itagion, sura,it, tu,ussoor, phuela,o, (plague) 

wuba, muree. 
con^ag'ioM«,moosir,mootu,uddee; to he contagious, 

lugna, V. infectious, 
to contain, shamll- moDheet- mooshtumil, bya- 

puk-h. rukhna, lena, (to restrain, q. v.) barna, 

thamna, (to refrain) purhez-k. 
to he contained, sumana, untna, khupna, hojana, 

bhurna, ana, ajana, muzroof- moohat-h. v. to 

to rontamhiate, napak- &c. -k. chhoot-k. jhoo- 

thalna, jhootha-k. bhurna, v. to dirty, pollute. 
contaminated,na-Yiak, ghuleez,kuseef,nujis, moo- 

luwwus, usoadh, v. polluted.  
contamination, chhoot, na-pakee, aloodugee, v. 

to contemn, ihanut- &c. -k. huqeer- &c. -janna, 

V, contempt, contemptible, also to despise, 
to contemplate, tu.ummcol- ghuor- &c. -k. dekh- 
na, V. to behold, muse, 
contemplation, tLi,ummool, moolahuzu, dhyan, tu- 

suwwoor, tujweez, turuddood, v. consideration, 

attention, meditation, (holy meditation) moora- 

qubu, (study) mootaluu. 
contemplative, mootu,ummil, dhyanee, mootufuk- 

kir, bichar-wan, mooraqib, undeshu-mund, 

fikr-mund; the contemplative faculty , qoowut i 

contemporary, hum-usr, hum-wuqt, moo,asIr, ek- 

kalee, hum-uhd, hum-tpmr, su-sumue, su-ka- 

contempt, ihanut, hiqarut, muzummut, tu,unu- 

zunee, khiffut, soobcxskee, apooman, zoolut, 

khwaree, muzullut, ibtizal, tuhqeer, siflugee, 

V. baseness, disdain, 
contemptible, huqeer, soobook, khufeef, khwar^ 




'■ be-qxulr, zuleel, monbtuzul, na-chcez, ihanutec, 
scnbook-mayu, upo-manee, v. mean. 

coiitemptiMeness, zulalut, ibtizal, muzullut, be- 
qudree, bc-hoormutec, v. meanness. 

contemptiblt/, hiqarut- &c. -se, v. meanly. 

contemptuous,, mughroor, mootukubbir, be-udub, 
V. insolent. 

contemptuously, be udubee- be imtiyazee-fse. 

to contend, jhugurna, lurna, mooqabulut- moona- 
qushu-k. (to vie, q. v.) humchushmee-k. his- 
ka-k. dhura-b. tukkur-lena or -mama, v. to 
dispute, burana, v. to emulate, also contention. 

content, contented, razee, khrosh, khroshnood, sa- 
bir, mootuwukkil, qani, shakir, suntokhee, 
mooktufce, ser-chushm, mun-bhura, farigh-hal, 
khojrsund, ba-aram, v. easy, independent, satis- 

content, contentment, khmshee, quna,ut, ghina, 
subr, seree, suntokh, tuwukkoal, v. satisfac- 
tion, ser-chushmee, ugha,ee, &c. v. the adj. also 
sufficiency, {the ihirtg contained) muzroof, muz- 

to content, razee- khoosh- &c. -k. pet-bhurna, ug- 
hana, chhukana, v. to please, Jill, satisfy. 

to he content, qubool-k. razee-h. 

contention, contest, jhugra, bukhera, lura,ee, qu- 
ziyii, moobahusu, ma)jadulii,mcDkaburu, rudd- 
budul, graft o shuneed, jhugra, rugra, unrus, 
niza,u, moonazu,ut, ikhtilaf, hungamu, puekar, 
rar, moonacpshu, khusoomut, jhurpa- jhurpeo, 
kundur, bugra, khulish, v. altercation, ani- 
mosity, quarrel. 

contentious, luraka, jhugraloo, bukheriya, raree, 
jung-jo, hcDJjutce, tukraree, v. quarrelsome. 

contentiously, zid- lura,ee- &c. -se. 

contentiousness, jung-jo,ee, sitezu-jo,ee, v. per- 

contentment, v. content, gratification. 

contents, fihrist, v. index, goonjeedu, v. subject, 
(of a book) chhund, mutlub. 

contest, kcnshtee, v. quarrel, pay, cotitention, de- 
bate, moonaqishu, khusoomut, jhurpa, jhur- 
pee, kundur, bugra, khulish, v. altercation, 
animosity, also to contend. 

to contest, bat-drahrana, hoojjut- tukrar- &c. -k. 
V. to dispute. 

context, mutn, mool, qureenu, ibarut, likha,ee, 
muzmoon, siyad, subacj, v, tenour, text, drift. 

contexture, bunawut, turkeeb. 

contiguity, contiguousness, jor, mel, wusl, ittisal, 
(joorb, pucwustugee. 

contiguous, puewustu, moottusil, mila, joora, mu- 
mas, V. near. 

continence, purhez, ihtiraz, ijtinab, tuqawut, tuq- 
wa, nem, sunjum, parsa,ee, shecl, zood, v. 

continent, purhez-gar, mcnhturiz, zahid, asimu, 
ufeefu, jutee, v. chaste, moojtunib, v. abste- 
mious ; a continent, burr, v. lajid. 

continently, purhez- &c. -se. 

contingence, contingency, arizu, ittifaq, sunjog, 

cmitingent, arizee, sunjogce, v. accidental, (occa- 
sional, q. v.) muzkooree, v. accident, (expen- 
ces) muzkoorat, v. charge, proportion. 

conti7igently, ittifaqee, ittifaqmi. 

continual, pa,e-dar, moodamee, da,im. 

continually,humeshu, moodam, rozmurru,v.^er- 

humeshugee, nitta, thuhra.o, ruha,o, istiqamut, 
mooddut, istinu-ar, V. succession,(duration)Y>a,e- 
daree, der-pa,ee, v. constancy, (perseverance, 
q. V.) dhoon. 

to continue, v. n. ruhna, thumna, khutana, pa,e- 
dar- dcrpa-h. jana, le-ruhna, nibhna, v. to re- 
main, buhal- burpa-ruima, v. to last, to con- 




firm, V. a. rukhna, nibahna, {to unite) jorna, 
V. to persevere. 

continuity, ilsaq, ilhaq, v. coherence, connection. 

to contort, uenthna, murorna, oomethna. 

cfmtortion, girih, ganth, {of the bowels) murora, 
pechish, {fiexure) pech, pher. 

contour, tikiya, ghera, nuqshu, da,iru. 

contra, khilaf, v. against, counter. 

contraband, munu, burjit, mumnoo,ii, qoorqee, 
qcorq-puzeer, \. forbidden, unlawful. 

contract, hor, quol iqrar, uhd o pueman, ijaru, 
tu,uhood, mo3kata, kutkuna, theeka, chookuo- 
ta, likha purhee, {in comp.) namu, {whence 
uqd-namu, a marriage contract, q. v.) a writ- 
ten contract, uhd-namu; by contract, bil-muq- 
tu ; to give by contract, ijare-d. ; to take by 
contract, ijare-lena. 

to contract, v. a. jukrana, ukrana, uenthana, 
V. to cramp, pukurna, lugana, v. to catch, {a 
«fet#)lena, kurna, v. to form, acquire, {to con- 
stringe, q. v.) bundhej- inqibaz-k. {to lessen, 
q. V.) kotah- tung- mookhtusur- sunchhep-k. 
{to bargain) shurt- hor-b. v. contract, {to be- 
trothe, q. v.) mungnee-k. {to procure, q. v.) 
nikalna, lana, {in grammar) turkheem- huzf- 
-k. V. n. simutna, sikoorna, jukurna, uenthna, 
ukurna, v. to shrivel, {and expand) poolpoolana, 
bijookna, v. contracted, to vibrate, frown, 
contracted, mushroot, mu,uhood,mronqubiz, moo- 
rukhklium, muhzoof, moo,uqqud, v. to stipti- 
late, also the verb, 
contraction, {constriction, q. v.) simta,o, inqibaz, 
jukrahut, jukra,o, v. the verb, {and ewpatision) 
ritq o fitq, poolpoolahut, v. convulsion, {spasm) 
tushunnooj, {abridgment, q. v.) ijmal, kotahee, 
tungee, {in grammar) zihaf, tuikheem, huzf, 
V. cramp, 
contractor, moostajir, mootu,uhid, kutkunu-dar, 
theeke-dar, \. farmer. 

to contradict, rudd-k. buruks- burkhilaf- burzid- 

kuhna, zid-k. kat-dena, jhoothalna, doohrana, 

oolutna, pulutna, pherna, torna, v. to oppose, 

contradiction, khilaf, tukhaloof, moo,aruzu, tuna- 

qooz, tuba,in, mcobayunut, birodh, dohra,o, pul- 

ta,o, V. supra, nuqeez, tu,urrooz, v. opposition, 

contradictory, mcokhalif, bur-uks, mootuzad, moo-, mookhtulif, moonaqiz, moonafee, v. 

inconsistent, contrary. .,!-'■!? 

contrariety, mcukhalufut, zid, ikhtilaf, tukha- 

Imf, na-moowafuqut, birodh. 
contrary, adj. mcokhalif, zid, bu,eed, birodhee, 

colta, uondha, pulta, v. the verb, also different ; 

on the contrary, bur-uks, bur-khilaf ; contrary 

to, ulur-rughum, v. adverse. '. 

contrary, zid, uks; contraries do not m^et, ziddan 

la yujtumi,an, v. contradiction. 

contrast, mooqabulu. 

to contrast, mooqabulu-k. r.H\S >t#!J} -t, 

to contravene, muhroom- baz-r. v. to baffle. ' ' 

contravention, mookhalufut, moozahumut, v. op- 

to contribute, mudud- imdad-k. dena, bukhshna, 
puhoonchana, v. to assist. 

contribution, chunda, {tax) chhata, wuera, bachh, 
bihree, dama sahee, hissu rusud, chuoth, v. 
subscription, dand, v. exaction, assistance, tri- 
bute.  » .•(<n 

contributor, mudud-gar, moomid, suha,ee.'»''t'if. 

contrite, ma3tU|Ussif, nadim, pushemau, puch- 
ta,oo, ta,ib. 

contrition, puchhtawa, tu,ussopf, nudamut, tuobu, 
V. the adj. also repentance, attrition, sorrow. 

contrivance, eejad, ikhtira.u, sunut, hikniut, mun- 
soobu, tujweez, bunawut, jor tor, bandhnoo, 
joogut, tuotiya, kul, v. machine, scheme, {arti- 
fice, q. V.) funn, kutkunu, {j)lot, q. v.) bundish. 




to contrive, nikalna, eejad-k. tudbeer- nuqshu-b. 

fitrut-lurana, bundish-k. bunana, bandhna, 

jorna, V. to form, plan. 
contriver, moojid, fitrutee, munsoobu-baz, hik- 

mutee, kutkune-baz, bundishee. 
control, utka,o, rok, 2,ubt, munu, bund, {power, 

q. V.) ikhtiyar, hookni, uzlo nusb, a,it, qaboo, 

qued, siyasut, r, check, 
to control, utkana, rokna, bama, bunijna, munu-, 

zer- muhkoora- tabi- bund-k. (aw. account) 

janchna, mooqabulu- ja,izu-k. suri hisab-r. v. 

to audit. 
controller, {super intendant, q.v.)umeen,surkob, 

darogliu, nazir, v. miditor, {ruler, q. v.) amil, 

{of accounts) mcnstuofee. 
controversy, jhugra, biikhera, kuha-kuhee, jhun- 

jhut, quziyu, rudd-budul, hccjjut, kudo-kawish, 

juwab-suwal, kuh-poochh, puchra, goshtee, v. 

dispute, argument, quarrel, contest, 
to controvert, buhusna, jhugiirna, lurna, rudd-bu- 
dul- &c. -k. 
contumacious, be-udub, be-imtiyaz, na-furman, 

shureer, shoru-poosht, v. haughty, obstitiate. 
contumacy, contumaciousness, be-udubee, be-lmti- 

yazee, goostakhee,, shurarut, na-fur- 

manee, shoru-pooshtee, v. obstinacy, 
contumelious, dureedu-duhun, be-huya, bud-zu- 

ban, guleiihda, bur-bola, be-lugam. 
contumeltousness, contumely, bud-zubanee, dureedu- 

duhunee, be-huya,ee, v. abrtse. 
to contuse, koochulna, koftu-k. v. to Itruise. 
contusion, bheetur-mar, thekoocii, v. blow. 
convalescence, ifaqut, udhodh, nuqahut. 
convalescent, udhodha, nuqeeh. 
to convene, v. n. jcnrna, butoorna, milna, juma-h. 

ekutiian-h. v. to convocate, collect, v. a. jorna, 

butorna, jumii-k. ekutha- ekja- mujlis-k. v. 

to assemble, 
conveniency, convenience, {fitnest, q v.) moonasu- 

but, tuwafcnq, jogta, {ease, q. v.) anund, asoo- 
dugee, ni,umut, ghuneemut, v. leisure, oppor- 
tunity, accommodation, 

convenient, theek, soothra, mu,uqool, la,iq,m«)na- 
sib, durkhoor, wajib, lazim, suzawar, sha,istu, 
soobihta, sootar, {abode) soobas, v. opportune, 
&c. muozoon, sookhee, v. agreeable, commo- 
dious, &c. 

conveniejitly, Jiyaqut- mconasubut- &c. -se. 

convent, ukhara, usthul, usthan, tukiyu, mut, v. 
monastery, abbey, 

convetitimi, mujlis, subha, juraau, ijma.u, v. con- 
gregation, &c. {contract, q. v.) uhd o pueman, 
V. agreement, &:c. 

to converge, milna, v. to concentre. 

conversable, mu,uqool,juwab-suwalee, churchuet, 
V. ratUmnl, speaker. 

conversant, ashna, waqif, khuburdar, agab, moot- 
tulu, mahir, mu.uqoolgo, {ea-perienced , q. v.) 
azmoodu-kar, qooh, pukka, pookhtu, v. connois- 
sieur; conversant with the world, juhan-deedu. 

conversation, bat-cheet, gooftugoo, juwab-suwal, 
zikr-muzkoor, bat but kulia,o, bol-chal, baten, 
mukalumu, mookhatibut, churcha, butkuhee, 
tuzkiru, bol-chalee, kuha-saonee, qal-muqal, 
kulimu-kulam, raz o niyaz, v. speech, alterca- 
tion, {intercourse, q. v.) soohbut, luga,o, suro- 
kar, {knowledge, q. v.) ashna,ee. 

to converse, bat cheet- Sec. -k. ulaqu- &c. -r. Sjc. -r. bolna-cLalna, kuhna-soon- 
na, butiyana, v. to discourse, {to cohabit, q. v.) 
pas-jana, sona, jhankee-marna, {to associate) 
moo^ib-h. or -k. v. to accompany, hum kvk- 
lam-h. hum sookhun-h. 

cofiversely, tuqleebun. 

conversioti, tuqleeb, inqilab, tuqulloob, istihalu, 
tubdeel, v. change, transmutation. 

convert, nuo-mooreed, v. follower, {to the Mcn- 
sulman faith) nuo-mooslim. 




to convert, budul-dalna, pher-d. pultana, moon- 
qulib-k. phirana, digana, v. to change, islam- 
men-lana, v. to bring, &c. lugana, v. to apply, 
(to appropriate) mooqurrur-k. v. to invert, &c. 
to convert a person, deen men dakhil-k. 
convertible, tuqleeb-puzeer, v. changeable, 
convex, qoobbu-dar, goombuz-dar, moohuddub, 

goombuzee, sipuree, mahee-poosht, raoorgh- 

seenu, kokla, ghoonghla. 
convexity, kokla, ee, v. the adj. 
to convey, lejana, oothana, lana, ootha-lejana, le- 

chulna, -ana, or -oorna, nibahna, nikalna, v. 

to conduct, {to transmit, q. v.) ibiagh-k. {to 

transfer, q. v.) bukhshna, huwalu- hibu-k. 

dena, v. to cede, {to impart, q. v.) sumjjhana, 

buyan- nuql-k. 
conveyance, v. bill, intiqal, v. transportation, mur- 

kub, V. vehicle, {grant) hibu, dan; a letter or 

deed of conveyance, hlbu-namu, dan-puttur; a 

conveyance of property, hibu e tumleek, v. ar- 
tifice, carriage, &c. 
convict, goonah-gar, bundhoo,a, moolzim, tuqseer- 

war, V. prisoner, criminal, 
to convict, goonah gar- tuqseer war-thuhrana, 

moolzim-k. {to confute, q. v.) rudd-k. ilzam-, 

conviction, ilzam, i.utiqad, i,utimad, tuyuqqoon, 

sooboot, V. cotifidence, confutaticm. 
to convince, qa,il-k. qa,il mu,uqool-k. 
convivial, khoosh-ikhtilat, milunsar, v. festival, 

social. -'jMyvtt ,■> f)i<ui\rnt3jj jj. 

conundrum, joogut, chootkccla. 
to convocate, convoke, bolana, butorna, sumetna, 

jorna, jumu-k. uzan-d. ubahun-k. v. to call, 
convocation, ijtima,u, mujlis, subha. 
convoy, budruqu rusanee, jatra, v. conduct, guard. 
to convoy, mooliafuzut- hima,it-k. buchana, pu- 

hoonchana, v. caravan, nibah- bucha-lejana. 

to convulse, ukrana, uenthana, murorna, tulmu- 

lana, v. to agitate, chihonkana, v. to burst, 
convulsed, mostushunnuj. 

convulsion, tushunncoj, luqwa, dhungbao, chi- 
honk-ba|ee, v. spasm, commotion. 

to coo, ghoDtukna, kookoo-k. bugh bugh-k. 

cook, bawurchee, pakuk, riisoo,iya, tubbakh, 
nanba,ee, kubabee, bhuthiyara, ruso,ee-karee, 
{maid) bawurchin, {room) ruso,ee-ghur. 

to cook, pukana, randhna, reendhna, tubkh-k. 
pak-k. biinana, kurna, sidh-k. tuchana, v. to 

cookery, bawurchee-guree, tubkh, tubbakhee, ru- 
so,ee-kar, puka,ee, &c. pcokht. 

cook-room, bawurchee-khanu, mutbukh, pak- 

cool, thundha, surd, seetul, seela, khoonook, ba- 
rid, thundha sa, {water) abshoru, purwurdu- 
panee, v. the verb, &c. (iw temper) pitte-mar, 
V. mild, {shady) sayu-dar, v. shade; a cold 
friend, khoonook-dost, v. cold, deliberate. , 

to cool, V. a. thundha- &c. -k. {to relax, q. v.) 
kahil- ghafil-k. v. n. thundha- &c. -h. sirana, 
{water) purwurdu-k. v. to refresh, {hot wa- 
ter with cold) sumona. 

cooler, {in medicine) tubreed,, {vessel) 
tas, tas-juleebee, kc»ndera, koonda. 

coolly, ahiste, tu,ummcioI- tudbeer-se, v. delibe- 

coolness, thundh, thundhuk, surdee, khoonookee, 
booroodut, v. fresh, {distance) rookhawut, bud- 

coom, keet, v. black, Jilth. 

coop, {for fowls) tapa, khancha, kcor kool, durba, 
khoodda, V. crib. 

to coop up, qufus men-rukhna, qued- bund-r. 

to co-operate, ekdil- bahum- moottufiq- shureek-, 
rufeeq-h. rifaqut- &c. -k. sath-d. milna. 




co-operation, ittifaq, meJ, v. concurrence. 

co-ordinate, hum-qudr or -murtubu. 

coot, puu-doobbee, yurgha, zaghnol, zagh-abcc, 
chaha, v. diver, banwa. The last may per- 
haps be the diver, wliich word is the literal 
translation of the first, q. v. 

co-partner, shureek, sajhee. 

co-partnership, shurakut, ishtirak, sajha. 

cope, chhut, suqf; under the cope of heaven, as- 
man ke suqf ke neechhe. 

to cope with, buraburee- humsuree- humchush- 
mee- maxjabulut-k. puhonchna, pana, v. ca- 
nopy, also to vie, to cover. 

copier, nuql-nuwees, katib, lekhuk, (^imitator) 
mootutubbi, V. plagiary. 

coping, {of a wall) moonder, purchhuttee. 

copious, buhc»t, ziyadu, kuseer, bistaree, v. abun- 
dance, abundant, (extensive, q.v.) wusee,u, phue- 
la, furakh. 

copiously, ifrat- S:c. -se. 

copiousness, bcnhtat, ziyadutee, wufoor, kusrut, 
firawanee, ifrat, {extensiveness, q. v.) wusut, 

coppel, &c, muchee, v. crucible. 

copper, tamba, mis, {adjectively) misee, v. cal- 
dron, {coloured) tambra, chumpa,ee, {vessels) 

copperas, zungar, heera kusees, v. vitriol. 

coppersmith, thuthera, mis-gur. 

coppice, copse, jharee, jungula. 

to copulate, v. a. milana, jorna, lugana, v. to 
join, V. n, joorna, milna, lugna, raoobashurut-, 
jimu-k. chodna, duola-k. kurna; equus coit 
cum equa, ghora ghoree ko kurta hue ; bahna, 
bhanjhna, bhirna, petee-lurna, v. to tread. 

copulation, moobashurut, jima.u, rut, kel, mooja- 
mu,ut, duola, joorunt, wutee, choda,ee, bera, 
pursung, bhunjun, sungum, mithoon, jcnftee, 
soohbut, bhugdhoon, v. coition. 

a copulative conjunction, utf. 

copy, nuql, pritiya, munqool, nooskhu, sureekha, 
ootara, {holder) putte-dar, {original) usl ; / 
have tivo copies of the Goolistan, Goolistan ke 
do nooskhe mere kihan huen ; the first <yr foul 
copy of any writing, mcosawwxxdu; copy lines, 
tu,uleem, sur-mushq, kutkuna. 

to copy, nuql- nuql nuweesee-k. ootarna, {to imi- 
tate, q. V.) pukurna, lena, hiska-k. 

copy-hold, putta. This differs considerably from 
copyholds in England. 

copying, nuql-nuweesee, katibee, ootrahut, tuna- 
qool, tushakool. 

to coquet, uda^ Sec. -k. uthlana, itrana, bha,o- 

coquetry, uda, nukhra, naz,ghumzu, ushwu, ush- 
wu-guree, kurishmu, chonchla, jhanolee, chon- 
chle-bazee, b]lia,o, ha,o, nukhre bazee, &c. it- 
rahut, sookha-nukhra, v. (iffiectation. 

coquette, nukhre-baz, chonchle-baz, ushwu-gur, 
jha,onlee-baz, kurushmu-baz, nazneen, naz 
purdaz, bhuglee. 

coral, moonga, murjan, boossud, hujr ool buhur; 
a child's coral, choosnee, gooUee, chhugoonee, 
chutwa, which are generally made of ivory. 

cord, russee, dor, jyora, tunab, v. brace, rusun, 
kusun, ban, tant, jo,ina, chhurnuot, buraree, 
V. chord, rope, string. 

cordage, rusa-wusa, bundhun wundhun, v.todw^. 

cordial, {invigorating, q. v.) mooquwwee, poosht, 
moofurrih, dil-kcosha, mun-hoolasee, dil-ufza, 
V. agreeable, jiguree, v. hearty, {sincere, q. v.) 
dilee, qulbee, janee, tuh-dil, v. warm. 

a cordial, duwa,e mojquwwee, juwarish, yaqoo- 
tee, pi. mooquwwiyat, 

cordiality,, sudaqut, gurum-joshe^ t. 

cordially, bu-sur o chushm, bu-dil, shuoq-ae, 
gurum joshee> &c. -se. 




core, duroonu, undur, (of a sore) keel, v. heart, 
coriander (seed) dhuniya, kishneez, (ihe plant) 

cork, (of a bottle) dhutha, gutta, thenthee, sholu, 

V. plug. ''' jr.rMr 

to cork, dutana, v. to shut. 

cormorant, mahee-geer, moosh-geer, chooh-mar, 
chhein kurnee, dhobiya, cheelh, v. glutton. 

corn, unaj, un, ghullu, danu, (green) khood, zi- 
*a,ut j V. standing, grain, (on the feet) gokh- 
roo, gutta, ghutha, thela, v. wart, (land) kisht- 
zar, jyonar, v. field (pipe) phonphee. 

to corn, (meat) numuk-mulna. 

cornelian, uqeeq, yumunee, agin puthur, jigurce. 

corner, kona, goshu, koonj, khoont, ulung, tiiruf, 
kondur, kola, kuola, pulla, antur, (of the nail) 
kor, (of the eye) ko,a, v. angle. 

cornerwise, kona kanee, tirkus. 

cornet, from qurna,e, a trumpet, q. v. (ofhwrse) 
ulum-burdar, jumu-dar, v. ensign. 'Vc ',v. . 

eornetter, qurnaiC-nuwaz. .v»«»-rji 

cornfield, khet, muzru. 

dornice, kungnee, seenka, qurnus, moondochh, 
kugur, V. edge. 

cotollary, nuteeju, usur. 

coronation, jooloos, ubishekh, teeka. , 

coronet, taj. 

corporal, adj. budunee, dehee, v. corporeal. 

a corporal, (among the English) na,ek, iimul- 
dar. Among the natives these words have a 
very different meaning; in their armies, a 
dufu-dar answers to our serjeant, and is the 
lowest officer they have. 

Wtporate, mcnttufiq, ek-dil. ■■.*'un / 
corporation, firqu, juma|Ut, guroh, jutha, dul, 

thok, V. body, 
corporeal, jismanee, sureeree. 
corps, (of troops) riisalu, guroh, ghol, v. army, 
corpse, nioordu, lash, moO|a, loth, jeefu, mirtuk, 

mueyut, matee, v. carcass, earth, (washer) 
mojrdu-sho. :t^» i5>fj{.--t«an 5ti»«n»j»TO- v 

corpulence, corpulency, jusamut, motflpa, furbihee, 

corpulent, mota, juseern, furbih, tun-awur, ton- 
dala, usthool, motukkur, doohra, yul, dhum- 
dhoosra, dhondha, bhussur, tonduela, v. bulky. 

corpuscle, zurru, rezu, unoo. 

correct, suhceh, soodh, dooroost, burjustu, mur- 
boot, tuhqeeq, saf, v. fair, just, certain, accu 
rate. fi^ts't •v.\<^- 

to correct, (punish,q.\.) tumbeeh- tadeeb-k. or -d. 
chunjra-bunana, sansna, rok tok-k. chhuthee 
ka doodh yad-dilana, v. to chastise, sadhna, 
V. to rectify, (to amend) suheeh- theek-k. (to 
temper) moo,utudil-k. islah-d.  \;v ,'i' 

correction, (ptmishment, q.v.)i]izab, ooqbobut, siya- 
sut, (amendment, q. v.) tus,heeh, sihhut, sodh, 
arastugee, islah, v. reprehension, (house of) 
hurn-baree. . x- 4/j£ -tyys.'f <v'>>i'.>^^>r^ 

correctly, sihhut-se. '.»•/.»« t^»<{«ind .Nft-itwrniiiO'^. 

correctness, sihhut, sodh. 

a corrector, sihhut rusan, sadhunhar, uolokee, v. 
reviser, punisher, (in wi^cZicme)marug,mcDslih, 
whence musallh, (vulg. mu^ala) spices, mate' 

rials.  »>(»Aiti 1^* fitiutrUt^ ■^i3'ri^,\T^\\mi .4»^i 

correlative, lazim-mulzoom, lazim ool izafut, 
hum nisbut, hum murja, puruspur sumbund, 
V. reciprocal. 

correlativeness, looZoom, moolazumu. 

to correspond, milna, burabur- eksan- theek- 
&c. -h. ulaqu- &c. -r. baz-khana, buethna, 
lugna, V. to agree, (to answer, q. v.) mooqa- 
bil- juwab-h. (by letter) khutt kitabut- &c. -r. 
V. tojit. !ioi-o9fj.:{ ,«triuic 

correspondence, correspondency, moowafuqut, moo 
nasubut, iilaqu, tu,ullooq, tuwafcoq, tutabooq, 
mootabuqut, luga,o, mooshabuhut, tushbeeh, 
sunsurg, v, connexion, bidhmilee, v. equality, 





simility, (intercourse, q. v.) rah-rusm, sabiqu, 
byohar, (by letter, q. v.) khutt-kitabut, nu- 
wisht-khwand, cliithee-puttur, icosl rusa,il, 
likhun purliun, khutt khootootj likha purhee, 
nam o puyani, moorasulu. 
correspondent, adj. nioowafiq, mootabiq, burabur, 
eksaii, mooshabil), ekhec, sumaii, mounasib, 
la,iq, theek, v. suitable, 
correspondent, arliutlya, ulaqu-dar, byoLuriya, 

ashua, v. lender. 
corrigible, nuseehut-puzeer, soodharoo, sudhnejog, 

V. putii-ahable. 
corroboraiit, mooquwwee, poosbt.' 
to corroborate, qoowwut- zor- bul-d. muz.boot-, 
poosht- porlia-k. (to confirm, q. v.) mudud-k. 
ta,eed- tuqwiyut- pooshtee-d. suinbhabia, tham- 
na, thuhrana, mcuhkuin- moostuhkum- oostoo- 
corro&ora^tow, ta,eed, tuqvviyut, poosbtee, suha,eta 

istuhkam, oostoowai'ee, v. the verb, 
to corrode, katna, khaJena, kha-jana, v. to con- 
corrosion, corrosiveness, kuta,o, boorish, kat, hid- 

dut, V. acrimony, 
corrosive, boorindu, liadd, kat, gula.oo, v. corrup- 
tive, sharp, 
to corrugate, '^Gei\gooTmia,'^hooxiy ana, v. to wrin- 
corrupt, sura, oobsa, fasid, bigra, nakaru, khota, 
rishwut-tulub, gooh-khor, v. bribe, also rotteii, 
to corrupt, surana, oobsana, gulana, puchana, v. 
to spoil, (to vitiate) bigania, khurab-k. (to 
bribe, q. v.) ghoos-d. v. n. surna, oobusna, 
corrupted, (as a word) mookhurrub. 
corrupter, muufsid, bigaroo, naskaree, mookhur- 

corruptible, surne wala, surunhar, funa-puxecr, 

corruption, corruptness, surun, sura,o, gooh kho- 
ree, v. excrement, putrescence, (JillJi.) muel, aloo- 
dugce, koodoorut, (matter) peeb, reem, ula,e 
bula,e, V. pus, stuff, funa, v. putrefaction, 
(perversion, q. v.) tubuddtul, tubdcel, (ivicked- 
ness, q. v.) bud-zatee, khota^ee, (hribery) rish- 
wut-khoree, v. depravity, 
corruptive, sura|00, gula|00, pucha,oo. 
corruptly, (improperly) be-rubtj be-qa,idu, v. vi- 

corselet, cliara.enu, chand, v. breastplate, 
coruscation, chumuk, luoka, v.JUtsh. 
cosmetic, oobtun, ghazu or ghazhu, sondlia, bonk- 

cost, qeemut, mol, buha, sumun, mathe, lag, 
dur,bha o, nirkh,v. rate, price,expence,charge, 
(loss, q. V.) nooqsan, ghata ; at the kiyig's cost, 
padshah ke raathe, v. damage, 
to cost, qeemut-r. or purna, ana, lugna, buethna; 
what did it cost? kete ko aya hue ? it costs ao 
much, coskee etee qeemut hue. 
costive, qubz, bund, bundha, v. hound, 
costiveness, qubziyut, qubz. 
costliness, besh-qeemutee, guran-qeeniutee, gu- 

ran-buha,ee, v. eapensiveness. 
costly, qeemutee, besh-qeemut, giu'an-buha, gu- 

ran-qeemut, v. dear, 
costus, (a shrub) qoust, kooth. 
cotemporary, hum-uhd, hura-iisr, nioO|asir. 
cottage, cot, cote, cJiJiuppur, jhompree, niurhee, 

kootee, koorha, v. hut, bower, 
cottager, kootee-chura, jhonipriya, murhiya. 
cotton, roo,ee, pooinbu, qootn, (tree) kupas, sem- 
bul, also (raw cotton) banga, (seed) binuola, 
poumbu-danu, (silk) sembul kee roo,ee, (card- 
ed) gala, gorha, (old) logur, (cloth) sootee, 
Qn a standish) koorsuf, soof, leeqa, v. tcool, 
E 2 




(carder) nuddaf,v. tocard, (stuffedwith) rO|ee- 
dar, pumbu-dar, {merchant) roo,iya. 
couch, pulung, khat, bank, muhd, {pi. muhood) 
tukht-posh, V. bench, seat, bed, chair, cradle. 
to couch, thehooniyan- or ghootniyan-buethna, 
V. to kneel, {as a beast) dhookkee-marna, {to 
stoop, q. V.) dubuk-ruhna, {to comprise, q. v.) 
lana, rukhna, dhurna ; to couch a spear, tolna. 
couchant, goorbu-nishust. 
cove, kol, kharee, v. bay. 

covenatit, shurt, quol, iqrar, uhd o pueman, hor, 
bacha, iqrar namu, shurt namu, v. agreement, 
{in writing) ulid-namu. 
to covenant, shurt- &c. -b. or -k. 
cover, sur-posh, dhukna, dhupna, dhuknee, {shel- 
ter, q. V.) punah, ar, himayut, {pretence, q. v.) 
buhanu, v. blind, purdu, ot, qjhul, v. curtain, 
chupnee, topnee, v. lid, gutta, v. board {of a 
hook) duftee, putha, {of a letter) lifafu, moond, 
khatn, V. wrapper, {place) ghur, juguh, v. 
to cover, dhampna, dhankna, moondna, orhana, 
jhampna, chhopna, v. to shut, line, bury, {to 
conceal, q. v.) khus posh-k. v. to hide, {to 
shelter) buchana, muhtboz-r. v. to protect, {to 
overspread, q. v.) patna, lesna, leepna, murh- 
na, {to incubate) syona, {to copulate, q. v.) 
lugna, bhurana, bhurna, v. to gild, to silver ; 
send for a horse to cover the mare, ghora man- 
ga.o ghoree bhurane ke waste. 
covered, chhutree-dar, top-dar, v. hooded, ghila- 
fee, V. plated, {to be) chhipna, dhupna, putna, 
bhurna, gurna, v. to sink, secret, to swarm, 
{in comp.) aloodu, whence burf-aloodu, covered 
with snow or ice, v. stained, 
covering, coverlet, poshish, lihaf, bala-posh, ru- 
za,ee, doola,ee, goodree, nihalee, pulung-posh, 
V. dress, blanket, veil, orhna, oopurna, ghuta- 
top, ohar, v. hood, {for a horse) gurdunee. 

jhool, oortuk, awa,ee, v. sheet, {for walls) 
jhamp, purchhutree, chhutree, v. top, roof, 
{for a tray) khancha, v. screen, do putta, ghi- 
laf, khol, V. quilt, 
covert, {thicket) jharee, jhoond, v. cover, secret, 

{feme) sohagun. 
coverture, sohagun puna, v. shelter, 
to covet, laluch-k. tak-b. nuzur-lugana, chahna, 
lulchana, lobhna, tokhna, ankh-churhana, as-, 
dant-r. jee-julana, bud nuzur- bud nigah-k. v. 

covetousness, to desire. Vi*- ■.• 

covetous, lalchee, lobhee, tami, bhookha, hirsee, 
chushm zukhm, hirsee-tuttoo, usum bhaph-ee, 
bud nuzra, v. niggardly, avaricious, 
covetously, laluch-se. i. 

covetousness, laluch, lobh, hirs, tumu, huoka, 

bud-nigahee, tumunna, v. avarice, 
covey, {a hatch) jhol, pal, v. brood, {Jlqck) 

jhoond, ghol, v.Jlight. 
cough, khansee, khokhee, scD,al, khoor, khooree, 

soorhooree, khung, dhansee, soorfu. 
to cough, khansna, khonkhna, dhansna, khung- 
na, khunkharna, v. to expectorate ; to cough 
up, khunkhar-d. 
could, suka ; could he not go ? wooh nu chul su- 

ka? V. can. 
coulter, phar, nusee. 

council, mujlis, subha, puncha,et, juma,ut, kuch- 
uhree; a general council, deewan i am; a privy 
council, deewan i khass. 
counsel, nuseehut, pund, puramursh, ra,e, v. ad- 
vice, prudence, muta, oopdes, kuhna-soonna, 
kingash, v. direction, mut, tujweez, munsoobu, 
V. opinion, bhed, v. intention ; to ask counsel, 
musluhut-poochhna, mushwurut-lena ; to keep 
one''s own counsel, upna bhed chhipana, v. to 
consult, also secret, art, design, 
to counsel, mushwurut-d. sikhlana, kuhna, v. to 
advise, counsel. 




counsellor, moosheer, sulah-kar, musluhutee, pu- 
ramurshee, nasih, moodubbir, muntur-ce, pi. 
rausaluh, v. lawyer, (confida7it) muhrum-raz. 

count, beg, khan, v. lord, lady. 

to count, ginna, shoomar- ti.udad- hisab- gin- 
tee-k. rukhna, janna, jorna, minna, v. to rec- 
kon, (6ead#) jupna,purhna,(fty thejinger joints) 
uqd or giruh unamil-k. v. to esteem. 

counted, shoomaree, v. to number. 

countenance, chihru, roo, moonh, mc»kli, mco- 
khra, soorut, shubahut, qiyafu, rung roop, 
ariz, rookhsaru, deedar, \. face, mien, appear- 
ance, (^patronage, q. v.) roodaree, rooyut, 
mihr-banee, tuwujjooh, shufqut, v. protection, 
(impudence, q. v.) goostakhee, shokhee, v. con- 
Jidence; to be outofcou7itenance,shunnindu-h. 

to countenance, moonh-d. mihr banee-k. qudur 
danee-k. v. to patronisse. 

countenancer, hamee, moorubbee, puchhee. 

counter, shoomaree, v. piece, mookhalif, v. con- 
trary, (board) tukhtu, (of a m,erchant) tat, 
whence tat colutna, v. to break, (contra) in 
comp. is commonly expressed by khilaf, bur- 
khilaf, ooha, pur, &c. but not so easily nor 
so neatly combined as in English, which some 
of the following examples will clearly prove, 
V. anti, dis, vn. 

td cmmteract, oolta-byapna, katna, torna, v. to 

to counterbalance, burabur- udl-k. hum wuzn-k. 
V. to balance, evidence. 

counter-charm, tona pur tona, kat, oolta, tor. 

counterfeit, «</;. jhootha,qulb, ju,ul, libasee, ju,ul- 
ya, tughulloobee, tuqleedee, khota, bhuglee, 
nuqlee, dughul, v. impostor, deceitful, forger, 

to counterfeit, nuql-k. tuqleed-k. bhes-k. dikhla- 
na, bhugul-k. v. to sham, to imitate, (to forge. 

q. V.) hbasec-bunana, tughulloob-k. (to pre- 
tend) buhanu-k. 

to countermand, pher- pulut- budul-d.munsookh-, 

countermarch, kooch muqam, era phcree, budla- 

to countermarch, kawa dekhe phirna. 

countermine, soorung neeche soorung, nuqb-zer 
nuqb, oolta soorung, v. mine. 

countermure, deewar pechhe deewar, ar pur ar. 

counterpane, pulung-posh, whence palampore. 

counterpart, a,eenu, juwab, jora, pulla, v. mutch, 
fellow, mooqabil, mel, v. copy. 

counterjmse, (in weighing) dhura, aheenda, hum- 
sung, mooqabil, v. countercharm. 

to counterpoise, sumbhalna. 

counterpoison, bikh-mar, v. antidote. 

counterscarp, pooshtu. 

countersign, boojhawa. 

counting-house, duftur-khanu, hisab-khanu. 

countless, be-shoomar, un-ginut. 

country, moolk, wilayut, des, bhcom, duyar, kish- 
wur, mumlukut, deep, v. region, gunwee, 
ganw, guohan, jungul, muedan, bun, v. rustic, 
(native) wutun, junum-bhcnm, (opposed to 
town) utraf, juwar, nuwah, suwad, dihat, be- 
roonjat, moofussul, bahur; the language of the 
country (opposed to toivn) baliur kee bolee. 

country, adj. desee, dihqanee, bahuree, beroonee, 
V. rural. 

countryman, gunwar,gunwela,dihqan, (farmer) 
kisan, dihatee, ruosta,ee, v. clown, wutunee, 
deswal, hum- or ek -(juoni, -zat or -jins, des- 
bha,ee, v. fellow, ru,ueyut. This last, pro- 
perly speaking, means a subject. A fellow- 
countryman, hum-moolk, hum-wutun, ek-de- 
see, su- desee. 

county, chukla, surkar, zilu, v, province. 

coup de soleil, aftab zudugee. 




couple, jora, jooft, zuoj, do, donon, v. pair. 

to couple, jorna, sumbundh-k. bandhna, v. to 
Joint, {to marry, q. v.) guth bundhun-k. v. n. 
joorna, jooft-khana. 

coupht, buet, shi.ur, furd, doha, sortha, chuo- 
pa,ec, arjan, {\st.) mutlu, mungla churn, 
(2d) hoosn-mutlu, {last) muqtu, chhemapun. 

courage, shabash ! v. bravo. 

courage, courageotisness, dileree,murdangee,bu- 
hadooi-ee, murdoomee, soorma-pun, anban, jod- 
ha-pun, hlmmut, v. boldness, &c. jusarut, 
jigur, kuleja, (lit. the liver) gcnrdu, (lit. the 

nffurageous, diler, buha-door, murdanu, dllawur, 
juwanmurd, sliooja,u, juree, soor, jodha, beer, 
V. bold, intrepid. 

courageously, dileree- &c. -se, dileranu. 

courier, qasid, puck, hur-karu, duoruha, namu- 

course, duor, duput, v. career, {progress, q. v.) 
ruftar, v. passage, {of a river) buha,o, dhara, 
jiriyan, v. current, {race ground) ghoor duor, 
muedan, {tvay, q. v.) rah, rastu, leek, v. track, 
(succession) budlee, baree, v. train, {manner, 
q. V.) tureeq, subeel, {catavienia) huez, ruj, 
V. menses, {of medicines) mundul, phera, duo- 
ra, churkh, v. turn, {at table) purosun, v. 
custom,{(onduct, q.y.)c\m\dhal,chu\iin,dhung, 
luchhun, V. regularity, {series) surishtu, silsi- 
lu, V. order, during; of course, {undoubtedly) 
be-shoobhu, be-shuk, mcoqurrur, v. bent, cer- 
tainly, {words) bura,e buet, bat kee bat, sum- 
urqundee, v. compliments, {surely) uor kya, 
kyoon nuheen, v. tilt. 

to course, {to hunt, q. v.) shikar-k. rugedna, khu- 

derna, duorna, v. to rove, buhna, v. tojlow. 
courser, bad-pa, goA goon, shubdez, sumcond. 
court, {palace) duolut-khanu, bargah, durgah, 
durbar, qusr, da,iru-duolut, tukht-gali, oordoo. 

bar, hoozoor, v. criminal, {of justice) udalut, 
muhkumu, kuchuhree, v. tribunal, {council, 
q. V.) deewan i am, deewan i khass, v. assem- 
bly, {yard, q. v.) chuok, jiluo-khanu, ung- 
na,ee, ukhara, charsoo, kutra, chuohutta, v. 
circus, {retinue) hushum o khudum, v. train; 
the members of a court, urbab i udalut, uhl i 
mujlis. ,'ri? '■■>< ^iur " 

to court, {to ask in marriage) mungnee-k. (to 
woo, q. V.) ishq bazee-k. {to solicit, q. v.) 
chahna, durkhwast-k. v. to seek, {a quarrel, 
&c.) mol-lena, {death) murun punkhee-lugna, 
V. to solicit, durbar-k. khooshamud- buramud- 
-k. V. to flatter. 

courteous, courtly, nek-nihad, uhl, khnosh-ukhlaq, 
adheen, milunsar, numur, mootuwazi, moohuz- 
zub, zahir-dar, ghureeb nuwaz, v. courtier, 
{language) duree, v. polite, affable, attentive. 

courteously, khoolq- &c. -se. 

murdoomee, nek-nihadee, zahir-daree, mooda- 
ra, iltifat, mootuwwut, Icotf, awa-bhugut, adur, 
ugut-bhut, tu,uzeem, tuwazoo,ii, mUunsaree, v. 
complaisance, {ki?idness) nuwazish, v. favour, 

courtesan, kusbee, (lit. a trader,) kunchunee, 
bagumee, tuwa.if, lolee, gunika, samanya, be- 
siya, patiu', ba,ec, upchhura, v. prostitute, {de- 
mirep) khan-gee, v. whore, &c. 

courtier, durbaree, hcozoorce, moojrUiCe, pad- 
shah-rus, doonya-saz, y. time-server, sycophant. 

courtship, ashiqee, ishq-bazee, v. amour, love. 

cousin, umma- or khalu-zad- or -ee, v. relative, 
{male) chuehera- moomera- phoophera- muo- 
sera, also khulera- or khalatee-bjia,ee, {fe- 
male) chucheree- &c. -buhin, v. aunt, uncle. 

cow, guo, ga,e, dhenoo, goroo, gokhree, guela, 
kupila, osir, soorhee, kam dhen. 

to coiv, dubana, dhumkana, v. to depress. 




coward, durpokna, boozdil, na-murd, heez, hetha, 
kum-jcor-ut, pad-ghabra, duraloo, kadur, ka,cr, 
bhagora, geedur, hureela, mrorghec, hiclikara, 
lendec, shumsher buhadoor, v. fugitive, pol- 
cowardice, cowardliness, bojz-dilec, na^murdec, 

joobn, hetba-pun. 
cowardly, booz-dila, namurda, v. coward, 
cow-butter, gawa ghee, opposed to bhuensa, 
cow-dung, gobur, gomue, sungeen, v. dung, (dry) 
go,intha, opla, kursee, urna, kunda, chipree, 
awaree, kurunda, pachuk, pathwaii, binwa, 
to cower, kookriyana, v. to cringe, 
cow-herd, go,ala, uheer, guddec, ghosee, gopal, 

V. shepherd, 
cow-house, sar, gosala, guo,al-baree. 
cow-itch, kuwandi, ko,ancb, khujwut. 
cow-killer, zabih ool buqur. 
cowl, from koolab ? taj, topee, v. cap, (jstujf) 

singra, v. bucket, 
cow-pox, go thun seetula, v. Hindoostanee Dia- 
logues, 2d edit. p. 219, where this noble dis- 
covery of Dr. Jenner is fully explained, and 
translated into the Hindoostanee language. 
coxcomb, (a boaster, q. v.) laf-zun, khood-been, 
khrod-nooma, v. comb, fop; the co-vccmibjlower, 
taj i khuroos, gool-kes, juta masec, v. ama^ 
coy, shurmeela, shurm-geen, wuhiShee, chuokel, 
bhurkel, chunchul, be-mooruwwut, be-seel, v. 
reserved, &c. 
coyness, hijab, laj, shurm, huya, wuh.shutj be- 

to cozen, chhulna, thugna, dugha-d. 
cozenage, dugha-bazee, tjiuga,ec, v. fraud, 
crab, kekra, gegta, surtan, v. cancer, korkurha, 
khutchung, (louse) chichree, {j»angoe) umra, 
V. iinld. 
crabbed, chirchira, toorsh-roo, julturung, toond- 

kho, dooroosht-kho, ootkuth, v. morose, (torit- 

ing) kenkraha, bud-khutt, v. harsh, difficult. 

crabbed?iess, toorsh-roo.ce, ta)nd-kho,ee, jultiirun« 

crack, (chink, q. v.) durz, durka, shuq,v.breach, 
(fissure) bal, khutt, (sound, q. v.) kuruk, 
kurkurahut, kuraka, chutaka, much-mucho' 
hut, V. the verb, cheer, v. rent, 
to crack, v. a. turqana, pharna, chitkana, durka- 
na, toma, phutkarna, mama; don't crack your 
jokes on me, hum pur thutha nu maro ; (crac- 
kle) muchmiichana, murmurana, kurkurana, 
murukna, kurukna, bhurbhurana, mootmoo- 
rana, phusphusana, (tlie fingers) chootkee-bu- 
jana, v. to snap, (the joints) mutkana, chut- 
kana, (a louse) chut-mamaj v. to break, burst, 
craze; v. n. turuqna, phutna, chitukna, du- 
rukna, tootna, kootukna, phootna, bal-ana, 
bhurukna, churukna, v. to split, (with a Imtd 
sound) kurukna ; to crack a whip, chabook- 
phutkarna, v. to crackle, boast. > 

crack-brained, khooshk-mughz, v. crazy, 
cracked, phoota, jurjura, khokhra, mootlar, ba- 

lee, dumgeer, v. broken, 
cracker, putakha, luokee, singhara, v. boaster, 

niorra, v. squib, 
to crackle, chitukna, churchurana. 
crack rope or hemp, to be a, do hath rusee gun- 

cradle, hindola, pingoora, palna, or pelna, guh- 
wara, muhd, dhoolwa, v, lifter, also stocks, i 
craft, (trade, q. v.) hirfu, kam, ooddini, (fraud, 
q. V.) dugha, fitrut, v. ctimii^, huth-khunda, 
V. /tandicraft. 
craftily, fitrut- S:c. -se. 

craftiness, fuelsooseo, mukkaree, roobubazcc, v. 
deceiffuhiees, > 

craftsman, karee-gur, uhli-peshn, " ' 

crafty, ucyar, fitrutce, fuelsoof, (lit. a philoso- 




pher) mukkar, mcotufunnee, syana, nutkhut, 
crag, kurara, urara. 
cragged, craggy, oonch-neech, nusheb-furaz, oon- 

cha-khalee, behur, v. rough, 
craggedness, cragginess, na-humwaree. 
to cram, thasna, dubana, chhukana, nigulna, 
bhur-marna, dhoosna, thoosna, v. to thrust, 
to stuff, to gormandise, 
crambo, qafiyu bazee. 

cramp, ukurba,ee,tushunnooi, ba,ee, (whence, ba,ee- 
mun,ka, an amulet against it) ; to have the cramp, 
tidwana, uenthna, v. to contract, spasm, (con- 
straint, q. V.) utka,o, sudd, mani, bund, qued, 
{of iron) keela, v. clamp. 
to cramp, ukrana, thithrana, (restrain, q. v.) 

burujna, baz-r. v. to confine, 
crane, (bird) ghongla, luglug, sarus, koolung, 
koonj, qurquru, kankh, v. adjutant, cliurkh, 
theka, v. instrument, 
cranium, khopree, kasu. 
cranny, durar, durka, v. crevice. 
crape, kupur-dhoor. 
crapulence, khoomar. 
crapulent, bud-huzm. 
crapulous, mukhmoor. 

crash, dhuraka, hurhurahut, khurkhurahut. 
to crash, dhurdhurana, hurhurana, v. to crush, 
cravat, gooloobund, properly a bib, or napkin, 

q. V. 
to crave, mangna, chahna, durkhwast- tulub- isti- 
da-k. V. to long, (food) untriyan qool hoo- 
■wullah-purhna, v. to importune, 
craving, (appetite) huoka, dhoon, dhuonj, v. vo- 
to craunch, chabna, chabhut-parna, v. to crush, 
craw, onda, jhoj, pota, cheenu dan, peta, huosi- 

lu, V. stomach, crop. 
craw-Jish, jheenga, v. prawn. 

to crawl, ringna, loorhna, sursurana, ghisukna, 

ghiskuriyon- hath panw se-chulna, (about) 

ringta-phirna, v. to wander, to creep. 

to craze, (crack the brain) deewanu- &c. -k. 

buorana, bhuwana, v. mad, (to weaken, q. v.) 

natuwan- zUiCef- nuqeeh-k. ^v)M;,^t^,5J■a«te^^)itJ.l ,. 

craziness, (imbecility, q. v.) zoo,uf, nuqahut, ha- 

tuwanee, na-qoowutee, (of intellect) khulul- 

dumagh, khurafut, inkhiraf, v. madness. 

crazy, zu,eef, door-bul, v. feeble, moonkhurif, 

huwas-bakhtu, v. mad. • iflujin.ou, 

to creak, churchurana, kirkirana, ghui'rana, chur- 
rana, chihikna, choon choon-k. jhunkarna, v. 
to crack. •■>> }:'\'' f--t\\ii' » 

cream, mula,ee, sarhee, sheer-mayu, chhalee, su- 
risheer,v. essence, (colour) shirghu, (best part) 
tcohfu, tumasha, Icotf; the cream of a jest, lu- 
teefe ka lootf ; and the cream of it is, o toohfu 
to yih hue. 
to cream, mula,ee-ootarna. 
crease, shikun, cheen, koonjluk, choonut. 
to crease, shikun- &c. -d. torna, mumorna, mu- 

chorna, shikunnana, v. to rumple, 
to create, pueda- &c. -k. bunana, kurna, hust-k. 
sirijna, birunchna, ootpun-k. v. to form, to 
make, dalna, bona, v. to produce, cause, invest, 
created, pueda, mukhlooq, ufreedu, ootput. 
creation, pueda|ish,afreenish,afreen, khulq, khil- 
qut, kaijnat, ootput, srisht, khulq-oollah, v. 
world, universe, 
creator, khahq, kurtar, afreenindu, afreedgar, 
bidhna, kurta, burmha, birunchee, bidhata, 
sirjinhar, khullaq, wajid, ootputee. 
creature, mukhlooq, keera, khulq, pi. khula,iq, 
mukhlooqat, v. animal, also being,person, (de- 
pendant) klya, bundu, purwurdu, v. slave, 
created, jan-wur, junt, jee,oo, huewan, jee,a- 
junt, (minion, q. v.) luga lipta, v. wretch ; a 
rationalci'eature, huewani natiq; an irrational 




creature, huewan i ghuer-natiq, huewan i moot- 

credential, sunud, dustawez, purteet-putur, wi- 
kalut-namu, pi. usnad, v. warrant. 

credibility, i,utibar, nia3,utuburee, bishwas, v. 

credible, moo,utubur, inoo,utumud, qabili i,utibar, 
i.utibaree, soonne jog, bawur puzeer, putiyaiOO, 

 mannee, la,iq i|Utimad, v. probable. 

credit, {belief, q. v.) i,utiqad, nishchue, i.utimad, 
bhurosa, (esteem, q. v.) bhurum, sakh, (repu- 
tation, q.v.) qudr, wuzn, put, (testimony, ci.v.) 
sakhee, eeman, v. faith, (opposed to debt) ood- 
har, nusiyu, warn, (i?i/luence) ikhtiyar, kuha- 
soona, V. promise, interest, (in account) moojra, 
pueth, V. entry, purteet, v. trust, (mercantile) 
sahoo-puna, tat, pet, v. character; a letter of 
credit, chithee-i,utibaree ; to have one''s credit 
at stake in any affair, pugree-utukna, bat-ruh- 
na, V. honour ; on credit, qurzee, oothan, v. 

to credit, (believe, q. v.) manna, putiyana, soon- 
na, yuqeen-lana, v. to lend, borrow, (in ac- 
counts) jumu- &c. -k. ; as these terms like our 
own seem inverse, v. below, (to trust) bhuro- 
sa- &c. -r. (to do honour) hoormut- ruonuq- 
&c. -d.; to lender give on credit, oodhar- rin-, 
warn- qurz-d. qurzim- ariyutun-d.; to take on 
credit, oodhar- &c. -lena. 

creditable, moo.utubur, i,utlbaree,roo-dar,bhunn- 
ala, qomdu, sahib-huesiyut, soorkh-roo, purtee- 
tee, V. reputable, honourable. 

creditableness, roo-daree, moo,utuburee, v. credit. 

creditably, ba-i,utibar, ba-hoormut, qudr- Stc. -se. 

creditor, qurz-khwah, sadh, byohuriya, dhunee, 
(side of an account) jumu or khurch, v. debtor, 

credulity, sadu-dilee, bhola,ee, suree.u ool i.utiqa- 
dee, V. simplicity. 

credulous, suree,u ool i.utiqad, zu.cef i,utiqad, sa- 
du-dil, bhola, v. simple. 

creed, kulimu, niuzhub, ga,itree, sawitree, sundh- 
ya, V. belief, religion. 

creek, kol, (cove) kjharee, kolkec, v. alley, bay. 

to creep, reengna, v. to insinuate, (to spread) pu- 
suma, V. to crawl, (as vines) bondna, phuelna, 
(to move slowly) ahistu-cliulna ; to creep out, 
nikulua; to creep in, ghoosna, v. to bend, fawn, 

creeper, (plant) bel, lata. 

creephole, rukhnu-furebee, asra, v. subterfuge. 

creeping, (animals) hushrat oul urz, v. slow. 

creepingly, ahistu, dheeme, rcengte hoo,e, kench- 

to'crepitate, chircbirana. >iS 

crepitation, chirclnrahut. 

crepuscle, shufuq, uroon. 

crescent, hllal duor, cband, (semilunar) liilalee, 
namee, birdhnian, v, to grow. 

cress, cresses, (garden) halim, turu tezuk, chun- 
soor, V. water-cresses. 

crest, tcnrru, tughmu, v. arms, plume, tuft, (hel- 
met) khod, (of a snake) phun, kuf-chu, v. cou- 
rage, chonda, choora, jecglui, kulgliec, taj, v. 

crested, phunee, phunuela, kufchu- &c. -dar, v. 

crest-fallen, na-oammed, ni-ras, mayoos ; to be 
crest-fallen, dum-kfiajana, v. dejected. 

crevice, durz, shigaf, ruozun, soorakh, v. cleft. 

crew, bheer, sbuetanee lushkur, kaga ruol, ku- 
■wakuchet, jhoond, v. pack, (of a ship) uhl i 
juhaz, juhazcc, dandee wandee, v. people, com- 
pany, to crow. 

crib, (for fowls) tapa, v. coop, than, v. stall, 
churun, khoorlee, gonr, v. trough. 

crick, kuchuk, moorook, v. sprain. 




cricket, jheengoor, ghrorghoora, (game) go-bazee, 

go,e-chuogan, huburdooi>» . *- »«' 
crier, dhindhoriya, dholiya,moonadee, (to prayers) 

moowuzzin or moo,uzzin. 
crime, goonah, pap, upradh, tuqseer, khuta, usi- 

yan, jojrm, uogoon, ghat, udhurm, putiwaiC, 

ugh, zumb, buzu, bizu, v. favlt. 
criminal, adj. mu,uyoob, nar-mu,uqool, ughee, 

mooznib, bizugar, shunee.u, (not civil) fuoj- 

daree, v. court, had. 
a criminal, goonah-gar, papee, bud-kar, asee, tuq- 

seer-war, upradhee, moojrim. 
criminality, goonahgaree, mu,usiyut, v. guilt, 
to criminate, goonahgar-thuhrana, v. to charge, 
crimp, moormoora, v. crisp, 
crimson, urghuwanee, qirmizee, soorkh, ubbasee, 

sooha, lal, v. red, piyazee, v. pink, 
cringe, sijdu, furashee sulam, qudum-bosee, tus- 

leem, v. bow; a cringing fellow, kha,e-burdar, 

to cringe, chaploosee- lujajut- sumajut- khoosha- 

mud- khaiC burdaree- jigee-k. sukoochna, v. 

to crouch, to truckle, 
cringer, tusleemee, jarob-kush, lund dhurwa, v. 

parasite. '' .'•••>"{', .nhr-iuij ,y'^\ 

cripple, lungra, lung, loola, pungoo, loonj, ku- 

ruk-janghee, u-urij, v. lameness, 
to cripple, lungrana, lung-k. 
crippleness, lungra,ee, lung. 
crisis, (of a disease) boohran, (lieight) kumal, 

moona, v. period, nick, end. 
crisp, crispy, (friable) koorkoora, choorchcora, v. 

to crisp, sikoorna, uenthna, v. to curl. 
criterion,nishan, ulamut, puh,chan, usr, v. mark. 
cn7«c, waqif-kar, duqeequ-sunj, bareek-been, mo- 

huqqiq, nooktu-dan, v. judge, nooktu-cheen, 

khoordu-geer, khoordu-been, hurf-geer, moo- 

shigaf, sookhun-cheen, v. adept, carper, cen- 
surer. {»*•', 

critical, (accurate, q. v.) soorta, moo-shigaf^ nth- 
zook, bareek, v. important, nice, (from crisis) 
bojhranee, bahooree ; at the critical time, uen 
wuqt pur, V. captious. .^^^AlAw>^^rH\ 

critically, sihhut- diqqut- &c. -se, (a propos) 
bur-wuqt, rien-wuqt, bur-muhul. 

to criticise, khmrdubeenee- &c. -k. (to animad- 
vert) dokhna, ilzara-d, gilu-k. khoordu- Sic. 
-pukurna, v. to object, to censure. '*^^ 

criticism, khoordu-beenee, khciordti-geeree, nook- 
tu-cheenee, duqeequ-sunj ee, nooktu-danee, ueb- 
jo,ee, hurf-geeree, V. animadversion, remark, 
nuqqadee, v. censure, tus,heeh, v. correction, 

croak, ghonghon, burburahut, koorkooraliut. 

to croak, ghonghon-k. ghurghon-k. turtoon-k. 
(to mtirmur) niniyana, (as the belly) qurqur-k. 
V. to rumble, to caWy (to growl, q. v.) ghoon- 
ghoonana. -lO .'^iViW) «f> v. 

croaker, dhudhuchhuree, v. grumbler. •W'»i> 

crocodile, mugur, grab, (tears) bughelee-muya, 
kuth-rona, goorbu ruhmee, i. e. cafs mercy, 
V. alligator. 

croft, sa,ir, kola, v.Jield, yard, v iiw** k-m . 

croisade, ghuza, jihad. 

crony, lungotiya yar, yarghar, dooganu, v. inti- 
mate, comrade. 

crook, luktee, lukotiya, unksee, lungsee, uen- 
thun, bul, V. twist, khoondee, v. hook, (mean- 
der) bank, pher, (bend) khum, kujee. 

to crook, V. a. terha-k. luchana, luchkana, nu- 
wana, jhookana, khumana, uenthana, beengna, 
V. to warp, V. n. luchna, nuona, luchukna, 
jhookna, V. to bend. 

crook-backed, koozu-poosht, koobra, moonhunee. 

crooked, terha-banka, khum, khum-dar, kuj, bul- 
dar, terha bera, ungush bungush, beenga, bin- 




ga, bukur, benka, kiiumecdu, v. ifregular, 
perverse. A.^.^,.., || 

crookedly, kujee- 8ec. -se, v. the adj. 

crookedness, tcrha,ee, khum, kujee, v. ereoib. 

crook-necked, kuj-gurdun. .nUuwcw '^rni^i 

crop, onda, v. craw, (com) unaj, ghullu, v. 
grain, (product, q. v.) fusl, root, v. harvest, 
kuta,ee, oopja, v, produce, (head) qulmec, 
bubree, (eared) kun-kuta, v. earless. 

to crop, khontna, clihantna, katna, turashna, ku- 
tuma, torna, nochna, v. to pluck, toonga-k. v. 
to browse, to gather, mow. 

cropper, gola, v. pigeon. 

cropsick, mukhmoor, v. crapulence. 

cross, chuleepa, sulceb, quenchee, chuopara, pet- 
kata, cheera, trisool, (vewation, q. v.) hadisu, 
qubahut, khulul, khuraba, khundit, v. plague. 

cross, (tranverse, q. v.) ara, v. oblique, (adverse, 
q. V.) uondha, (perverse, i{.\.) mugra, sur- 
kush, huthee, muchla, v. untractable, (peev- 
ish) chirchira, v. fretful, (unfortunate) kum- 
bukht, V. across, (Itreed) doglila, jilierphar, 
galut, V. intermarriage, to interchange. 

to cross, (to lay across) ara- &c. -lugana, (to pass 
over) nanghna, ooturna, goozur- tue- qoboor-, 
par-k. (a river) parhee-d. or -khana, v. to 
transport, (a breed) doonusla-k. v. mungrel, 
clieenia, v. to intersect, (to thwart, q. v.) moo- 
zahumut-k. niunu-k. ra,egan- burbad-k. v. to 
obstruct, (to cancel, q. v.) qulum- kheenchna, 
qulum-marna, kat-d. (to lie across) katna, 
qati-h. v. to contradict. 

cross-bow, ghcold, v. bow. 

crosser, harij, v, adversary. 

cross-grained, rookha, roohra) v. crabbed, also 

crossly, zid-se, bur-khilaf, v. cross. 

cross7iess, (perveraeness, q. v.) huth, zid, uks, v. 

crost-way, chuo-ralia ; a cross wind, bad i moo- 
knalii. ,i,« l*^'** 

crotchet, tuning, v. conceit. 

to crouch, dubuk-buethna, panw-puma, bath-jor^ 
na, V. to cringe, stoop, faum. 

croup, doomguzu, sokha, (of a horse) poodle, 
shoorwal, v. rump. iiuA  

crow, kuowa, kag, zagb, ghoorrab, khug, ktig- 
wa, dom kuwa, kaga, (young) kugcla, (lever) 
oghura, slngra, gudala, sabul, (of a cock) bang. 

to crow, bang-d. (to bluster, q. v.) phoolphoolana, 
ghccrfish-k. shekhee-bugharna, v. to vapour. 

crowd, bheer, juma,qo, izhdiham, cliupqoolish, 
umboli, kusrut, thutji, (populace) uwam oon- 
nas, V. collection, concourse, rela, dungul, jum- 
ghut, tjmkthela, ijmu, alum, lushkur, jungul, 
dhara, mela thela, hushr, v. multitude, tumult, 
mob ; in crowds, gut ka gut, \.Jlock. 

to crowd, V. a. jorna, bhur-d. jumu-k. bhur- 
marna, joomna, bhirna, relna, v. to flock, 
muchmuchana, v. to fill, (to put close) ghuna-^ 
goonjan-k. v. n. (to press on) dubna, joorna, ju- 
rnu-h. bhuma, v. to thrust. 

crowded, mucha-much, khucha-khuch, v. full, 
gurm, ghuddar, v. populous. i.\ 

crow-foot, kagjungee, rijl col ghoorrab. 

crown, taj, ufsur, koolali, mutook, rnuor, v. end, 
(of the head) chandcc, taruk, taluo, tutree, 
mufriq, V. top, (of a hill) chontec, v. garland, 
(of a hat) chunda, v. scull, (money) dccnai^ 
tikkul, V. dollar, (lands) khalisu, khass, kham, 
kuuha, surkaree, v. government. 

to crown, taj-r. (to corner) dhampna, (to adorn) 
ruonuq-d. (to reward) ujr-d. (to finish) turn- 
am- akhir-k. v. to dignify. 

crowned, taj-dar, sahib-taj. .j it.;-ii.> 

crucible, koothalee, ghuriya, bootu, kooDiiya. 

cruciform, sulcebee, ciiulecpa-sa, v. cross. 

to crucify, tusleeb-k. v. to kill, cross. ""' 
S 2 




crude, kuchcha, kham, naqis, na-tumam, (half 
ripe) guddur, v. indigested. 

crudeness, kucha,ee, khamee. 

crudity, bud-huzmee, ujeerun. 

cruel, be-ruhm, sung-dil, sukht, dooroosht,nathur, 

• nithcnr, zalim, be-durd, be-mooruwwut, be- 
mihr, be-muya, kuroorh, kuthor, kurra, si- 
tumgur, khoonee, jullad, v. savage, hard, bar- 
barous, brutal. 

cruelly, be-ruhmee- &c. -se. fRtSi^a^feijurf?; 

cruelty, cruelness, sung-dilee, sukhtee,door ooshtee, 
nithcnraiee, zalimee, be-ruhmee, be-mihree, be- 
mooruwwutee, tu.udee, qussabee, qusawut, v. 
butcher, oppression. 

cruet, sirka-danee, v. vial. 

cruise, piyalee, utr-dan. 

to cruise, phira-k. v. to rove. 

cricmh, tookra, parchu, choor, choorun, rezu, 
choora bhoora, tcokra-tera, v.  bit, (of bread) 
gooda, niughz. •"»=;. tl^'fil-i'-i 

to crumble, choorna, choor choor- choora- rezu 

- rezu-k. mulna, bhoorbhoorana, khurana, v. n. 
khurna,choor-h.v.^ moulder; crumbled bread, 
choorma, muleedu. 

to crumple, mulna, torna, shikun-d. kookna, dul- 
musul-k. jhol-d. V. to crease. 

to crunk, crunkle, qurqur-k. 

crupper, doom-chee. 

crush, duba,o. , ?<v\ //vpiilmri 

to crush, koDchulna, dabna, dubana, musulna, 
choorchoor-k. zer-zerbar-k. torna, v. to over- 
whelm, (to beat down) dhukehia, gira-d. pel-d. 

' V, to depress, ruin. 

crust, pupra, pupree, v. crumb, chhilka, v. skin, 
ka,ee, pheesee, v. fur, (of a pie) purt, (of 
bread) post. 

to crust, purt-d. pupriyana, bhurna, pheesiyana, 
V. to cover ; to gather a crust, muel-buethna, 

crusty, bud-kho, v. crabbed. t4 e^wjWic^a^^ 

crutch, lathee, usa, buesakhee. 

cry, pookar, gohar, hank, chillahut, ghooloo, na- 
lu, giriyu, furiyad, ulghlyas, dooha,ee, fighan, 
zaree, wawuela, kook, pook, bang, hoomus, 
khurosh, v. clamour, (of hawkers, birds, &c.) 
bolee, V. sound, (voice) awaz, suda, v. yell, 

to cry, V. to call, (aloud) pookarna, gohrana, 
hank-mama, awaz-shor-k. (to squall, q. v.) 
chichyana, cheekhna, v. to scream, (to lament) 
nalu- wa,ewuela-k. (to weep) rona, zaree- gi- 
riyu-k. kookna, darna, kandna, ro-pookarna, 
phikurna, duphurna, kurlana, bllukna, hoo- 
musna, rag-k. pookna, (as an elephant) ching- 
harna, chikarna; to cry as an animal, bolna; 
to cry for help, furiyad- fighan- ti- &c. -k. dooha,ee-d. v. to roar, proclaim ; 
to cry down, or cry out against, ihanut-muzum 
mut-k. dokhna, ilzam-d. shikwu- shika,it-k. 
mulamut-k. shurm-dilana, v. to hawk, also de- 
fame; to cry tip, tu,ureef-k. surahna, burhana, 
V. to exalt ; to cry, (sell) bechta-phirna. 

cryer, buhree, v, hawk. 

crying, ro,a,ee, roha rohut, v. lamentation. 

crystal, biluor, kucha heera, (of salts) qulum, 
adj. biluoree, biluoreen, biluor-ka, v. bright, 
(of sugar) dulee, shakh, v. bit, 

to crystallize, v. a. quium-k. v. n. qulum-puma. 

crystallized, qulumee. 

cub, buchchu, pilla, v. whelp, colt. 

cube, ku,ub, ghun, shush puhloo ; a cube root, 
(in arithmetic) juzr. 

cubeb, kubabu, kubab-cheenee, seetul-cheenee. 

cubical, cubic, mookU|Ub, v. square. r%^.W' » i 

cubit, hath, dust. 

cuckold, dueyoos, qultuban, bhurwa, bhar-kha,oo, 
koottun, muchhi^ndur, reesh-ga,o, v. bawd. 
Radha ko yad kuro, is often addressed to 




those who are on the road to cuckoldom, 

though I have yet found no such word as 

cuckold. Bhurwe oot, is used for a cuckoldy, 

or rather wittol wight, in the Gram, page 207, 

to cuckold, dueyoos-bunana, behoormut-k. kulun- 

kee-k. v. to disgrace. The idea of horns, in 

this case, does not exist among the Asiatics, 

who, I believe, have no name for a cuckold, 

unless he be a contented one, v. wittol. 
etickoo, kOiCl, pik, {spittle) kufikahee. 
cucumber, kheera, kukree, khiyar, bad-rung, 

phoot, kuruela, kheksa, pendiya, pindol, pul- 

wul, chichinda, v. melon, 
cud, joogalee, pagcor; to chew the cud, joogalee- 
- &c. -k. pugoorana. 
to cuddle, liput- chimut-ruhna, ghoosmoosana, 

 sutputana, liputke sona. 
cudgel, luth, lukkur, thenga, godra, luketa, puta, 

lukhuotiya, v. club, 
to cudgel, luthiyana, peetna, latha lathee-k. v. to 

cudgeller, lukree-baz, pute-baz, banuet, luth- 

cue, chotee, chootla, chondee, sikha, teek, goonth, 

jad, v. tail, {hint, q. v.) isharu, puta, took- 

ara, v. lesson, (part) da,o ghat. 
cufi tumachu, dhuol, thuppur, chhukkur, chut- 

kuna, v. blow, box, (of the sleeve) kos, mooh- 

to cuff, tumachu- &c. -mama, dhuoliyana, thup- 

rana, v. to thump, 
cuirass, chara,inu, juoshun, v. helmet, 
cuirassier, buktur-posh, v. armour, 
culinary, tubkhee, tubbakhee, mutbukhee. 
to cull, choonna, choogna, binna, biluchna, inti- 

khab-k. v. to select, 
cully, bisnee, chootiya, doodhuel ga,e, sonekee 

chiriya, boka, kootta, v. dupe. 

to cully, thuga,ee-k. fureb- dugha^. v. to cheat. 

culpable, mcojrim, moolzim, dokhee, wajib oot 
tuqseer, v. criminal. 

culprit, gcnnah-gar, papee, v. criminal. 

to cultivate, turuddood- &c. -k. burpa- &c. -k. 
oothana, ooprajna, oopjana, (waste land) khet- 
nikalna, khod khad-k. (arts) palna, v. to pa- 
tronise, sarna, (to improve, q. v.) turbiyut-d. 
arastu- dooroost-k. bunana. 

cultivated, sur-subz, mu,umoor, burpa, abad, oot- 
ha, muzroo.u, puh, pub purtee, (as fruit) ba- 
ghee, V. garden. 

zura.ut, khetce, khetee-baree, kisnu,ee, tiha,ee, 
girhistee, jota,ee, jot, (improvement, q.\.) dcnr- 

cultivator, turuddood-kar. 

to cumber, bhur-d. or -mama, rokna, v. to stuff". 

cumbersome, bharee, puhar, v. troublesome, also 

cumin, zeeru, kumoon. 

cunning, adj. syana, pukka, ueyar, fuelsoof, hee- 
lu-baz, mukkar, hikmutee, mootufunnee, v. 
skilful, clever, shrewd, gurar, char zurb, ulla- 
mu, charkhayu, chutoor, fitrutee, sonar, v. 
artful, (man) jan, goonee, v. cwj/wror.;^'''^''" 

cunning, syan, puk-pun, fuelsoofee, ueyaree, fit- 
rut, roobah-bazee, hikmut, hirfut, ueyar- or 
gee-pun, v. deceit. 

cunningly, fitrut- &c. -se. 

cup, v. jug, piyalu, jam, saghur, kasu, quduh, 
yagh, puemanu, kutor- -a or -ee, sukora, bela, 
meeta, goolabec, khuppur, surwa, (orrery f) 
jam i jumshued, (a beggar's) chumla, (for cup- 
ping) tombree, secngec. 

to cup, seengee-lugana, puchhne-d. pachhna, 
shakh-khuenchana, v. to scarify. 

cup and can,(intimate) piyalu suboo, sheero shu- 
kur, v. jar, can. 




cup-bearer, saqee, jamee, gundhurb, mooghbuchu. 

cup-board, tand, v. pantry. 

cupid, kam, kam-de,o, kandurp, anung, mudun, 

cupidity, kam, arman, shuhwut, v. appetite. 

cupola, goombuz, qoobbu, v. dome. •jf\is\ 

cupper, seengee-wala, shakh-kush. 

cupping-glass, seengee, ghuriya, shakh. 

cups, piyalu-bazee, mue-kushee, v. carousal. 

cur, curtaiUdog, lendee, lundoora, loonda oonda, 
V. dog, kuttur, v. catiff. 

curable, moomkin oosh-shufa, ilaj-pizeer, ghuer- 
moohlik, sadh, shufa-puzeer. 

curb, zuHJeer, kuree, {impediment, q. v.) rok, 
zubt, V. constraint. 

to curb, (a horse) thamna, sumbhalna, qu,ezu-k. 

< lugam-d. thasna, v. to check, (to restrain, q. v.) 

rokna, moozahumut- munu-k. barna, burujna. 

curd, anthee, chukka, chukkan, kho,a, thukka, 
phootkee, pi. chhena, khirsa, joghrat, v. biest- 

to curdle, v. n. jumna, bundhna, buethna, phut-j. 
v. a. jumana, pharna, bandhna, buethalna, 
raoonjumid-k. bilugna, v. to coagulate; cur- 
dled milk, duhee, dogh, 

curdy, anthee-dar. 

cure, {remedy, q. v.) jlaj, oopa,e, moo,aliju, ni- 
ka,ee, dufueya, v. removal, also health, {resto- 
ration of health) shufa, sihhut, aram, mookt ; 
a complete cure, shufa.e kooUee, v. medicine. 

to cure, {the patient) cbunga-k. ucb-chha- bhu- 
la- tundooroost-k. {the disorder) door- rufii-, 
dufu- za,il- saqit-k. shufa- &c. -bukhshna or 
-d. moo,aluju- tudawee-k. oothana, jlaj-k. v. 
to remedy, {wonderfully) i,ujaz museeha-k. v. 
to reanimate, {with salt) numuk-mulna; to he 
cured, chunga- &c. -h. shufa-pana. 
curer, moO|alij, shafee. , ,„i 

curiosities, uja,ib, uja,ib ghura.ib, tuha|if, tooh- 

curiosity, {inquisitiveness, q. v.) raz-jo,ee, tufuh- 
hoos, khoj, kun rus, shuoq, poochh peochhar, 
bisun, rus, v. desire, investigation, accuracy, 
delicacy, {rarity, q. v.) suoghat, toohfu. 

curious, V. scarce, {inquisitive, q. v.) raz-jo, moo- 
tujussis, mcctulashee, khojee, shuoqeen, blsu- 
nee, luoleen, kunora, soongjia, bhediya, moos- 
tufsir, talib, v. enquirer, droll, accurate, atten- 
tive, diligent, {nice, q. v.) wuswasee, doosh- 
war-pusund, {elegant, q. v.) bareek, soobook, 
{rare, q. v.) ujeeb o ghureeb, unootha. 

curioiLsly, {attentively) diqqut- tu,ummool-ghuor- 
se, {neatly) nazookee- nuzakut-se, v. artfully. 

curl, {ringlet, q. v.) kakool, pech, khum, mur- 
gholu, tab, shikun, ghoonghur, ghoorchee, 
ghoonghuree, chhuUa, hulqu, {wave) luhur. 

to curl, tab- pech- &c. -d. uenthna, lupetna, 
goondlee-b. ghooruchna, bul-khana, liputna, 
V. to twist, V. a. ghoorchana, v. to conglome- 
rate. ,.. 

curlew, kurankool, v. water-hen. 

curly, ghoonghrala, pecheela, ghoorchiyaha, pech- 
&c. -4ar, pecheedu, pech dur pech, chhun- 
duola, tab-dar, murgholee. „^ 

curmudgeon, v. hunks, kun-joos, dalidree, wulee- 
khunghur, v. miser. 

currency, ijra, kusrut, v. frequeiicy, {of money) 
chulun, ruwaj, churcha, chal, v. continuance, 
fluency. i, .iirun 

current, ra,! j, jaree, mooruwwuj, ruwan, riwajee, 
chulnee, illahee, v. standard, chulta, nafiz, {as 
money) halee, juloosee, v. present, {language) 
rozmurru, moohawirUjV. customary, {coin) ra,ij 
ool wuqt, chulun-pyara, sikku, {general, q. v.) 
am, mushhoor, akliyat ; tlie current price, nirkh, 
■bha,o, shurh ; the current year, ub ke sal.; to 
be current, ra^- &c -h. v. fashionable. 




current, (rivulet, q. v.) ab-ruwan, ab-jaree, nalee, 
buhet, V. bed, (stream, q. v.) buha,o. 

currently, fpmooniun, ulul-upmoom. 

currentness, ruwaj, romoom. 

currier, chumar, dubbagh, chirm-saz, (instru- 
ment) byongee. 

currish, sug-sifut, kutuha, bhonkwuya, v. morose. 

to curry, (leather) pukana, kumana, dubaghut-d. 
(a horse) mulna, teemar- kliur khuru-k. jhan- 
wan-k.; to curry favour, kha,e>suhlana, r. to 

curry-comb, khuruhra, khurkhuru. 

cwrse, bud-doo,a, kosa, surap, lu,iin,lu,unut, dhik- 
kar, phitkar, dhirkar, v. imprecation, (among 
women) boor-juree, moonh khak, v. the Gram. 
page 248. (affliction, q. v.) afut, gbuzub, bu- 
la, quhr, wubal, qubahut, v. vexation ; curse 
it, toof, lU|Unut buhech, phit phit. 

to curse, kosna, surapna, phitkarna, bud d(n,a-d. 
nufreen- lu,unut-k. randna, (to afflict) afut-d. 
a curse upon him, oos pur lu,unut, lu,unut ool- 
lah ulueli ; cxtrse this business, I am heartily 
tired of it, is kam pur lu,unut ho muen is se 
sukht aree boon. 

cursed, (detestable, q. v.) lu,unutee,muloen,Iu,een, 
murdood, kureeh, zuboon, kutn-bukht, buet- 
cnlmal, dozukhee, nurkee, v. hellish; hmtj 
long shall I stay in this cursed countr?/? is btiet- 
oolmal moolk men kub tuk muen ruhoonga ? 
V. infamous, troublesome. 

cursedly, nakaru, zuboon, bu-shiddut, v. miser- 

curser, bud doo,a-go, koswuya. 

cursorily, moojmulun, ghuflut- juldee-se, sur a 

cursory, chuUe-lioo,e, yoonhee, v. slightly, (view) 
nuzuri ijmalee. 

curst, kuttur, huramee, shureer, markhundj v. 

to curtail, kum- kotah- qusur-k. ghutana, katna, 
V. to alrridge, shorten. 

curtain, musihree, purdu, ojhul, kupunilot, 
(wall, q. V.) ulung, iirtula, v. rampart, (lec- 
ture) tu,uleem khilvrutee. 

curvated, curve, curved, terha, kuj, khum-dar, 
moo.awwuj, pech-dar, banka, shoshu, dunanu, 
V. bow, moonhunee, v. crooked. 

curvature, curve, bank, terha,ee, kfaum, pech, 
mar-pech, v. bent. •^<'- » i  

to curve, terha- &c. -k, luchana, r. to bend. 

to curvet, koodna, phandna, just- bukur kood-k. 

cushion, guddee, musnud, ga,o-tukiyu, v. Mster, 

custard, faloodu, (apple) shureefu, seeta-phul, 
ata, lona ata, v. syllabub. 

custody, (care, q. v.) umanut, nigah-banee, tuo- 
hood, rukhwalee, hifaxut, hifz, huwalut, ruch- 
ha, dasht, hirasut, guthuond, tufweez, v. care, 
charge, (imprisonment) qued, bund, hubs. 

custom, (manner, fashion, q. v.) dustoor, rusm, 
pi. roosoom, zabitu, ruwueya, chal, ruwish, 
chulun, reet, churcha, ruwaj, qa.idu, qanoon, 
bundhej, surishtu, chulawa, kur, tureeq, a,een, 
mu,iimoor, ra,i j ool wuqt, neg, kirt, rah-rusum 
or ruwish, burtawa, r. practice, usage, (busi- 
ness, q. V.) jujmanee, lewa-dewee, luga,o, pe- 
cha-khochee, oothan, burdasht, oochaput, v. 
connexion,trafflc, (habit, q.v.) adut,mu,umool, 
ubbhyas, rubt, moo, u tad, v. disposition, nature, 
(tribute, q. v.) khiraj, muhsool, lugta, bihree, 
(run on goods) khuput, chah, kuttee, gahukee, 
mar, khureedaree, v. dealirig. 

customarily, uksnr, uksur-uoqat, buhodhan. 

custom<rry, mojruwwuj, ba-dustoor, dustoor moo- 
wafiq, mu,umoolee, rusmee, mu.uhood, umlee, 
dustooree, v. habitual, (dower) muhr misul, v. 
common, usual. 

customer, usamee, gulikee, jujman, khureed-dar, 




gahuk, bunjuota, lugwar, lugwa, v. employer, 
purchaser, bidder. 

custom-house, sa,ir, chubootru, chuokee, pucho- 
tra, ghat, the English word is often very ab- 
surdly called permit, q. v. 

cut, (participle) kuta hoo,a, qutu, moonqutu, boo- 
reedu, choor, v. intoxicated, (preparedjbr use) 
buna bunaya, tueyar. 

cut, (wound, q. v.) khutt, zukhuni, cheera, chir- 
ka, V. slash, (a lot) qooru,u, (in cards) turash, 
kat, (form, q. v.) qutu, (shape) turash, byont, 
(piece, q. v.) tookra, kurch, chhant, chhyo, 
V. slice, (branch) kat, chhor, v. canal, (pic- 
ture, q. V.) tusweer ; to make a short cut or 
road, kat-nikalna; to cut a figure, shan-phue- 
lana or nikalna, v. dash ; cut and long tail, 
lendee boocliee, u-ula udna, umeer-fuqeer, 
uhalee muwalee. 

to cut, V. to clip, geld, katna, turashna, kuturna, 
qulum- qutu- qutu booreed-k. (to carve, q. v.) 
nuqsh-k. khundna, badhna,cheerna, chuorung- 
marna, bhung-chhin-k. tokra-k. v. to divide; 
to cut the cards, wuruq-tvirashna; to cut down 
or off, kat-d. ; to cut the beard sliort, qusur-k. ; 
to cut off, kat-karhna, saf-k. ootar-chhant-d. 
V. to amputate, kill, destroy, (to prevent) moon- 
qutu-k. V. to finish, (to preclude) muhroom-r. 
baz-r. ; to cut out (to form) bunana, khod-ni- 
kalna, mar-lejana, v. to waylay, (out) kat- 
' nikalna, v. to excel, (the nib of a peti) qutt-k. 
or mama, v. to extirpate, (to engrave) huk-k. 
V. to intercept, intersect, (or carve ajbwl) bund 
bund-katna, v. to dissect ; ready cut, kuta ku- 
taya, v. ready, (to shape) byontna, qutu-k. 
(to contrive) tujweez-k. (to abridge) kat-lena, 
ghutana; to cut up an animal, bunana, nikana, 
(to eradicate) ookhar-d. ootha-d. This verb, 
as in English, is of very extensive applica- 
tion. See the simple verbs which are syno- 

nymous with its several compounds, as also 
its own synonyma, v. to cross, hew, Stc. 

to cut, v. n. kutna, mc»nqutu-h. (as teeth) Jum- 
na, phootna, nikulna, (as a knife) lugna, v. to 
wound, split, hit. tlv-Mi^nlt (tRwiiib .■\-^.\".v- 

cutaneous, jildee. .9<i5ij(rrtf (4wv, v 

cut-glass, ulmas turash. 

cuticle, post, chumra, chhilka, jhillee, chhyor, 
puekham, v. skin. 

cutlass, tulwar, shumsher, suef, dhop, kutta, 
teghu, suruhee, dum-tumachu, sukela, oona, 
neemchu, v. sword. 

cutler, lobar, karudgur, sangur, v. smith. 

cut-purse, keesu-boor, guth-kuta, giruh-kuta, jeb- 
ftutra. 'vt 

cutter, boorindu, qatj, v. boat. \VHvj^; .if-lS o^^cr. 

cut-throat, thug, rah-zun, qootla,u oot-tureeq, 
but-par, khoon-rez, jullad, qussab, gul-kutta, 
pliunseehara, v. assassin, ruffian. 

cutting, (chip, slip) chipthee, qulum, chiphree, 
kuta,ee, v. crop, branch, kutrun, chhantun, (of 
sugarcane) beej, \. paring, slice, kuturbyont, 
kat-chhant, katkoot, qutu-bogreed, v. to shape. 

cuttle, (fish) sipiyan. ...J ......■.■ i.\\.,r, 

cycle, duor, duoru, joog, qurn, tubqu, churkh, v. 
orb, (of Jupiter) qiran cos saduen, v. the Gram. 
page 325. also circle. 

cygnet, huns ka buchchu. 

cylinder, scotoon, dunda, ojmood, soomdoom, su- 
muhkhat, ponga, ustawanu, (of a sugar-mill) 
jat, v. pillar. 

cymbal, jhanj, munjeera, tal, julajul. 

cymbalist, jhanjiya. 

cynic, cynical, toorsh-roo, rookha, dooroosht-kho, 
un-mila, kootil. .'i'l-iiii. 

cypress, (tree) surv, surw, suro. There are seve- 
ral kinds; suro-azad, sunobur, sihee, urur, 
shumshad. This last is the box-tree, q. v. 

cssar, from quesur, v. emperor. 




tdmtfou; d.^ufy! 


dab, (lump) tookra, parcliu, v. blow, chikut, 

clihecnta, v. splash, 
to dab, poocharii-k. lugana, choopurna, bhur- 

marna, v. to daub, 
to dabble^ dub doob- lot pot- kicb mich-k. v. to 

wallow, dega degee-k. v. to tamper, 
dabbler, oopur tupka, v. smatterer. y_ 

dad, daddy, ba, baba, bajee, \. father; jiib wooh 

liuthegee umma, baba ko ja bola la, when she 

shall fret and cry, Mamma, go call my daddy. 

daffodil, nurgis, v. lily, 
dagger, klumjur, kutar, pesh-qubz, jumdhur, 

chhoora, bichhwa, doosbnu ; to be at drawn 

daggers, shumsher buruhnu-h. chhooree ku- 

to daggle, chiktana, lusuondna, v. to trail, 
daggle-tailed, damun gil aloodu. 
daily, adj. bur-rozu, rozmurru, yuomee, tareekh- 

war, dinwarec, dine din ; daily pay, rozeenu, 

yuomiyu, (food) rozec. 
daily, adv. hur-roz, roz-bu-roz, roz-roz, din-bu- 

din, yuomun fu yuomun, v. always, 
daintily, nuzakut- &c. -se. 
daintiness, nuzakut, komulta,lutafut,v.rfefo'cacj/, 

dainties, nufa,is, tuha,if, v. 7iicety. 
dainty, nazook, nufees, luteef, komul, pakeezu, 

V. nice ; a dainty, tcohfu, ni,uniut, churb nu- 

walu, chubha, pudarth, v. tidbit, khnosh-kho- 

rak or za,iqu, nuk churha, shukur khora, v. 

luxurious, fender. 


dairy, sbeer-khanu. 

dalliance, ra,ocha,o, lia,obha,o, rung-rus, doolar- 
pyar, bos o kinar, bosii-bazce, chooma-cliatee, 
chooma-choomce, rag sohag, cliali cheet, lagli- 
bazee, naz nukhru, v. caress, tumullooq, v.jiro- 
crastination, delay. 

to dally, (fondle) ra,ocha,o- &c. -k. (delay) de- 
ree- dirungee- dhccl-k. inukrana, unthlana, 
■wuqt-talna, tapa to,cc-k. v. to trijlc, amuse. 

dam, ma, v. mother, (bank) bandh, pal, puhar, 
V. mole. 

to dam, bandh-bandhna, v. to confine. 

damage, nooqsan, ziyan, ghata, zurur, ascb, khu- 
lul, liuruj, qubahut, khuiabce, bigar, ootpat, 
pa,emalee, v. loss, (reparation) jurecmanu, ta- 
wan, moosaduru, v. injury, compensatioit. 

to damage, nooqsan-puliooncbana, khisaru-k. bi- 
garna; to be damaged, bigurna; to sustain da- 
mage, najqsan-oothana, v. to .spoil. 

damaged, daghee, dagli-dar, noqsanee, pa,enial, 
V. spoilt. 

datnascene, damson, aloo bcokhara, ijjas, aloo sha- 
mce, V. plum. 

damask; (silk) moosluijjur, (cloth) jamdanec, 
khes, khesra, v. dimity, also to e/nbroider ; to 
damask, mooshujjur-binna, boote dar-binna, v. 
to variegate, (steel-work) juohur-bunana, v. 

dame, (lady, q. v,) begum, beebee, uhliyu, kud- 
banoo, \. woman. . 

to damn, muloon-k. ]u,unut-k. (condemn, q. v.) 




randu-k. nurk basee-k. v. to execrate, (to hoot) 
thupree- talee-marna, v. to hiss. 

damnable, lu,unutec', phitkaree, v. odious. 

damnation, lu,unut, phitkar, dhikkar, pWtte- 
mooiih ; a curse upon thee, teojh pur lu,unut. 

damned, Iu,unutee^ muloon, dozukhee, naree, ju- 
hunnumee, nurukee, phitkaree, dhikkaree, 
muqlioor, mughzool), rujeem, siyah-roo, v. 
cursed, (in comp.) kurura, whence kurum-cho- 
dee, kurum-gandoo, &c. v. arrant. 

damp, adj. tur, num, num-nak, murtoob, geela, 
udh-sookha, neem-khooshk, kutkura, v. moist, 
dejected; to grow damp, mihana, silana. 

damp, (vapour) bookhar, bhaph, v. dampness, (de- 
jection) oodasee, v. fog. 

to damp, murtoob- &c. -k. (to deject, q. v.) uf- 
soordu- dilgeer- surd-k. bcojhana, (to abate, 
q. V.) ghutana, v. to weaken. 

dampness, dampishness, numee,turee,turawut,roo- 
tobut, seel. 

damsel, suhelee, sukhee, alee, butkee, v. maid, 
nazneen, naiCka, gopee, puthiya, mangna, v. 
girl, (of paradise) hoor, ubcbhura. 

dance, nach, ruqs, v. ball, (lascivious) kuhroO|aj 
(religious) dhumal, wujd. 

to dance, nachna, ruqs-k. koodna, v. to frisk, 
(attenda9ice) peechhe luga-ruhna, peechhe pvi- 
ra-ruhna, nacli-nachna. 

dancer, nachne-wala, nuchwuya, ruqqas, v. rope- 

dancing, dhumalee, koodukkur, (boy) bhugtiya, 
bhuwuya, nutwa, kuthik, (girl) tuwa,if, kun- 
chinee, nuochee, clioona-puznee, nugur, bhat- 
nce, V. courtexan, (master) tu,uleem-gur, v. 
master, (school) tU|Uleem-khanu, (hire of) 

dandiprat, goorjee, goorga. 

io dandle, hulana, koodana, cochhalna, khilana, 
V. to dally. 

dandruff, roosee, bufa, v. scurf. 

danger, v. risk, khutru, bhurum, dur, mookha- 
turu, huol, kbuof, dhurka, beem, v. dread, 
chinta, purwa, qubahut, jokhim, hulakut, 
shuk, wuswusu, v. peril, hazard. 

dangerous, khutur-nak, poor-khutur, bhurmecla, 
mukhtoor, dooshwar, khutur, ungez, ushkal, 
jee mar, bhue,unkur, wuswasee, v. difficult, 

dangerously, khutre- &c. -se; dangerously ill, be- 

danger ousness, khvitur-nakee. 

to dangle, lutukna, hilugna, mootUiuTliq-Ii. v. to 

dangler, pichh-luga, doom-guzu, doom-balu. 

na, bantha, tenee, goorjee, lit. a Georgian. 

dapple, ubluq, doo-runga, kabra. 

to dapple, mojnuqqush-k. v. to variegate. 

dappled, (sky) teetur budlee, v. spotted. 

dapple-grey, sunjab. 

to dare, joor|Ut- himmut- mur dangee- hiya-, 
poorkharut-r. sukna, v. able, (to defy, q. v.) 
dhumkana, v. to challenge. 

daring, be-jan, murdanu, dll-chul, soor, diler, 
shooja|U, juree, sukunhar, rawut, huth-chhoot, 
himmutee, v. intrepid, bold. 

daringly, dileranu, buha-dooranu, shcDJa,ut-se. 

daringness, be-bakee, murdangee, dileree, mun- 
chulee, v. boldness. 

dark, darksome, undhera, tareek, teeru, undha- 
djioondh, undhikkar, kheeru, ghoop, undha, 
V. dun, (as pitch) qeer-goon, v. black, (ob- 
scure, q. V.) mooshkil, posheedu, clihipa, (ig- 
7iorant, q. V.) jahil, (gloomy, q. v.) ufsoordu, 
surd-dil, (black) kala, siyah, v. blind, deep, 
opaque; a dark night, shubi-duejoor, undhe- 
ree rat, v. conjunction ; the dark half of a 
month, krishin puchh, undhera pakh. 




to darken, undhera- posheedu- &c. -k. {to foul) 
napak-k. v. to sully ; to grow dark, undhya- 
darkly, undha sa, v. obscurely. 

darkness, darA;, undhera, undhiyara,tareekee,tee- 
rugee, zoolmut, undher, tumkar, (prince of)], V. devil, (obscurity, q. v.) ishkal, (ig- 
norance, q. V.) jihalut, v. blackness. 

darling, larla, doolara, pyara, uzeez, muhboob, 
lal, chaheeta, lurba,ola, chushm chiragh, lukhti 
jigur, dil-aram, v. favourite, dear. 

to darn, rufoo-k. bhur-d. ' 

darner, rufoo-gur. 

dart, bhala, burchhee, gurhiya, nezu, sel, bul- 
lum, V. bolt, (arrow) teer. 

to dart, V. a. phenkna, chulana, dalna, chhitka- 
na, marna, v. to bolt, v. n. chiilna, purna, 
chhitukna, (as lightning) turupna, lupukna, 

dash, V. plash, tukkur, thokur, thes, dhukka, 
{mivture, q. v.) mel, pooth, (line) khutti fa- 
silu, V. pause, (show, q. v.) numood, shikoh, 
turash, v. flash; he cuts a dash at a distance, 
wooh door se upnee numood dikhlata hue, v. 
blow; to have a dash of green, red, &c. subzee- 
or lu,ulee- &c. -mama. 

to dash, V. to drive, v. a. putukna, de-marna, 
putkee-d. tukrana, phenkna, marna, jhukorna, 
V. to throw, (to sketch) chithama, khuenchna, 
jharna, v. to obliterate, torna, puchharna, phor- 
na, V. to destroy, (in pieces) pash pash- rezu 
rezu- choor choor- chukna choor-k. (water) 
chhirukna, beetna, dalna, chheetna, (to mingle, 
q. V.) araezish- ameklitu-k. (to spill) chhul- 
kana, (to blot, q. v.) qulum khoordu-k. kat-d. 
(to depress) gira-d. dubana, ghutana, v. to 
abash, confound, v. u. (to be spilt) chhulukna, 
(through water) hela-marna. 

dastard, dastardly, na-murd, booz-dil, <lurj)okna, 
pad-ghabra, gliubra.oo, v, coward. 

date, (of time) tarcckh, tith, mittec, v. cj)och, 
(after, viz. a bill) mcuddutee, v. day, (dura- 
tion, q. V.) duwam, thuhrao, khuta,o, (end, 
q. V.) unjam, unt, sumapt, (the fruit) khoor- 
ma, chhoohara, khujoora, rutub, tumur, khu- 
joor, V. palm, tamarind. 

to date, (a letter) tareekh- &c. -likhna, churha- 
na or -d. 

dative, halut nusbee or mufooliyut, sumprudan- 

to daub, V. to dirt, lugana, lesna, chhitharna, pot- 
na, bhurna, chhopna, murhna, v. to besmear, 
line, (to cover) dhampna, (to lay 07i profusely) 
ladna, (tojtatter) chaploosee-k. 

dauber, koorh, unaree, chithariya. 

daughter, dookhtur, betee, kunnya, poatree, dhee, 
lurkee, bint, dohita, ja,ee, bucbee, dhiya, bee- 
beejan, v. girl, (in comp.) zadee, (in law) bu- 
hoo, putoh, budhoo, v. step; a step-daughter, 

to daunt, durana, duhshuUd. dubkana, dhumka- 
na, dhirana. 

dauntless, ni-dur, ni-dhuruk, be-bak, be-jan. 

darvn, poh, turka, bhor, scub.h, suhur, pugahtur, 
bamdad, lohee, soob,h, sadiq, soib.h dum, su- 
fuedu duni, uroon, dhoon, dliurka, noor ke 
turke, bhulka, v. morning, noor, v. early, (be- 
ginning)s\icoroo^u,iht\da,&Tumhh; early dawn, 

to daicn, poh-phutna, turka-h. din-nikulna. 

day, din, roz, dewus, yuom, v. time, nuhar, 
tith, (in comp.) bar, war, shumbu, (last of a 
month ) mas ke bar. See the British Indian Mo- 
nitor, vol. i. p. 207. This day, to-day, oj, 
ajhee, aj ke din, v. night. N. B. kul, to-mor- 
row, purson, nurson, turson, the day after to- 
morrow, See. signify also yesterday, the day be- 
T 2 




fore yesterday. Day and night, din rat, roz o 
shub, luel o nuhar ; frmn day to day, roz roz, 
hur roz, roz nnirru, din din; a market day, 
penth ka flin, roz i bazar; a fast day, rozu, 
biirt; a festival day, bura din, tyohar, purub, 
eed ; a day''s journey, munzil, ek roz kee rah ; 
the day of judgment, roz i juza, I'oz i hisab, 
hushr, qiyamut, purine ; some days, chund 
roz ; to this day, aj tuk, v. yet; iti open day, 
din do-puhur, din diya; this is a good day, aj 
vicli-chha din hue ; this day, {eight days) ajke 
athweii din or athware, (fortnight) pundruh 
wen din, (three weeks) ba,eesweri din, (month) 
oonteeswen din ; this day twelvemonth, aj ke 
burswen din ; now a days, ajkul dur een wila ; 
to win the day, khet hath ruhna, v. battle ; day 
after day, din pu din, v. jotcrney. 

day-book, roz-nainu, buhee, khusra, duftui', roz- 
namchu, v. account. 

day-break, v. dawn, turka. 

day-labour, muzdooree. 

day-labourer, muzdoor, rozeenu dar, v. hireling. 

day-light, roz-ruoshun, din dee,e, (in ojieoi) din- 

day-time, din ke wuqt, din ko ; come in the day- 
time, din ko 3,0. 

to daazle, tirmirana, gurjana, choobhna, dubana, 
mama, v. to overpower. 

dead, mura, moo, a, moardu, mourdar, fuot, gut, 
soon, V. asleep, (as sleep) koombh kurnee, gar- 
ha,v. profound, (as night) bhinee, so,ee, sotee, 
V. mid, (as water) khura, v. stagnant, (ha- 
rassed) hulak, V. to die, (inanimate) be-jan, 
bin-jee, (empty) khalee, (useless) be-fa,idu, 
ukaruth, (gloomy, q, v.) soon, soonsan, ((;«- 
pid) ootira, (as a tree) khooshk, (as trade) 
soost, munda, v. dull ; dead drunk, sur-shar, 
bud-must, gand-ghalut, be-hosh, choor,v.sewse- 
less ; a dead weight, moo,a bojh, v. heavy ; 

the dead, umwat, moorde, moo,e, sote, alumi 
urvvah; a dead body, moordu, lash, muota, loth, 
shuo; in the dead of night, adiiee rat ko. 
to deaden, soon-k. kumzor-k. mama, v. n. mur- 

na, V. to iveaken; to be deadened, mturjana. 
deadly, qatil, moohlik, maroo, karee, hulahul, 
hulakoo, V. mortal, moordunee, muruot, moor- 
du- &c. -sa, v- very, also cadaverous ; a deadly 
foe, dooshmun janee, (Jig-) scene ka kanta., ufsoordugee, soostee, v. languor, vapid- 

ness. .:,-U\> , '.i;jn^ 

deaf, buehra, kur, soam, pumbu bu gosh, bora,' 
kun-phoota, burn budhir, (as a door nail) bu- 
jur-buehra, (pretending to he) kuth- or kuj- 
buehra. . .7 ^r/uii 

to deafen, baehra-k. kan-phorna; to be deaf, 

buehra-h. ooncha-sconna. 
deafness, buehra,ee, kuree, buehra-pun. 'i 

deal, (quantity, q. v.) qudr, (at cards) bant ; a 
great deal, boohtera, buhoot, buhoot koochh, 
khuele, uz-bus, v. much, abundance, enough, 
part, timber, 
to deal, (distribute, q. v.) bantna, hissu-k. (to 
scatter, q. v.) chhitkana, (to trajpc) tijarut-k. 
pher gher-k. v. to trade, chulun-chulna, v. 
to behave, also condzict; to deal with, moo,amu- 
lu- soolook- ri,ayut-k. 
dealer, (trader, q. v.) suoda-gur, karbaree, gol- 
dar,v. merchant, (in comp.) furosh, baz, go, (in 
corn) buniya, buqqal, bunjara, v. grocer, (at 
cards) qasim ; a plain dealer, sadu admee, sa- 
du sipahee ; a double dealer, riya-kar. 
dealing, (trade, q.v,) tijarut,buepar, (intercourse, 
business, q. v.) byohar, len-den, lewa-dewee, 
dad o situd, karobar, (treatment) soolook, v. 
action ; plain dealing, sadugee, sadu-mizajee, 
be-riya,ee ; double dealing, riya-karee, muk- 
dear, muhnga, guran, tez, burhiya, v. costly 




precious, 'ja.nee,v. darling; (lo a child) baba-jan, 
V. babe, (to a mother) becbee-jan, v. daughter, 
(beloved, (j. v.) uzeez, jiyoora, dtolara, pec, 
preetum, sujiin, sujunee, miyan, v. sir, scarce; 
my dear, mereo jan ; dear me ! hucn-huen, v. 
alas ! 
dear-bought, muhing mola, guran khureed. 
dearly, v. dear, (fondly) shuoq-se, ashiqanu. 
dearness, guranec, muhngee, v. fondness, 
dearth, kal, quht, iikal, mulia mar, tora, v. fa- 
mine, kum yab-ce, tungee, v. sterility, scarcity, 
death, v. carnage, muot, ujul, quza, murg, mirt, 
kal, hulakec, niurun, nas, funa, v. mortality, 
 (untimely) ]vL\\ ami murg, koo mirt, (sudden) 
murg mufajat, qutl, v. natural, (to court ofie's) 
murun punkhiya- muot-lugna, moo,a-chahna, 
V. decease; at deatli's door, ujul-giriftu, qureeb 
m\ muot, ubtub, panw gor men, v. angel; 
a deatli's head, kasu,e-muot, v. angel; a death- 
bed, muvun scj, bisturi murg. 
to put to death, mar-d. jan-lena, v. to execxite, 

kill, murder, 
deathless, u-mur, la-muot, v. immortal, 
deathlike, muot kala, murg-nooma, v. deadly, 
death-watch, keet, sufed-keera. 
to debar, baz-r. barna, burujna, munii-k. muh- 

room-k. pher-r. ha,il-h. v. to hinder, 
to debase, v. to spoil, (to degrade, q. v.) soobook-, 
be abroo- pust- hulka- huqeer- khufeef- z«l- 
eel-k. V. to adulterate, surnigoon- sir neeclic-k. 
V. to humble, also abased, 'base. 
debasement, tuzleel, v. servility, degradation, 
debate, bulis, quziyu, moobahusu, jhugra, buk- 
hera, rugra, huft husht, mookaburu, mub,hiis, 
V. dispute, controversy, 
to ^bate, buhs- he. -k. jhugurna, buhusna, v. 

to deliberate, 
debauch, bud-purhezce, be-i|Utidalce, khoomar, v. 

to debauch, (contipt) bigarna, be-rah- budrah-, 
khv/ar- kiuirab- ubtur-k. goomrali-k. v. to' 
abuse, ubtur- awaru- &c. -k. v. debauchee, 
jhansna, cjobharna, v. to seduce, (live intempe- 
rately) budpurhezcc- hurkut na moonasib-k. 
(a woman) huram- zina- aloodu- luislit-k. v. to 
deflower, hoormut-lena, v. to ravish, 
debauched, rfe6aMc/tee,khurabatee, rind,bud-kar, 
uobash, ueyash, tumasha-been, huvam-kar, 
shureer, zanee, v. libertine, rake, 
debauchery, uobasliee, tumasha-bcenee, bud-ka- 
. ree, huram-karec, ueyashee, fisq o foajoor, rin- 
dee^indec-bazee, awarugee, ubturee, v. in- 
temperance, luxury. 
to debilitate, tor-d. natuwan- kumzor- naqoow- 

wut- 7.u,cef- nuqcch-k. 
debilitating, tun gradaz, gula,oo, v. weakness, 
debility, na-tuwanee, na-qoowwutec, kum-zoree, 

zoo,uf, nuqahut, nirbulee, v. feebleness, 
debt, qurz, duen, rin, rulitec, wam, lulma, cod- 
har, dhurta, den, byohur, dadunee, v. obliga- 
tion; a just debt, wajib cal uda, v. payment, 
(hearing no interest) qurz. husnu. 
debtor, qurz-dar, duen-dar, riniya, mucjrooz, 
wam-dar, baqcc-dar, byoluiriya, djharta, dhar- 
nik, khudook, mudiyoon, (side) jumu, v. obli- 
. decade, ushru, ushooru, duha,ce, duha. 
decagon, moo,iishshur, duligoshu. 
to decamp, kooch- puc,an-k. dmle-jana, dcru- 
oothana, oothna, v. to march, rufoo chukkur-h. 
V. to depart, scamper, 
decampment, kooch, rihlut. 
to decant, tira-lcna, tirana, pusana, nitarna, ooj- 

hulna, ootlhelna, v. ctip. 
decanter, piyalu. 

decay, timuzzool, zuwa!, ghuttec, fursoodugee, 
ghisawut, ootar, dhula,o, ghisa,o, ghuta.o, &c. 
V. decline. 




to decay, ghisna, ghutna, khusna, chhutna, gul- 
na, noozool- tunuzzool- zuwal- kum-h. surna, 
boseedu- moonduris-hojana, ooturna, gcDZurna, 
girna, dhulna, purna, tootna, khisukna, jhurna, 
lutiyana, phisphisana, boodhiyana, khyana, 
khorana, oorna, bigurna, murna, v. to fade, 
wither, die, jana, v. to fall ; v. a. ghutana, 
ghisana; khusana, kum-k. surana. 
decease, muot, rihlut, intiqal, wisal, wufat, irti- 
hal, waqi, jatee, gunga labh, untkal, mookt, 
pue,an, kooch, v. death, departure, 
to decease, rihlut- &c. -k, v. to expire. 
deceaset/, mootuwuffa, V. to die; the deceasM,ra\xr- 
hoom, mughfoor, buliisht nuseeb, invktee, 
buekoonthee, v. defunct, 
deceit, v. deception, dugha, fureb, buhanu, nukh- 
ru, chhul, jool, thuga,ee, mukr, heelu, fitrut, 
tuzweer, kued, funn, v. stratagem, chiritr, 
chukur mukur, nutkhutee, kuput, thug, bid- 
dya, V. cheat, fraud, juggle, 
deceitful, deceiver, v. double, dugha-baz, chhullee, 
tiiug, mukkar, moozuwwir, fitrutee, mukr- 
amez, v. fraudulent, funn-furebee, siyah- 
chushm, zun-aq, saloos, bhuglee, ooranchhoo, 
moDheel, heelu-saz, v. artful, insidious, 
deceitfully, dugha bazee- &c. -se. 
deceitfulness, dugha-bazee, heelu-bazee, tuzweer. 
to deceive, dugha- &c. -d. thugna, chhulna, duh- 
kana, undhlana, bala-d. bhutkana, bhoot phe- 
ree-d. v. to circumvent, delude, trick, {to mis- 
lead, q. V.) bhoolawa^k. {to disappoint, q. v.) 
December, poos, ponkh, poh, tuekh, suhsa, Q9,th 

month) zilhij, zeehijju. 
decency, sha,istugcc, arastugee,mu,uqooliyut,im- 
tiyaz, udub, v. propriety, {modesty, q. v.) 
shurm, laj. 
decennial, duh-salu, dusbursa. 
dece7it, sha,istu, arastu, mu,uqool, la,iq, oochit, 

sohata, imtiyazee, \.Jit, {modest, q. v.) muh- 
joob, V. becoming, 
decently, Imtiyaz- &c. -se. 

deception, wuhm, dhokha, bala, ooran, indirjal, 
nue-rungee, bhoolawa, chhulawa, mirg trish- 
na, orangha,ee, ala bala, bhugul, dar raudar, 
dith, bond, chatuk natuk, nuzur-bund, v. de- 
ceit, delusion, fallacy, boor ka luddoo, v. bub- 
to decide, hookm- futwa-d. fuesul- mconqutu- in- 
^sal-k. rufU|U-k. chookana, furmana, nya,o- 
chookana, qutu-k, v. to settle ; to be decided^ 
chcxjkna, fuesul- &c. -h. v. to determine. ^ , 
decider, maonsif, hukum, mooslih, v. arbitrator, 
decimal, ushree, ushratee, v, decade, 
to decimate, duh yek-nikalna, dusmen se ek-lena. 
decimation, tu,usheer, duh yekee. 
to decipher, purhna, butlana, tu,ubeer- buyan-fc. 
nikalna, kholna, zahir-k. v. to explain, ex- 
pound, unravel, 
decipherer, rumz-shinas. 
decision, hookm, futwa, fuesulu, infisal, niptara, 

chookuota. •■ ,<,i<'.. 

decisive, poora, shafee, qutUiCe, qati, natiq, ka-. 

mil, saf, mconqutu, v. conclusive, complete, 
deck, tukhtu, putuotun, tukhtu bundee, raunzil, 
y. Jloor, story ; a two decker, do munzilu ju- 
haz, V. dresser, 
to deck, sunwarna, bunana, arastu-k. zeb-d. aras- 
tu puerastu-k. chiknana, tukulloof-k. v. dress, 
to adorn, 
to declaim, v. to inveigh, tuqreer- kulam- buyan-, 
burnun-k. bukhana, oochar-k. pokarna, chih- 
rana, v. to preach, excite, 
declaimer, khoosh-tuqreer, mooqurrir, oocharee, 
bukta, chihra,oo, v. speech, exclamation, also 
declamatory, turghoebanu, nufsanee, turgheebee, 
rungeela, nufs-ungez, v. to decry. :,.;j > . 




declaration, {affirmation, q. v.) isbat, izhar, thq- 
reer, tu,ubeer, tushreeh, muhzur, istiy.har, bo- 
lee, V. affidavit, avowal, publication, testimo- 
to declare, iqrar- &c. -k. bolna, kuhna, furma- 
na, V. to say, (to publish, q. v.) ulaniju> ash- 
kara- prikash-k. v. to proclaim, 
declarer, mooqir, moo,uturif. 
declension,\. declination,(in/le.vion,c[,v.) tusreef, 

gurdan, roop, surf, seeghu. 
declinable, mootusurrif, moonsurif, burtanee, mo- 
rub, surf-pu7.eer, roopee, sundhi, v. change^ 
dec/«MO<M)«, r(X)zool,tunuzz(X)],zuwal,ootar,muel, 
krant, (heriding) jhooka.o, (obliquity) kujee, 
terha,ee, v. variation, 
decline, ghut\ee, zuwal, ghat, v. atrophy, rujut, 

V. wane, declination, 
to decline, v. n. (to stoop, q. v.) nihoorna, ghutna, 
doobna, lurukna, (as the sun) dhulna, pulutna, 
(to shun, q. v.) ihtiraz- i,iiraz- inkar-k. hu- 
tuk- baz-ruhna, v. to decay ; v. a. (to inflecf) 
tusreef-k. gurdanna, sadhna, (to bend, q. v.) 
declivity, ootira.o, ootar, dhal. 
declivous, dhaloo, dhalwan, surazer, 
to decoct, uotana, josh-k. or -d. kurhana, v. to 

boil, digest, 
decoction, joshandu, karha, kwo,ath, v. the verb, 
to decompound, moorukkub dur moorukkub-k. (to 

separate) bilgana. 
to decorate, sunwarna, scodharna, buna|0- singar-, 
arastu-k. ara,ish- &c. -d. tecmtam-k. sujana, 
sootlira/-k- v. to adorn. 
decoratio7i, zeenut, zeb, buna,o, arastugee, v. or- 
to decorticate, chhilka-ootarna, nikhorna, v. to 

decorum, liyaqut, huesiyut, suleequ, soobha,o, 

soo-dhub, bhulmunsee, admijut, imtiyasj, v. 
decency, propriety, 
decoy, fureb, dhokha, mnoghalutu, siyahee. 
to decoy, furelvd. liiga-lana, oopjhana, wurghu- 
lanna, pliooslana, bujhana, phusana, V. to al- 
lure, ensnare. 

decoy-bird, incnlluh, ghahee, pae-datn, \. feint. 

decrease, ghuttee, kumtcc, tukhfeof, kusr, qoo- 
soor, ncDZcx)], v. decay, tvane, tnihaq. 

to-decrease, v. n. ghutna, kum-h. munda-h. v. a. 
ghutana, kum-k. chheejna, clihantna, v. to 
abridge, lessen. 

decree, hookm, umr, a,een, qanoon, qa,idu, reel, 
zabitu, tureeq, infisa), futwa, istifta, biwustha, 
V. sentence, likha, nuwlstha, v. order ; the di- 
vine decree, tuqdeer, quza. 

to decree, hcokm- &c. -k. furmana, thuhrana, 
ruchna, thanna, kuhna, likhna, bidhna, v. to 

decrepit, v. infirm, 2.u,eef, moonhunee ; a decrepit 
old man, peer-furtoot, boodha-phoos, peer ku- 
beer, luirkhunkhar, dokra, v. lame. 

to decry, dokhna, muzummut- hujoo-k. ueb-lug- 
ana, kumqudur-k. budnain-k. nam-r. or dhur- 
na, mulamut-k. v. to blame, depreciate. 

to dedicate, (to appropriate, q. v.) khass- ma>- 
qurrur, mookhtus- moo,ueyun-k. thuhrana, 
bandhna, churliana, nuzr-k. v. to devote, (a 
book) ke nam-bunana, v. to inscribe, wuqf-k. 
de-d. V. to bequeath, mooqueyiid-k. 

dedication, tuqurroor, tushukhkhoos, (of a book) 
muduh, V. appropriation. 

to deduce, nikahia, hasil istikhraj-k. v. to trace, 

to deduct, -vrarn- minha-k. nikal-dalna, kafna, 
bad-k. nirujre-lena, ootarna, v. to subtract. 

dedwtion, (consequence, q. v.) nuteoju, hasil, ma- 
husul, (subtraction) minha,ee, wuzceyat, (mi 
money) butta, qoosoor, wuzu, hushoo minha, 




chhoot, katkootjV. discount, (a military) shum- 
see qumree. 

deed, kam, urth, kaj, kariij, kirdar, umul, sakli- 
tu-purdakhtu, v. work, action, {exploit, q. v.) 
jokhim, {fact) huqeequt, birtant ; a written 
deed, qubalu, sunud, dustawez, (in comp.) na- 
mu, puttur, V. agreement, {pi. kagliuz puttur) 
V. paper; good and evil deeds, umal i qubeehu 
o husnu, V. doing. 

to deem, janna, mu,uloom- duriyaft-k. v. to think. 

deep, adj. guehra, gumbheera, iimeeq, ghurq-ab, 
dooba.o, uogah, ugum, doongha, v. profound, 
ghor, V. dead, {insidious, q. v.) gurar, garha, 
V. treacherous, {as a regiment) chuora, luniba, 
V. breadth, {as roads) gundu, ghuleez, dhu- 
sa|00, V. had, zhurf, {low, q. v.) khala, {ob- 
scure, q. V.) duqeeq, mooshkil, kuthin, {saga- 
cious, q-v.) bareek-been, duqeequ-shinas, {art- 
ful, q. V,) pukka, mootufunnee, {grave in 
sound) bharee, {dark, applied to colour) guehra, 
shokh ; a deep sleep, sookh neend, v. solemn, 

deep, {the sea) sumoondur, sagur, durija,e shor, 
buhr i mcBheet, {abyss, q. v.) qu,ur, puera^o, v. 
ocean, dead. 

to deepen, guebrana, umeeq-k. v. to sadden, 

dxeply. A', deep, {profoundly) diqqut-se, {greatly) 

> buhootj nihayut, v. much. 

deepness, guehra,ee, romooq, doongha,ee, v. above, 
tU|Umooq, V. profundity. 

deer, hum or hirn, mirg, ahoo, chikaru, kulwat, 
kali-hur, mirg raj, zubee, neel ga|0, ga,o dush- 
tee, sambur, ghotra, v. elk, stag, doe; a young 
deer, hirnuota, ghizal; deer-eyed, ahoo-chushm, 
inirg-nuen ; perhaps apphcable to those who 
have large languishing eves. 

to deface, bigarna, khurab- muhw-k. kat-dalna, 
, toi-dalna, {to erase, q. v.) tuluf. mismar- gha- 
rut-k V. to destroy. 

defacement, tukhreeb, v. the verb. 

to defalcate, chhant-lena, v, to embezzle, decrease. 

defamation, bud-namee, boohtan, toofan, iftira, 

ittiham, lim, dhansa, v. slander. .•■st 

to defame, budnam-k. toohmut- ueb-lugana, 

rooswa-k. v. to asperse, 
defamer, nioofturee, tojhmutee, toofanee, dhan- 

default, goonah, khuta, tuqseer, kotahee, upra^lh, 

v. IV ant. 
defeat, y.Jlight, sliikust, huzeemut, har, pura- 

jue, mar, chhue, bhungta, zuk, v. overthrow, 
to defeat, shikust- Stc. -d. liurana, marna, bhu- 

gana, katna, torna, bhangna, pultana, mar- 

hutana, chulana, lent, ootarna or girana, v. to 

conquer, disperse, {frustrate, q. v.) burbad-d. 

ra,egan- zayu-k. 
defeated, shikust khoordu. 
to defecate, nitharna, v. to purify, 
defect, qcDsoor, kusr, zuwal, ueb, nooqsan, chock, 

khuta, khulul, qubahut, kan, pooth, ghuttee, 

ahoo, V. blemish, foible, imperfection, 
defection, {apostacy, q. v.) irtidad, {revolt, q. v.) 

bugliawut, uwuggya, 
defective, naqis, mooqussur, na-tumam, udh-kut- 

ta, kana, khota, ghat, phoota, khuta, za,il, v. 

deficient, mu,uzoor,v. lame, &;c. {Juulty) mu u- 

yoob, iiebee, dokhit ; a defective noun, ism i 

defectiveness, na-tumamee, v. defect. -"• >- 

defence,^ . preservation, {protection, q.v.) puHah, 

ar, rok, hifazut, siyanut, rukhwalee, arwar, 

urtula, asra, nusrut, v. shelter, {vindication) 

moo,uzurut, hoojjut, tuojeeh, {resistance, q. v.) 

roktok, tu,urrooz, (reply) juwab, oottur, v. 

defenceless, be-qued, waz, ni-dhal, lundoora, v. 

impotent, open, 
to defend, dustgeeree- himayut- punchh- &c. -k. 




pcoshtee-d. bucliana, arna, yaree- &c. -d. 

V. assistance, (to vindicate) cn/.r- &c. -k. {to 

rp/)/y) juwab-d. (to uphold) sumbhalna, thamb- 

na, V. to prohibit, 
defendant, majdda-ulueh, prit-badee, [opposed to 

mooddu,ec, badee, the plaintiff ;'\ fureeq, sanee, 

turufsanee, usamee, -v. party, criminal; the 

defendant and plai7itiff, fureequen. 
defended, mulifooz, muhroos, musoon, v. safe. 
defender, hamee, himayutee, iiioohafiz, rukh-wa- 

la, ruchhuk, nuseer, nasir, hafiz, v. advocate, 

defensible, buchunhar, hifazut- &c. -puzeer, v. 

defensive, bucha,oo, mcnhafizanu, muhroosanu ; 

to stand on the defensive, bucha,o-k. 
to defer, talna, rukhna; he deferred this business 

till to-morrow, mn ne is kam ko kul pur rukha, 

(to delay, q.v.) ihraal- dirungee- soustee- dheel-, 

tal mutol-k. (to refer) rcojoo,u-k. le-jana. 
deference, (respect, q. v.) i,utibar, bawur, udub, 

lihaz, (submission, q. v.) tubueyut, tabi-da- 

defiance, dhumkee, dheenga-dhangee, hank, lum- 

kar, V. challenge, (dress of) kesuriya-baga, 

soorkh poshak, v. to defy, 
deficiency, kumtee, kumee, ghuttce, ghata, kiisr, 

qojsoor, butta, shikust, kusrat, v. defect, loss, 
deficient, kum, qasir, udhoora, v. defective, qu- 

leel, V. little, shikustu, kotab, ghutiya, v. 

short, (to be) khugna, ghutna, v. to fail, (as 

money) butuha, mulut. 
defier, hunkaree, dhumkee baz, v. threat, 
defile, naka, gulee, koochu, sukree-gulee, sankur, 

suket, V. strait, 
to defile, napak- &:c. -k. jhootalna, chhootuhur-, 

usoodh- usooch- Sec. -k. v. polluted, bhurna, 

V. to dirty, (as soldiers) pantee pantee-chulna, 

V. file, debauch. 

defilement, napakee, gundugee, ghulazut, nuja- 

sut, aloodugce. 
dejinahle, qabil tushkhees, qabil tu,ucyun. 
to define, bueyan- tu,ureef- hudd- bukhan- shu- 

ruh-k. V. to decide, mark, 
definite, (certain, q. v.) mojqurrur, muhdood, 

tuhqeeq, (article, q. v.) hurfi mu,urifu, v. 

definitio^i, tu,ureef, hudd, bukhan, tushkhees, bi- 

char, V. determination, explanation, 
definitive, v. definite, (positive, q.v.) qutu,ee, mco- 

kummul, poora. 
definitively, qutu,un. 
to deflagrate, ooTana,i>hooiik-d.(thenoun) oor8,o, 

V. to kindle, bum. 
to deflower, bikr-torna, cheera-ootarna, zufaf-k. 

stree gumun-k. phorna, (to ravish, q. v.) 

nusht-k. V. to defile, 
defloiverer, bikr-tor or -phor, v. ravisher. 
defluvion, v. humour, nuzlu, zookam, rezish, gi- 

ra,o, olumba, sunpat, v. flux, 
to deform, bigarna, beduol- khurab- nakam-k. 

bud cDsIoob-bunana. 
deformed, bud-sliukl, kureeh-muiu.ur, bud-hue- 

ut, bud-undam, koobj, na-muozooii, v. ugly, 
deformity, be-iluolce, bud-shuklee, khurabee, ku- 

reeh-mun/.uree, qrobh, qubaliut, v. defect, ir- 
regularity, ugliness, 
to defraud, thuga,ee-k. chhul- fureb- dugha-d. 

or -k. V. to cheat, 
to defray, cDthana, dena, kurna, lugana, uda-k. 

V. to pay, e.rpend. 
defunct, murhoom, mughfoor, bue koonth-basee, 

ghureeq nihmut, gunga-labhee, v. deceased, 
to defy, dhumkana, dhirana, dhumkee-d. dheen- 

ga dhan{jee-k. hankna, or mol- 

lena, khum-thonkna, v. to brave; (to chal- 
lenge) muedan-k.; to set at defiance,ungooth(i- 

dikhlana, v. to contemn. 




degeneracy, ibtizal, khurabee, duna-ut, kumqu- 
dree, pust-himmutee, khissut, tunuzzool, ni- 
jut, V. degenerate, depravity, meanness. 

degenerate, v. to fall, moDbtuzu], kum-qudr, 
khwar, khurab, zuleel, kum usl, na-kliuluf, 
bud-zat, tookhm-bud, v. hase. 

to degenerate, moobtuzul- naqis- kum qudr-ho- 
jana, goozur-jana, bigurna. 

degradation, be-boormutee,, fuzeehu- 
tee, istikhfaf, khiffut. 

to degrade, behoormut- kum qudr- tugheer-k. oo- 
tarna, girana, ghutana, v. humble, to disgrace. 

degraded, be-abroo, be-hoormut, rooswa, be-qudr, 
kum-qudr, khufeef. 

degree, murtubu, durju, munzilut, rootbu, pa:yu, 
dusa, nuobut, qudur, tubqu, v. state, {descent, 
q. V.) poosht, peerhee, (class, q. v.) qism, Ui- 
ruh, prikar, (in geometry') durju, uns, v. part, 
shan, muhut, v. rank, usl, zat, v. origin, (step) 
qudum, (college) fatihu-furakh; to suck a de- 
gree, is murtube ko, eehan-tuk ; in some degree, 
koochh ek ; to this degree, is qudur, v. pitch ; 
hy degrees, qudum bu qudum, murtubu bu- 
murtubu, qudre qudre, thora thora, v. gra- 

to deject, (sadden) oodas- &c. -k. torna, thuosana, 
V. to depress. 

dejected, oodas, dil-geer, burkhastu, khastu-kha- 
tir, dil-tung, na-khoosh, ufsoordu-dil, azoDrdu, 
surnigoon, sog mara, puzhmoordu dil, dur- 
mandu, v. aJjUicted, sad. 

dejectedly, oodasee- Sec. -se. 

dejection, dejectedness, oodasee, mulola, ufsoordu- 
gee, dil-geeree, na-khooshee, ufsoordu-khati- 
ree, azoordugee, shikustugee, mulalut,v. supra, 
also melancholy, weakness. 

deification, de,okar. ■•'•-'- 

to deify, khooda-k. -bunana or -janna, v. to con- 
sider, iiUah kur-manna. 

to deign, razee-h. qubool-k. mootuwujjih- moo- 

juwwiz- ruvvadar-h. tuwujyooh-k. v. to grant, 

jhookna, v. to stoop, condescend, 
deism, tusuwwoof, bedant, soofee-guree, hustik, 

V. deist, 
deist, mootusuwwif, uhli tusuwwoof, soofee-muz- 

hub, hustikee, bedantee. fl?'i ,9^r(rs^ irrrrw 
deity, dCiOta, de|0, khosda, ullah, eeshonr, inu,u- 

bood, bhugwan, gopal, gunes, v. God, Creator, 

Almighty, &c. 
delay, deree or der, dirungee, dheel, iiber, bi- 

lumbh, ihmal, tuwuqqoof, moohlut, istadugee, 

tu,uweeq, imtidad, ber, bar, v. procrastination, 

also space, (detentiofi, q. v.) ooljhera, rok, moo- 

zahumut ; without delay, bila tuwuqqosf. 
to delay, deree-k. tool-k. (to detain, q. v.) rokna, 

arna, ursu-khuenchna or -lugana, v. to dally, 

delectable, murghoob, muze-dai', sobhaman, v. 

delegate, (an agent, q. v.) wukeel, na,ib, pesh- 

dust, pesh-kar. 
to delegate, bhejna, ruwanu-k. (to intrust, q. v.) 

huwalu-k. dena, (to appoint) thuhrana, moo- 

qurrur-k. thuhra-bhejna, v. to depute, 
delegation, wikalut, niyabut, v. commission, 
deleterious, moohlik, mcnzir, summee, zuhur-dar, 

deliberate, moodubbir, gumbheera, sahib-tudbeer, 

door-undesh, v. discreet, (slow, q. v.) dheema. 
to deliberate, sochna, bicharna, tu,ummool- &c. -k. 

butiyana,kuthiyana, kuh-soannana, v. toiveigh, 

deliberately, tu,ummool-se, mcxidubbiranu, sochke, 

socligochke, v. cautiously, coolly, 
deliberation, tudbeer, tu,ummool, fikr, dhyan, 

socb, tufukkoor, undeshu, ghuor, aqibut-un- 

deshee, bicliar, tujweez, khuoz, kupur-chhan, 

V. circumspection, (caution, q. v.) khubur-da- 

/ ' 




ree, chet, tudarcok, (slowness, q. v.) takheer, 
V. consultation. 

delicnnj, delicateness, v. dainty, (elegance, q. v.) 
nuzakut, sookwaree, {neatness, q. v.) pakee- 
zugec, smghrafic,{plcasantness,(\.v.) khoobcc, 
luzzut, {nicety, q. v.) sunsue, rusa,en, v. ten- 
dernes8,r\is, suwad, v. taste, {softiiess) moola,i- 
^ muti(scrupulousness) tuyfuhha>ia,v. weakness. 

delicate, v. beautiful, {elegant, q. v.) naznecn, 
nazcok, ru.iina, {neat, q. v.) pakeezu, sooghur, 
{nice, q. v.) wuswasee, wuhmee, mootuwuli- 
him, {dainty, q. v.) khrosh-dimagh, {Jine, q. 
V.) bareck, puteela, soochliim, kaghuzee, na- 
zook-tubii, thoomka, lupank, bisunec, mulook, 
nazneen, naz-purwur, dundan-misree, too- 
nuk, sheesha^basha, v. effeminate, {soft, q. 
V.) moola,im, {weak) kum-zor, v. delicious, 

delicately, nuzakut- &c. -se. 

delicious, lutcef, luzeez, murghoob, muzudar, 
khoosh-guwar, khoosh-za,iqu, besh, toohfu, na^ 
dir, khassu, v. agreeable, pyara, suwadik, za,i- 
qvidar, mooluzzuz, khrosh muzu, soondur, un- 
und, uhlad, v. delectable, sweet. 

deliciousness, lootf, lutafut, nlfasut, kuefiyut,mu- 
zu-daree, buhar, muqj, luzzut, tuluzzooz, nu- 
fasut, V. supra. 

delight, khoosliee, khoorrumee, sooroor, shadce, 
anund, mod, buzz, musurrut, iniblsatj ulilad, 
dil-kliwah, murghoob oot-tubu, v. darling, joy, 

to delight, khoosh- musroor-k. hoolsana, reejhana, 
nihal-k. v. to please. 

to delight in, chahna. 

delighted, khnosli, khoorrum, muhzooz, musroor, 
shad, shad-man, khooshnood. • .\m 


. buksh, khooshaind, poM"-buhar, ruseela, khoor- 
rum, furuh-nak, v. charming, delicious. 

delightfully, buliar- kuefiyut- Sjc. -sc. ^ 

delighffulness, dll-chuspee, dil-kushec, dil-awc 
zee, V. delight. 

to deli9ieate,n\i(]sh\i- duol-bunana,8iyah qulum-k. 
mmkhuttut-k. v. to draw, {to paint) tusweer-, 
shubeeh-kheenchna, -bunana or -ootarna, {to 
describe, q. v.) butlana, tuqreer-k. 

delineation, nuqshu, khaka, 

delinquency, goonah, khuta, qpr^dtii chook, tuq- 
seer, qoosoor.   •*,/■■ 

delinquent, goonah-gar, tuqseer-war, upradhee, 
moojrim, asee. 

delirious, v. mad, be-hosh, be-khood, mud-hosh, 
be-huwas, uchet, hiziyan-ec or -zudu, khalee- 
dumagh, v. below. 

delirium, be-hoshee, be-khoodec, be-huwasee, 
sursam, ba.e jhuk, v. to rave. 

to deliver, {to liberate, q. v.) azad-k. nujat-d. 
{to save, q. v.) punah-d. muhfooz-r. {to give 
up) huwalu- tufweezr- sipoord-k. sompna, 
pher-d. dhurana, djiurna, puhonchana, v. to 
consign, also to betray, {to give, q. v.) dena, 
pukrana, gutana, v. to transfer, {to relate, q-v.) 
bolna, tuqreer-k. {to express, q. v.) oocha- 
run-k. V. to utter ; to deliver a wmnan, juna- 
na, V. to bear. 

deliverance, delivery, {release, q. v.) khulasee, ri- 
ha,ee, foorsut, chhootee, nistara, tubleegh, pu- 
honcha,o, dhura.o, v. conveyance, nujat, gut, 
V. salvation, {utterance,q.v.) luqluqu,tuqreer, 
goya,ee, gooftar, buchun, baki, wuzu,i gosf- 
tugoo, tuluffooz, V. address, {surrender) tuf- 
weez, {child-birth) junna, byaua, wuzu.i hu- 

to delude, buhlana, buelikana, bhutkana, ghoo- 
mana, tal mutol-k. dhutoora- dhokha- S;c. -d. 
ankhon men khak-d. khilana, ghojupcdi-^* 
jhoolana, v. delusion, to amuse. , 

U 2 




deluder, delusive, dugha-baz, dimbhee, ghulut- 
kar, buhka,00j bhoola|Oo, ghulut, v. cheater, 

to delve, khodna, gorna. 
deluge, toofan, (Jlood, q. v.) tooghiyanee, barh, 

jula, raue, jularno, V. inundation. ;ju;m 
to deluge, doabona, ghurq-k. ; to he deluged, doob- 

na, ghurq- moostughruq-h. 
delusion, dhokha, tilism, khiyal, tuwuhhoom, 

khwab, fureb, numood be bood, v. deception, 

imposture, {cheat, q. v.) dugha, mooghalutu, 

V. fraud, 
detnagogue, mojtufunnee, v. factious, ringleader, 
demain, demesne, tu,ullooqu, umlu, sa,ir, ruqbu, 

V. estate, 
demand, (claim) dvi,\i'W7i,hsid, (requisition, q.\.) 

istida, suwal, chah, khwahish, mutlub, moj- 

talibu, tjilub, istihqaq, (on goods) mar, khu- 

ench, guhkee, chot, pyar, v. run, (account of 

demands) tuojeeh. '«' j). ,toj-.?. <i* 

to demand, (claim) du,uwa-k. (to require, q. v.) 

tulub-k. mangna, (to ask, q. v.) suwal- durkh- 

demander, demMudant, talib,khahish-mund,mun- 

gunhar, moostuhuq, v. asker, (plaintiff) mood- 

du,ee, (bidder, q. v.) khureedar, gahuk, v. 

to demean, (behave) chulun-chulna, (to debase, 

q. V.) hulka- khwar- kumqudr- mcobtuzl-k. 
demeanour, wuzu, chulun, dhung, v. behaviour, 
demerit, na-humwaree, na-slia,istugee, bequdu- 

ree, nirgoon, v. worthlessness, (fault, q. v.) 

goonah, chook, v. merit. 
demi, (in comp.) neem, nisf, v. half, 
demirep, ghooskee, rutwahee, v. courtesan, 
demise, rihlut, intiqal, wufat, wisal, v. death, 
to demise, de-muma, hibu-k. 
democracy, jumhoor, buhoo-byapik, v. republic. 
democra^e, jumhoor-dost, ' "saifKii^ 

to demolish, mismar-k. oojarna, dha-dena, met- 
dena, torna, tor tar-k. girana, buethana, qulu u 
o qumu-k. v. to rain, 
demolished, weeran, pa,emal, mismar, oojarj v. 
destroyed. ^i^<;)^;>.v{• ./.v,- j -: 

demolisher, mcDnhudim, bekh-kun, oojaroo, v. de- 

demolition, pa,emalee, weeranee, tora,ee, v. de- 

demon, jinn, ifreet, de,o, bhoot, duet, bhootna, 
rachhus, bliokus, usoor, jann, v. devil ; a syl- 
van demon, ghool, rakhis, \. fairy. 

demoniac, v. mad, bhootuha, bhoot luga, aseb- 
zudu, V. devilish. 

demonstrable, dulalut puzeer, v. evident. :m 

to demonstrate, butlana, jutana, dikhlana, duleel- 
&c. -lana, dulalut-k. moodullul- sabit- raoo- 
burhun-k. thuhrana, such-k^v. to prove. 

demonstration, duleel, boorhan, dal, isbat, hcojjut, 
V. the verb. ' 'iy^lul ,Wis«Vj;!t%k) 

demonstrative, moosbit, mcodullil, mooburhin. 

demonstratively, duleel- &c. -se. 

to rfemMr,agapeechha- pusopesh-k. gojman- shuk-, 
sundeh- bhurum-rukhna, unmuna-h. utukna, 
moozubzub-k. v. to doubt, hesitate, deliberate. 

demure, v. reserved, (modest, q. v.) muhjoob, 
goorbu-miskeen, bugla bhugut, v. hesitation, 
(grave, q. v.) bharee. 

demurely, muhjoobanu, hljab-se. ai Juurti. 

demureness, hijab, shurm, laj, (gravity, q. v.) 
sunjeedugee, bojhbhar. 

demurrage, guhree, roka,ee, yuomi tu,uteel. 

den, (lion''s) thur, (wolfs) bhar, mand, v. cave. 

deniable, qabil-inkar, inkar-puzeer, nunh karee. 

denial, inkar, nanh, nunh kar, tunafee, v. refu<- 


i -"-riVin j[iwitii- ;jj.i' 


denier, moonkir, inkaree, iiootunafee. ' '' ' 
to denominate, kuhna, nam-r. bolna, moosumma-k^ 
denominated, mooluqqub, v. named.. 




to he denominated, kuhlana, bajna. 

denomination, nam, ism, luquh, tusmiyu. 

denominator, na,on dharik, {infractions) rau?.- 
roob feeh. 

to denote, butlana, jutana, dikhlana, dulalut-k. 

to denounce, v. to declare, izhar-k. khubur-il. 
nam-r. kuhna, v. to accuse, (to threaten) dhum- 

dense, sungeen, bharec, garha, moonjumid, ku- 
seef, ghuleez, v. compact. 

density, sungeenee, injimad, kusafut, ghiliaut. 

dental, duntec, sunccnee, wastce. 

denticulated, dundane-dar, khundana. 

dentrificc, munjun, sunoon, missee. 

dennnciation, tuhdeed, wu,eed, v. threat, also 

to deny, in,kar-k. nioon|kir-h. mookurna, neend- 
na, nukarna, nulieen-k. numanna, oohoon-k. 
moond-dhoonna, kan pur hath-r. sulb-k. v. de- 
nial, to refuse. 

deohstruent, moofuttih. 

io depart, chulna, jana, chule-jana, ooth-jana, sid- 
harna, ruwanu- rahee-h. v. to decamp, chhorna, 
nlkulna, sidh-k. futih-k. rookhsuU wida,u-h. 
tushreef-lejana, v. to retire, digna, v. to de- 
sert, {altout to) jub tub- ub tub-horuhna, v. to 
pass, vanish, {to revolt, q. v.) moortud-bu- 
ghee-h. {to decease) rihlut-k. murna, v. to de- 

, Mst. 

department, v. post, cohdu, khidmut, v. business, 
ilaqu, zimmu, v. province, muhal, v. division, 

departure, ruwangee, kooch, puyan, chala, jatra, 
chulchula,o, pa,c-torab, pa,e-rikab, hljrut,uu([l- 
muqam, v. inarch, {decease, q. v.) rihlut, wu- 

to depend, {to hang from) lutukna, hilugna, lug- 
na, V. to join, utukna, v. to rest, damun-pu- 
kurna, v. to rely, {to confide in, q. v.) com- 

med-r. tuhqceq- yuqeen- rast- such-janna, {to 
rest on) muoqoof- moonhusir-h. (to be connect- 
ed, q. v.) ma)tu,ulluq-h. {to be undetermined) 
purna, ooljha- mooltuwee- moo/.ubzub-ruhna. 

dependance, dependancy, {connexion, q. v.) ulaqu, 
luga|0, mel, sunjog, silsilu, {confideyice, q. v.) 
asra, as, oommed, i,utimad, i,utibar, bhurum, 
{subjection, q. v,) furman-burdarce, tabj-da^ 
ree, ita,ut, adheenta, v. subordination. 

dependant, adj. mootu,ulliq, moozaf, moolhuq, mco- 
tuwussil, moonhusir, muoqoof, {undetermined) 
moozubzub, Inojltuwee. 

dependant, wabustu, damun-geer, pichh-luga, lu- 
wahiq, tabi, rufeeq, sunglugee, matuht, bun- 
du, purbus, puranee, purja, uggyakar-ee, v. 
retainer, (pi. tvho attend weddings, &c.) ne- 
gee jogee, v. inferior, subjection. 

to depict, tuqreer-k. v. description, also to paint. 

depilation, moo-kliora, {deplumation) bumunee. 

depilatory, noora. jmt^^b <\i}u . • 

deplorable, kum-bukht, sukht, bud, tung, boora, 
shudeed, qabll giriyan, rone-jog, v. contempti- 
ble, miserable. 

deplorahleness, kum-bukjitce, sukhtee, tungee, 

deplorably, bu-shiddut. 

to deplore, rona, kcorhna, puchhtana, ba,e- ah-, 
tu.ussoof- husrut-k. zaree- gu'iyu-k. v. to la- 

deponent, guwah, shahid, sakh. 

to depopulate, oojarna, weeran- taklit o taraj- zcr- 
zubur- gharut-k. 

depopulated, oojar, weeran, khurab, khurab-klius- 
tu, be-cliiragli, pa,cmal; to he depopulated, oo- 
junia, weeran-li. 

depopulation,v,'ecranee, pa,cmalee, khurabec, bc- 
cliiraghee, v. tfie verb, destroyer. 

deportment, chuluo, dhung, ruftar, turecq, v. 





td depose, tugheer- muoqoof- kharij-k. ootha- 

-d. girana, puchliarna, khulu-k. v. to dis- 
'■ grace, bolna, kuhna, v. to assert, ootarna, clal- 

na, (to attest) shuhadut-d. v. to degrade, de- 

deposite, umaniit, dhurohur, thatee, wadee,iit, 

(pledge) giruo. 
to deposite, rukhna, dhurna, sompna, sipoord- hu- 

walu-k. umanut-r. ootar- gar- le-r. zimmu-k. 

chhorna, rukh-chhorna, dalna, v. to pledge, 

lay, bury, 
deposited, umahutee. 

deposition, (testimony, q. v.) shuhadut, sakhee, 
' shahidee, zuban-bundee, v. affidamt, tukhli- 


V. dismission. 

depository, v. receptacle, umanut-dar, dhurohvi- 

ree, v. guardian, (of treasure) dufeenu, v. 

hoard, till, 
depot, zukheeru, v. magazine, 
depravation, depravity, depravedness, depravement, 

fusad, inqilab, bigar, boora,ee, k,hota,ee, khu- 

rabee, tubahee, inhiraf, pher pjiar, v. vitious, 

to deprave, khurab- tubah- boora- khota- fasid-, 

moonhurif-k. phirana, v. to corrupt, vitiate, 
depraved, mcokhtul. 
to he depraved, bigurna. 
to deprecate, istighfar- tuobu-k. (to intercede Jbr) 

shufa,ut- cpzr moo,uzurut- rozrkhwahee-k. v. 

to implore, 
deprecation, v. blessing, istighfar, shufa,ut, oop- 

kar, V. mediator, also submission, isti|Ufa, isti,u- 
 zar, V. apology. 

deprecator, qozr-khwah, shufee,u, moostughfir. 
to depreciate, ootarna, ghutana, hulka- hetha- soo- 

book-k. hiqanit- ihanut- muzummut-k. du- 

bana, marna, v. to undervalue. 
io depredate, lootna, lootpat- takht o taraj- khak 

siyah- gharut-k. 

depredation, loot-pat, takht o taraj, v. the verb. 

depredator, rah-zun, quzzak, butpar, lootera, qoot- 
tau cot tureeq, v. robber. 

to depress, dabna, dubana, puchkana, pust-k. (to 
deject, q. v.) ufsc»rdu- diltung- surd-k. ghuta- 
na, zer-k. boojhana, v. to humble, sink. =j >>* 

depression, duba.o, puchuk, v. dejection. ' a 

deprivation, udum, nast. 

to deprive, lena, lelena, chheen-lena, khuench-, 
nikal- karh-lena, kat-d. mu,iizoor- sulb- klia- 
lee-k. (of life) mar-sutna or -A. marna jan se, 
V. to debar, eject, take. 

deprived, (of reason) musloob-asl uql, v. void. 

depth, V. deepness, guehra,o, cpmooq, gihra,ee, 
(middle) mudh, uen, shubab, v. height, chuo- 
raiCe, V. obscurity, abyss. 

deputation, wikalut, niyabut, umeenee, umanut- 
daree, v. missimi. 

to depute, bhejna, ruwanu- irsal-k. wukeel-k. 
wikalut-d. v. to send, appoint. 

deputy, V. commissioner, wukeel, na,ib, pesh-dust, 
peshkar, mooslirif, janisheen, umeen, (shipi) v. 
agency, niyabut, wukeelee, na,ibee, (in comp.) 
pesh, V. viceroy. •''■(•<.': ,' 

to deride, hunsna, bunana, tueyar- tusukhkhoor- 
S:c. -k. thutha- tu,imu-marna, v. to jeer. 

derision, thutholee, reesh-khundee, zurafut, mus- 
khurgee, muzah, (vulg. muzakh) tumuskhoor, 
istihza, thutha, muskhuree, zutul, v. ridicule, 
(a laughing stock) muskhuru, huduf, mutqon. 

derivation, ikhraj, booniyad, jur, mool, v. origin, 
wujih tusmiyu, furoo,at, bhed, buramud, v. ety- 
mology, (source, q. v.) maddu, musdur, (in 
grammar) ishtiqaq. 

derivative, furu, mooshtuq. jibiu 

to derive, v. to come, nikalna, lena, ukhz- ma- 
khooz-k. mooshtuq-k. v. to trace, pukurna, 
lana, v. to receive. 

derived, mootufuru, v. derivative. 




to derogate, ghutana, bequdr- bewuqr- huqeer-k. 
V. to depreciate. .Mtc-wq mei. 

derogation, hiqarut, be-qudree, 1)e-wuqree, soo- 
bcokee, istikhfaf. 

derogatory., mu,uyoob, na-moonasib,na-]a,iq, ghat, 
ujog, bu,ced ; to be derogatory, ooturta-hona. 

dervis, durwesh, firqeer. 

io descant, geet-gana, v. to expatiate. ■fVti^^i-.' 

to descend, ooturna, hooboot-k. waqi- sadir- na- 
zil-h. dhulna, doobna, furod-ana, neeche-a or 
-j. dhulukna, buethna, v. to alight, fall, sub- 
side, {from ancestors) ana, nikulna, (fty inhe- 
ritance) puhcionchna, milna, v. to invade. 

descendant, buns, suntan, shakh, dalpal, v. off- 

desce7idants, uolad, zoorriyat. 

descension, descent, ootar, zuwal, noozool, tunuz- 
zool, (slope) dhal, (invasion) yoorlsb, churh- 
nee, (extraction, q. v.) usl, khandan, ghurana, 
(degree, q. v.) durju, payu, v. degradation, 
h eritage. i 3ft '' /tflj  

to describe, butlana, buyan- tuqreer-k. v. de- 

description, buyan, nuql, tu,iireef, bukhan, tiio- 
seef, V. explanation, (of a person) hiliyu, chih- 
ru-nuweesee, khal khutt, suroop putree, v. 
quality, (sort, q. v.) soorut, tuor, turuh, wuzu, 
qimash, chal. 

to descry, v. to discover, takna, dekhna, nijhana, 
cliitana, puhclianna, v. to espy; to be descried, 
nuzur-ana, soojhna, dikhla,e-d. 

desert, buyaban,jungul, khundur, wadee, badiyu, 
V. wilderness, hamoon, beshu, v. a waste. 

desert, (wild, solitary) weeran, khurab, luqduq, 
khafee, soona, bun-khund, v. dreary. 

desert, (last course) hazree, tiifukkohat, phulkar, 
V. fruit. 

desert, (merit, q. v.) qudr, huqq, v. behaviour. 

to desert, chhor-d. dal-jana, chhor-bhagna, turk-k. 

(to run away) bhagna, purana, lul-jana, firar-h. 
nathna, v. to forsake, fiee. 

deserted, v. desert, mutrook. - ,Trii(.-^,vvi 

deserter, blmgora, firaree, tarik, nathoo, from 
nathna, to desert, v. fugitive. 

desertion, firar, turk, chula-chul, ruwa-ruwee, v. 

to deserve, suzawar- la,iq- moostuhuq- moostuo 
jib- jog-h. V. to require, cbahna, mooqtuzee-, 
qabil-h. v. to merit; to deserve deaths y/a^fxH- 
qutl-h. > . 

deservedly, insaf- huqq-se. 

design, v. model, (intention, q. v.) iradu, qusd, 
munsha, tuhueyu, ahung, murkooz, uzeemut, 
himmut, ghat, v. aim, jmr pose, (scheme, q. v.) 
tujweez, fitrut, (plan, q. v.) nuqshu, (plot^ 
q. V.) bundisb, v. sketch. 

to design, (purpose) iradu-r. (to plan) nuqshu- 
bunana, (to make) bunana, pueda-k. (to de- 
vote, q. V,) mooqurrur-k. 

designation, iilamut, nishan, isharut, luqub, v. 

designedly, jan-boojhke, qusdun, bil-qusd, umd- 
un, deedu o danistu. 

designer, (contriver, q. v.) niunsoobu-baz^l^u^u- 
ne-baz, fitrutee, v. painter. . . u .v 

desigmng,^a.iee, guongeera, ghuniz-ashna,ghii- 
ruz.-ba,ola, khrod-ghuruz, bud-khiyal, da,o- 
geera, v. deceitful, insidious. 

desirable, v. alhcring, chaheeta, pusundeedu, iiz- 
eez, murghoob, luteef, dil-pusund, ruseela, r. 
luscious, pleasing. 

desire, (wish, q. v.) cliah, khwahish, huwus, 
mrorad, huwa, chonp, rughbut, kanina, lalsa, 
cheeta, dhoon, wuswas, ichha, zuoq, husrut, 
munzoor, chahut, cha,©, cliatj chuska, mooni 
yut, az, bisun, v. inclination, rus, bah, aufs, 
T. love, lust, passion, (request, q. v.) furBia,ish, 
urz, istida, istifsar, v. design, (appetite, q. v.) 




chhoodha, {carnal) shuhwut, kara, nufsani- 
to desire, (to wish for) chahna, khwahish- &c. -r. 
turusna, lulchana, lilukna, v. to covet, (to re- 
quest) durkhwast-k. mangna, (to bid) kuhna, 
isharu-k. furmana, v. to order, intreat. 

desirous, dearer, mooshtaq,sha|iq, ishtiyaq-mund, 
raghib, hiirees, t.alib, shuoqeen, luoleen, khwa- 
han, khwahish-mund, tishnii, bisunee, v. ea- 
ger, mcwtumunee; to he desirous, sha,iq- moosh- 
taq-Ii. V. covetous. 

to desist, muoqoof- baz-ruhna, dust burdar-h. 
purhez- ihtiraz-k. ruh-jana, pher-ruhna, baz- 
-a. ^hath-c»thana or -khuenchna, murna, v. to 
cease, stop. 
_ desk, [Pcyrt. ulmaree,] patee, v. hoard, chest, ta- 
' hie. 

 desolate, weeran, takht o taraj, khak-siyah, kha- 

lee, be-chiragh, suttyanas, tuhusnuhus, zer- 
zubur, gharut, v. desert; a desolate place, vvee- 
ranu, khundur. 

to desolate, oojarna, weeran-k. 

desolation, weeranee, khurabee, be-chiraghee. 

despair, na-oommedee, yas, nir-as, mayoosee, be- 
tuwukkoolee, v. desperate. 

to despair, na oommed- mayoos- niras-h. hath- 

despatch, v. departure, ]vMee, shitabee, (packet, 
q. V.) nuhva, khureetu, v. express, ruwangee, 
chulan, mursoolu, v. speed. 

to despatch, ruwanu-k. bhejna, puthana, duora- 
na, chulana, v. to hasten, khupana, v. to de- 
V stroy, (to kill, q. v.) thikana-lugana, (to fi- 

nish, q. V.) akhir-k. 

desperate, (fearless, q. v.) be-bak, ni-dur, (hope- 
less, q. V.) nir-as, be-tuwukkool, nirasee, be- 
duol, V. furious, (irrecoverable, q. v.) tubah, 
' ' ruddee, be-hal, (mad, q. v.) mujnoon, siree, 

V. great; to grow desperate, jee dene pur-ana, 
murne pur-ana. 

desperately, bebakee-se, tuhuwwoor-se, (in a great 
degree) bu-shiddut, be-nihayut. 

desperation, desperateness, bebakee, tuhuwwoor, 
V. despair. 

despicable, despisahle, v. bad, pajee, kumeenu, 
zuleel, moobtuzul, kluifeef, soobook, hulka, 
muzmoom, be-qudr, be-wuqr, khwar, dunee, 
nikhid, khusees, v. mean, vile, ivorthless. 

despicableness, hiqarut, zillut, ihanut, be-qudree, 
be-vvuqree, khwaree, khurabee, duna^ut, is- 
tikhfaf, V. baseness, meanness. : 

despicably, hiqarut-se, v. badly. 

to despise, huqeer-janna, hiqarut-k. lat-marna, 
pust- &c. -sumujhna, v. low, ghutana, ar-r. 
V. despicable, to contemn. 

despite, despitefulness, (malice, q. v.) bud-unde- 
shee, udawut, mookhalufut, zidd, iiks, inad, 
buer, V. defiance, spite. 

to despite, khufu- nakhoosh-k. eeza- tusdee,u-d. 
sutana, khijana, julana, kcwrhana, v. to disap- 

to despoil, chheen-lena, le-lena, kho-dena, oora- 
dena, zayi,u-k. lootna, loot-lena, v. to spoil, 
sAso plunder. :]i.<\.:.-i 

to despond, na-oommed-Ii. 

despmidence, na-oommedee, mayoosee, yas. 

despondent, na-oommed, nii--as, mayoos, v, melan- 

despot, (tyrant, q. v.) zalim, jabir, mookhtar- 
kool, qa,im bu zatihi, v. absolute. 

despotic, (absolute, q. v.) moostuqil, mcnkhtar- 
kool, V. unlimited. 

despotism, istiqlal, tusulloot, v. absoluteness. 

to despumate, muel-katna or nikharna, v. tojrofh. 

destination, (appointed place) murju, rauqurr, nu- 
seeb, V. design. 

to destine, mooquddur- mooqurrur-k. thuhrana, 




ruchna, muqsoom-k. v. to appropriate, doom, 
devote, appoint. 

destined, raooquddur, maxjurrur, moo,ueyun,moo- 
shukhkus, V. bound. 

destiny, tuqdeer, quz.a, qismut, honee, nuseeb, 
bukht, sur-nuwisht, rutce, sitaru, y. fortune, 
fate, {future doom) aqibut, akhirut, unjam. 

destitute, {friendless, q. v.) la-char, durmandu, 
be-nuwa, be-dust o pa, be-muqdoor, ajiz, v. 
abject, be-walec waris, v, helpless, {wanting) 
moo,urra, aree, muhroom, klialce, v. aban- 
doned ; destitute of money, mooflis, muflook, 
tihee-dust, v. without. 

to destroy, v. to demolish, nast-k. torna, marna, 
ghalna, sungharna, chalna, katna, tulput- mit- 
ee-k. khak- tumam-k. v. ruined, to desolate, 
blast, consume, {lay waste) oojarna, {to spoil) 
bigarna, {to raze) dha-dena, {to kill, q. v.) 
qutl- saf-k. 

destroyed, v. annihilated, gharut, tuluf, khurab, 
mcBnhudim, khak-siyah, takht o taraj, zerzu- 
bur, khurab-khustu, moostasul, sutyanas, tu- 
bah, t.ayi,u, mulmet, hulak, shikustu, v. ashes, 
{as afield) beej-mar, lut-goondhun, v. demo- 

destroyer, bigaroo, oojaroo, hulakoo, sungharoo, 

destruction, pa,emalee, weeranee, tubahee, khwa- 
ree, khurabee, inhidam, isteesal, hulakee, mis- 
maree, shikustiigee, chjiue, sunghra,o, tukh- 
reeb, v. the verb, funa, lop, v. death. 

destructive, moozir, moofsid, uogoonkaree, mooh- 

destructiveness, mc»fsidee. 

desultory, be-rubt, be-zubt, be-surrishtu, v. ir- 
regular. '(Ill 'A-t!' 

to detach, chhorana, jooda-k. duora- nikal- chhant- 
bhejna, V. to send, bilgana, v. to disjoin, {troops) 

bhejna, ruwanu- &c. -k. tu,eenat-k. v. to des- 

detached, jooda, ulug, ulahidu, mostufurriq, v. 

detachment, {a body of troops) guroh, ghol, jutha, 
tu.eenat, tU|ecnatee, lushkur, dustu, kushoon, 
V. brigade, {on forage) kuhee, \. party, chhun- 
ta,o, bi]ga,o, v. separation, risalu, from irsal, 
{Arab.) to send, detach. 

detail, tufscel, moofussul; in detail, mushroohun, 

to detail, moofussul-kuhna or -likhiia, tufseel-k. 
tufreeq-k, v. particular, and its derivatives. 

to detain, baz-rukhna, utkana, rokna, ooljha-r. 
bilbhana, bujhana, buetlialna, chhenkna, dab-T. 
V. to delay, retain, {to confine) qued- bund-k. 
{to keep) rukhna. 

to detect, dekh-pana, pukur-pana, pukur-Iena, 
dekhna, dhurna, tarna, v. to discover, {to per- 
ceive, q. V.) duriyaft-k. 

detection, ifsha, zoohoor, dhur-pukur, dhura,o, 
pukrahut, girift, pukur, v. discovery, also the 

detector, pukurunhar, {in comp.) geer. 

detention, utka,o, rooka|0, {confinement, q. v.) 
qued, hubs. 

to deter, durana, chushm nooma,ee-k. v. to fright- 

to deterge, chhantna, saf-k. ala,ish-nikalna, v. to 

determinate, {settled, q. v.) tuhqeeq, nioo,ueyun, 
tiieek, moosummum, mu,uhood, muhdood, v. 
certain, determined, definite. 

determinately, istiqlal-se, qusdun, umduij, bil- 

determination, {intention, q. v.) qusd, uzcemut, 
{resolution, q. v.) istiqlal, dhaon, teha, pesh- or 
khatir-nihad, murkooz khatir, ma fiz-zumcer, 
V. design, tujweez, bichar, v. sentence, {deci- 




sion, q. v.) umr, futwa; ajixed determination, 
qusd moosummutn, uzm bil-juzm. 
to determine, thuhrana, theek-k. tusmeem-k. 
chookana, kuhna, bolna, bicharna, v. to settle, 
jLv, azim-h. v. hound, {to resolve) qusd-k. (to 
decide, q. v.) hookm-k. or -d. (to finish, q. v.) 
akhir-k. (to bound) ihatu-k. (to define, q. v.) 
tu,ureef-k. (to influence) hurukut- tuhreek-d. 
(to conceive) janna, v. to destroy, end. 
determined, (resolute) moostuqil,muz.boot,v. con- 
stant, determinate. '' '.oiAiKxuV 
to detest, v. to hate, udawut-r. mukrooh-janna, 

bhagna, v. to loathe, 
detestable, mukrooh, ghuleez, na-guwar, pileed, 
ghinuona, doosht, muloon,qubeeh,lu,een,nusht, 
chundal, v. cursed, vile, 
detestation, udawut, nufrut, buer, , chirh, ghin, 

lis, kurahiyut, istikrah, nufreen, v. liatred. 
detester, moostukrih, v. abhorrer, hater.] 
to dethrone, tukht pur se ootarna, padshahee se 
kharij kurna. lUilb .tetxiiifo.v .MMtti jMsvh^'jW- 
to detract, lena, lelena, ghutana, ootarna. 
detracter, ueb-go, toohmutee, moofturee, ninduk, 

detraction, ueb-go,ee, nindiya, iftira, toohmut, 
booh tan, gheebut, budnamee, v. to derogate, 
detriment, nooqsan, shikust, gbata, dokh, qoosoor, 
khulul, qubahut, nooqs, ueb, anch, khundit, 
V. loss, mischief, 
detrimental, moozir, uogoonkaree, mookhil, moof- 

to detritde, nikalna, khiskana, v. to eject, 
devastation, weeranee, pa|emalee, qiyamut, v. 

deicce, do, (in games) doo,a, dooree. 
to develope, kholna, wazih-k. nikalna, sooljhana, 

huU-k. V. to disentangle. 
to deviate, (to stray, q. v.) bhutukna, nikulna, 

bahir- kharij- raoonhurif- roogurdan-h. endool-, 
tujawooz-k. kutrana, luotna, v. to turn, wan- 
der, err. 

deviation,\. irregularity, bhutuk, goomrahee, be- 
rahee, roogurdanee, inhiraf, zulalut, koo-puth, 
khoor-chal, bukur-chal, bidut, tujawooz, v. 
innovation, offence. '^Vi s!j*r'»»*,j .ait»\, 

device, (contrivance, q. v.) hikmut, joogut, kut- 
kuna, fitrut, munsoobu, tujweez, (on a shield) 
ulamut, nishan, tughmu, v. design, invention, 
sikku, V. inscription, khel, bazee, v. conceit, 
trick. <tii/if« (\w^»i« '\o avv\feS».,>J» \ j»»Mv>i> 

devil, iblees, shuetan, uzazeel, khubees, khun- 
nas, duet, usoor, pishach, mureed, rujeem, v. 
demon, (to play the) zumeen sir pur lena, nuo 
nezu panee churhana, toofan-oothana, qiya- 
mut-k. oodhim-jotna, (dish) guzuk, kubootur- 
buchu, numkeen-chuna, v. relish. 

devilish, shuetanee, dozukhee, juhunnumee, (wic- 
ked, q. V.) shureer, moozee, (arrant, q. v.) 
ushud, suklit, (excessive) be-hudd. iiriuwcft 

devil help him, fin-nar wu suqr. :iu4 

devilkin, bhootna, shuetan-buchu, v. i»wp. ■>«<! 

devil take it, lU|Unut bu hech. :>v») 

devious, kujruw, bud-rah, v. astray. '■■' • > 

devise, (will, q. v.) wusiyut-namu, v. device. 

to devise, (to contrive, plan, q. v.) eejad- ikhti- 
ra,u-k. nikalna, munsoobu-duorana, tudbeer-k. 
(to bequeath) de-murna, hibu-k. 

rfewwer,moojid,mookhturi,banee5 kurta, (schemer, 
q. V.) fitrutee. :>iiuu%iiin ,v'iisni 

devoid, khalee, moo,urra, aree, tihee, v. without. 

devoir, moolazimut, v. respect. 

to devolve, v. a. dalna, chhorna, sompna ; v. n. 
ana, gima, puhonchna. •<iV»n^B'»b 

to devote, (dedicate, q. v.) niyaz- fida-nuzr- qoor- 
ban-k. tusuddooq-k. churhana, warna, nichh- 
awur-k. (to appropriate, q. v.) mukhsoos-k. 
Uiuhrana, (to give up) dal-d. (to addict) mus- 




roof-k. (to curse, q. v.) lu.unut- nufreen- mur- 

devoted, (appropriated) mooshukhklius, mooqur- 
rur, incD,ueyun, sudc^u, jan nisar, wara, v. *■«- 
orifice, (in comp.) purust, v. fmid, (addicted) 
musroof, maijl ; devoted servant, fidwee, bun- 
du, (victim, q. v.) moorgh-kooshtunee. 

devotee, zaliid, abid, sliekh, mnortaz, riyazutce, 
jog-ee, rikh, moon, buerag-ee, kushtree* ti^ws- 
see, pojjaree, v. devout. 4rv.i^v 

devotion, (piety, q. v.) ibabut, zoulid, rlyazut, 
bundiigee, (uboodiyut, purustisli, bhugut, tu- 
pussya, sulahiyut, (prayer) numaz, sulat, poo- 
ja, urclia, pooja-putree, kriya-kuruui, shughl, 
i,utikaf, chillu, ta^ut, suom o sulat, raooraqibii, 
jog, V. worship, fidwiyut, jan nisaree, v. obse- 

to devour, bhuklina, bhukosna, khar-lena, nosh-k. 
hudbudajia, hahee-marna, kiia-jana, dhook-. 
usua, V. to consume, swallow. 

devourer, k}ia,oo, bhukhee, khoi'indu, ughoree, 
V. consumer, eater. 

devout, nicDsullee, numazce, mootu.ubbid, sahib- 
dil, parsa, bhugut, musha,ikh, soofec, sliaghil, 
kasib, arif, moo.utikif, raoo,ubid, numaz-goozar, 
jogesur, jup tupiya, v. pious, devotee. 

devoutly, soofiyanu, zahidanu, ibabut-se. 

dew, shub-num, os, koliur, sect, (drop) danu,e 
shubnum, v. mist. 

dew Jap, bika, chuddar, ghub-ghub. 

dewy, shubnumee, seetuha. 

dearterity, v. knack, dust-karee, huthuotee, karee, 
guree, kulbul, sunut, v. cleverness, address, 
skill, chuluk, hath chalak-ee, dust-rus- gah- or 
-qoodrut, churub-dust,unoh, chutoora,ee,v. abi- 
lity, (activity, -q. v.) chalakee, kuruk, chut- 

dexterous, dust-kar, kareegur, dust-qabil, (active, 
q. V.) chutputiya, kurkeela, chabook or cha- | 

luk-dust, chutuk baz, cbcsst cbalak, tez-dust, 

V. expert, ready, cunning, (tultle, q. v.) pukka, 

syana, v. clever. ^ ^i ;,: 

dexterously, chalakee-se.  : " 

diabetes, diyabeetoos, ziyabeetoos, sub ool buol, 

mudhooprimyu. >.jjitttJ ,«/riin' 
diabolical, shuetanee, v. hellish, 
diacodium, duyaqoozu. 
diadem, koolah, dueheem, mookut, mui^k, r. 

crown, turban. i •"» .>-n\t 

dMjgonal, V. cortierwise, triangle, oblique, 
diagram, shukl hindusu, nuqshu, sanclm, w.plan. 
dial, da.iru hindee, juntur, chukur, niiqiyas, r. 

dialect, zuban, lisan, bolee, bhakha, v. style, 
dialogue, juwab-suwal, zikr-muzkoor, batbut- 

kuha,o, gooftugoo, moozakuru, v. chitchat, 
diameter, qootr, khuti istuwa, dul, v. thickness, 

juya, byas, v. breadth, 
diatnofid, ulmas, heera, punib-heera; a round 

diatnond, gutta heera; a cutting diamond used 

by glaziers, (julumi-ulmas. 
diaper, do damee, v. damask, 
diaphanous, shuffaf. 
diaphragm, purdu. 

diarrliwa, ishal, jiriyan i shikum, sungribnee. 
diary, roz-namu, avvarju. v 

dibble, khuntee, koodalee, khoorpee. 
dibstone, ulhee, v. pebble, 
dice, pase, (pi. «)/'pasa, a die) gittukh, ku.ubut- 

uen, V. hazard ; a player at dice, pusuet, 
dice-board, bisatj tukhtu-nurd, v. man, box. 
dictate, hookm, umr, irshad, aggya, v. ruie. 
to dicta^, (order, q. v.) furmana, kuhna, lirokm- 
-d. ihtimam-k. (a letter) jbarut-kuhna, likha- 
oa, V. to endite. 'a .u-'tu 

dictum, bolchal, roz-mumi, kuha, kuhtoof, kuh- 
Boot, kuhawut, tuqreer, v, language, (style, 
q. V.) ma^iawui'u, lifchut. 
X 3 




dictionary, Icngliut, furhung, kosh, oobedhan, un- 
ekarth, umur-kosh, v. vocabulary. 

did, kiya, tha, v. to do, be. 

die, (coZowr) rung, khizabjWnusmu, kulup, {stamp) 
sikku, thuppa, zurbu, chhap, v. dice. 

to die, {titige) rungna, rung-churhana or -d. 

to die, {expire, q. v.) murna, fuot akhir- sant-h. 
dhoolna, ho-j. or -chookna, jhookna, moona, 
sona, ankh-moondna, khel-j. waqu- huqq- wu- 
fat-k. V. decease, {abroad) mur-ruhna, (m bat- 
tle) kam-a. kutna, v. to fall, {suddenly) oophur- 
purna, V. death, {to be killed) qutl-h. mara-jana, 
(to cease, q. v.) ooth- mit-jana, nnioqoof-h.; to 
die a martyr, shuheed-h. shuhadut-pana, {to 
perish, q. v.) mu,udootn- nast- nest nabood-h. ; 
to die prematurely, juwanu murg-murna, {to 
become languid) boqjhna, surd- ufsoordu- soost- 
-h. {to vanish, q. v.) ulop-h. blla-jana, goom-h. 
(to wither, q. v.) jhoorana, khooshk-hojana, 
(as a tree) ookutna, v. dead, {to spoil) bigur- 
na, {as liquors) ooturna, v. vapid, {as a horse) 
suqt-h. V. to dry, {the beard) khizab-k. v. to 

dier, rung-rez, subbagh. 

diet, khana, khorak, punth, y. provision, o-egimen, 
(drink) karha, v. decoction. 

to diet, {to feed) khilana, {by rule) ghiza tuj- 
weez-k. ahar-butlana, (to eat) khana. 

to differ, ulug-h. phootna, bilugna, v. to disagree, 
(to contend) jhugurna, ikhtilaf-r. (as opinion) 

difference, {distinction, q. v.) furq, tufawut, beech, 
butta, jcx)da,ee, ikhtilaf, tukhaloof, tufarooq, 
iftiraq, tuba,in, tughayur, (variance, q. v.) un- 
rus, na-moowafuqut, na-sazee, nifaq, fusad, 
bhed, mcogha,irut, v. change, do,ee, phoot 
phat, V. discord, kusrat, budla,ee, v. exchange, 
(lunar aberration) khumsu mootufariqu, (dis- 
•«fe, q. V.) quziyu, buhs, >-. quarrelt 

different, (distinct, q. v.) ulug, ulahldu, nyara^ 
mooba,in, mookhtulif, uor, bibhed, an, v. other, 
(dissimilar, q.v.) mookhalif, na-moowafiq; dif- ^ 
ferent sorts, uqsam, unvva,u, qism bu qism, 
turuh bu tunih ka, v. various; a different 
affair, uor bat. mtm^i 

differently, uor turuh-se, v. different. 

diffculi, mooshkil, dcoshwar, kuthin, goorli,sukht, 
duqeeq, .soo,ub, useer, bharee, doobhur, v. in- 
tricate, troublesome, •' f;*^;.>: "*t .; ; - 

difficultly, ishkal-se, girte-purte, jyon-tyonkur, 
V. ado. 

difficulty, ish}iia\, diqqut, mushuqqut,'cosrut, sukh- • 
tee, dcDshwaree, soo,oobut, goorhta, garb, jun- 
jal, jhunjhut, moo,usurut, v. perplexity, mq- 
du, duqeequ, koonu, bareekee, bhed, v. obscu- 
rity, enigma, (trouble, q. v.) mihnut, kudd o 
kawish, jidd ojihd, thukthuk, (distress, q. v.) 
dookh, eeza, kusht, kheecha-kheech, cosrut, 
pureshanee, kush niukush, (objection, q. v.) 
tu,urrooz, pukur, moo,aruzu, v. ado, adversity. 

diffidence, dhurka, sunkoch, wuswas, wuhm, shoo- 
buh, shuk, undeshu, v. bashfulness, modesty. 

diffident, undeshu-nak, wus-wasee, wuhmee, 
shukkee, sunkochee, v. timid, uncertain. ;i 

to be diffident, wuswas-r. {_ 

diffidently, wuswas-se. 

diffuse, diffused, diffusive, (copious, q.v.) tuweel, 
moofussul, iTidishurruh, bistar, lumha-chuora, 
(scattered) moontushur, puragundu, nushr, v. 

to diffuse, phuelana, bichhana, chhitkana, bikh- 
erna, khindana, beetna, moontushur- nushr-k. 
V. n. putna, pusurna, v. to spread. 

to be diffused, phuelna, chhitukna, bitna, bith- 
urna, bikhurna, moontushur-h. khindna. 

diffuscdly, diffusely, diffusively, phuela,o- tool- in- 
tishar-se, jnushroohun, moofussulun. 




diffiisedness, diffusion, diffitsiveness, tool, toolanee, 
phuela,o, v. dispersion. 

to dig, V. to ditch, khodna, gorna, khundna, 
khoorpiyana, goorubna, v. to grub, (a wall) 
phorna, torna, sendh-marna, v. to pierce, un- 
dermine ; to dig out, khod-lena, nikalna, kor- 
na; to dig up, {as a dead body) ookharna, ookh- 
ar- nikal-lena. 

to digest, V. a. {in the stomach) puchana, hu7.m-k. 
tuhleel-k. bhusum-k. gulana, v. to bear, {to 
arrange, q. v.) arastu- mooruttub-k. {chymi- 
cally) pukana, pookhtu-k. v. n. {ns a sore) 
pukna, V. to granulate. 

digested, huz.m, moonhuzum, tuhleel, {arranged, 
q. V.) arastu. 

to be digested, puchna, huzm-h. 

digester, {arranger, q. v.) nazim, {causing diges- 
tion) pachuk, hazim, moohullil. 

digestible, puchunliar, qabil-huzm,huzm puzeer, 
guwaru, puchne-jog. 

digestion, {of food) huzm, pucha,o, noozj, v. ma- 
turation, {chemical) puka,o, pookhtugee, {ar- 
rangement, q. V.) intizam. 

digestive, pak, moonzij, v. digester; the digestive 
powers, hazimu, qoDWuti mi|Udu, v. stomach. 

digger, bel-dar, kawindu, khodunhar, v. pioneer, 
(in comp.) kun; thzis, gor-kun, a grave-dig- 

digging, khoda|ee, &c. 

digit, ungcnl, v.Jinger, ank, v. figure. 

dignified, slian-dar, gurwa, bharee, sahib-tum- 
kunut or -shuokut, sunjeedu, mcnshueyin, v. 

to dignify, burhana, turruqqee-d. bcolund- sur- 
furaz-k. {to honour) hoormut-d. 

dignity, murtubu, durju, munzulut, qudr, payu, 
jah, munsub, shan, shuruf, abroo, jzzut, hcnr- 
mut, wuqr, wiqar, iftikhar, put, bojh, bhar, 
ab, ghuerut, roodaree, numood, wuzn, tiim- 

kunut, ghcnrrazee, sulabut, fur, an, anban, 
munish, murjad, muhut, man, liyaqutjv.gran- 
deur, rank. 

to digress, gosrez-k. jhar-b. v. to deviate. 

digression, goorez, jhunkhar,pech pach,shuqooq, 
jhar-puhar, v. branch, deviation. 

digressive, shakh dur sbakb, v. to wander. 

dike, {ditch, q. v.) kha,ee, {bank, q. v.) pooshtu, 
khawan, v. mound. 

to dilate, v. a. burhana, kholna, phoolana, chuo- 
rana, v. to widen ; v, n. burhna, phuebia, 
khoolna, phoolna. 

dilatoriness, ahistugee, deree, kahilee, dirungee, 
talmutol, takheer, moohlut, tusahool, tuwuq- 
qoof, V. slowness. 

dilatory, ahistu, dheema, der, dirung, v. idle. 

dildoo, suboora, goolee. j. 

dilemma, doobdha, huesbues, mcohtumil ooz-zid- 
duen, bhunwurjal, v. difficulty, doubt. 

diligence, dhoon, koshish, sur-gurmee, dil-gur- 
mee, tundihee, mihnut, himmut, istlqlal, pu- 
risrum, diqqut, kudd, v. assiduity. A 

diligent, dhoonee, sur-gurrn, dil-gurm, musroof, 
mooqueyud, moDstuqil, bujid, tundih, mush- 
ghool, mooshuqquttee, hazir-bash, shitab kar, 
shaghil, V. assiduous, industrious, ready, pre- 

diligently, tuqueyood- koshish-se. 

dill, ujwa,en ? 

dilute, putla, ruqeeq. hrtf^fiiior' 

to dilute, putla- ruqeecj-k. 

diluter, mcoruqqiq. ,U%i^ 

dilution, turqeeq.  ' 

dim, dhoondha, undluila, be-noor, choondhia, un- 
dha, koond-nigah, {sighted, to become) c\vyai}i]n- 
yana, {dull) teeru, koond, v. obscure. 

to dim, dhrondhlana. 

dimension, map, puemood, puema.ish, niiqdar, 
ursu, wusut, tuosee,u, musahut, undazu, urz 




tool o qanuq, lumba,ee, chuora,ee, guehra,cc, 
V. hulk, sine, space. -ft'''*.' ,if*tf<i/Hl ' 

to diminish, v. a. ghutana, katna, kum-k. mookh- 
ufFuf- kotah- chhota- wuzu- minha-k. v. n. 
ghutna, kutna, kum-h. 

diminution, ghutee, kumtee, kumee, ghata, zu- 
waJ, kotahee, minha,ee, tuklifeef, tusgheer, 
nooqsan, kast, tuqleel. 

diminutive, chhota, kochuk, kum, nunha, tunik, 
nanh, lughoo, v. small; a diminutive noun, is- 
mi mcDsughghur, sungya. r ;)>«• 

dim,inutiveness, chhotaiCe, kochukee, tungee. 

dimity, doriya, char-khanu, v. damask, {varieties) 
rezu khutt, seekhee, seenkhiya. 

dimness, dhoond, dhoondlaiCe, teerugee, v. stupi- 
dity. T'if> (.itirf'Vifff) iifi'' 

dimple, puchuk, khudha, {of the cheek) garh, 
gurha, (o/" ^Ae c/iiw) chah i zunukh. ,-««*'.",,> 

to dimjjle, puchukna, gurha-pvirna. 

din, shor, ghcol, gohar, ghcol ^hupara, dlioom, 
doond, V. clamour. r.~.Au .^x^baiiv ,«yri 

iodine, khana-khana, chasht-k. 'nj-m • 

to ding, V. to dash, drive, impress, ij ,wvjij' 

ding-dong, tuntun, v. knell. .- - . 

dining-room, mihman-khanu, v. banquet. 
-dmwer,khana,din ka khana, v./eas#,/ood,chasht, 
nan-nuharee, v. breakfast, kulewa, bura kha- 
na, V. entertainment ; dinner-time, khane ke 
■wnqt. — N. B. I believe there is no word 
in the Hindoostanee synonymous with din- 
ner. i-tKvjjjytf-tfaffq 4'V«j\\^! '\\ 

dint, {depression) puchuk, gurha, chupuk, {to) 
chupkana, puchkana, v. to depress, {force, q. 
V.) zor, bul ; to carry any thing by dint of 
money, puese ke zor se kam nikaJna, v. 

blow. .V' ./■ .Ij'JaijI .i!-4i (Vf^ft-) ,flit]: 

a dip, {in dyeing) dob, bor. 
■to dip, V. a. doobo-lena, bor-lena, doobkee-d. 
doobana, ghotu-d. ghurq-k. v. n. ghotu-mar- 

na or -khana, doobna, {to look into) dekhna, 
ghuor-k. V. to moisten, dalna, dena, v. to en- 
gage, enter. ,KO^«)rt» .i^^iVk* o\ .v,^^ <ift 

diphthong, lufeef muqrooli. 

diploma, sunud, dust-awez, puttur, v. charter. 

dire, {dreadful, q. v.) dira,ona, huebut-nak, {se- 
vere, q. V.) bharee, kuthin. ,>.^^^;v^ ^^ ;„„ 

direct, seedha, soodha, mcostu'vyee, saf, innee, 
be-luga,o, ek-dum, v. express, strait, plain. 

to direct, {to instruct, q. v.) soodharna, arastu-, 
turbiyut-k. ubub-d. {to point out) butlana, 
diklJana, soojhana, v. to show, {to order, q. v.) 
furraana, ihtlmam-k. {to regulate, q. v.) bun- 
dobust- doorcost-k. {to adjust) sadhna, v. to 
arrange, chulana, v. to conduct, vhofrge, {to 
aim, q. v.) nishanu-k. -,Av.,>r.'.u ~y^ ■<» 

direction, {path) rah, v.~range, {order, q. v.) 
umr, kuha, ihtimam, sur-burahee,v.^MJda«ce, 
regulation, {of a letter) sui-narau, nam uor 
thikana, puta, v. address, aim. 

directly, {immediately, q. v.) ub, ubhee, isee- 
dum, tcort, fil-hal, sliitabee, v. apparently, in- 
stantly, also the adj. j-ijv*v 

directness, seedha|ee, rastee, sufa,ee. . - • 

director, {^manager) kar-purdaz, karkoon, mookh- 
tar kar,surkob, v. superintendent, {instructor, 
q. V.) mcDsheer, sulah-kar, muntree, v. tutor, 
{guide) rah-nooma, rah-bui", {spiritual) goo- 
roo, hadee, moorshid, peer. 

direful, huol-nak, mooheeb, v. dire. -,;is 

dvreness, huol-nakee, duhshut-nakee, v. horrid- 
ness. , tjy^j,^. 

dirge, mursiyu, v. elegy. 

dirt, muel, koodoorut, mul, kudurj, mulamut, 
V. earth, Jilth, (wwd, q. v.) keech, gil-awu, 
\. dirtiness. :fi;(rt.v\'. 

to dirt, muela-k. bhurna, lesna. 

dirtily, nujasut- gundugee-se, {meanly) namur- 




mulinta, na-pakee, na-safee, pileedce, v. mean- 

dirty, v. base, muela, nujis, pileed, na-saf, chirk- 

 aloodu, mookuddur, mooluwwus, chikut, mu- 

leen, mulgaja, bhishtul, muel-bhura, pulisht, 

moordar, kureeh,,\aihita,,\. Jilfhi/,mea7i, 

shahby, sordid, vile. 

to dirty, v. to foul, muela-k. bhur-d. v. to dis- 
grace, (water) ghungolna, v. to pollute. 

dis, the inseparable particle of negation, is ex- 
pressed by — be, na, bud, ghuer, u, un, nir, ni, 
n, bi, bidoon, upo, upoo, and ma, la, &c. 
see in, mis, un, 

disability, be-muqdooree, be-qoodrutee, la-cha- 
ree, v. inability. ''■} <«w«'> 

to disable, bemuqdoor- lachar- natuwan- ajiz-, 
be bus- nibul-k. bigama, v. to weaken. 

disabled, mu,uzoor, v. invalid, lame. 

to disabuse, ankh- kan-kholna, v. to warn. 

shikust, ghata, qoosoor, qubahut, v. loss. 

disadvantageous, bo-fa,idu, la-hasil, ghuer-moo- 
feed, mojzir. 

dwff^c#ed,bud-z.unn, bud-gcoman, bud-bur, bud- 
khwah, bud-undesh, bud-dil, l>e-dil, un-muna. 

disaff'ection,hud-7.unnce, bud-gnomanee, bud-bu- 
ree, bud-undeshee, v. disloyalty. 

to disagree, na moowafiq-h. v. to differ, mcokli- 
alif- phoote-ruhna, v. to quarrel, biphurna, bi- 
gurna, unbun-ruhna, v, discordant, &c. na- 

disagreeable, na^moowafiq, na-pusund, na-guwar, 
bud-muzu, mukrooh, be-suwad, na-khoosh or 
-muqbool, v, agreeable, also unpleasant, (in coun- 
tenance) zisht-roo, (in disposition) zisht-kho, 
V. bad. 

to be disagreeable, khulna. 

disagreeableness, na-guwaree, na-pusundeedugee, 
kuraliiyut, bud-niuzugce. (.rJtuiijii •> 

disagreement, (misunderstanding) na-khmshee,rUii.' 
JL'cdugcc, bigar, rixjkawut, birodh, chukha- 
chukhee, v. difference. 

to disallow, niunu- rudd- in,kar-k. barna, buruj- 
na, na-manna, na mun/.oor-k. v. to deny. 

disallowance, in,kar, v. prohibition. 

to disappear, ulop-hojana, chhipna, jata^ruhna, 
bilana, rufoochukkur- chumput- huwa- ka- 
foor-hojana, goom- gha,ib- mufqood-h. na pi- 
deed-h. bucthna, ooturna, jana, oorna, bhagna, 
V. tojly, bheetur-ana, v. to subside. 

to disappoint, v. vain, na commed- na moorad-, 
niras- nakam-k. duhkana, katna, torna, moonh 
men-mootna, dant khutte- be as-k. v. to frus- 

disappointment, na-oommedee, yas,mayoosce,na- 
mooradee, be-nuseebee, na-kamee. 

disapprobation, nufreen, in,kar, tu,unu zunee, v. 
censure. ^t,\k-i 

to disapprove, na pusund- na munzoor- muf rook-j 
rudd- in,kar-k. v. to blame. 

to disarm, kumur-kholana, huthyar chheen-lena. 

disaster, v. calamity, afut, mooseebut, hadisu, bi- 
put, kusht, dcnkh, aseb, nuhoosut, sliamut, 
bud-bukhtee, kum-bukhtee, duewagut, bud- 
ukhtur, giriftar, bhabhee, chushm-zukhm, v. 
unlucky. ^^ rtw'iMjxj . 

disastrous,hud-hukht, kum-bukht, munhoos,sha- 
mutee, bud-ukhtur, afut-ruseedu, aseb-zudu, 
afut-zudu, mojseebut-zudu. 

to disavow, in,kar-k. mookuma. 

disavowal, in.kflr, la-dU|Uwee, v. to deny. 

to disband, y.a. chhora-dena, juwab-d. hoorra-k. 

disbelief, be-i,utibaree, be-eemanee, be-i,utjqa- 
dce, kcofr, udhumi. 

to disbelieve, nu-manna, in^kar-k. be i,utiqad-h. 




disbeliever, moon,kir, ghuer-nic»,utuqid,kafir,ud- 
hurmee, be-eeman. 

to disburden, (to lighten) hulka- soobook bar-k. 
(to unload) oDtarna, v. to discharge. 

to disburse, surf- khurj-k. ootha-d. 

disburser, khurch-burdar. 

disbursement, surf, khurj, musruf, khurch,ukh- 
rajat, mukharij, oothan, v. expenditure. 

to discard, nikal-d. burturuf-k. door- dufu-k. 
ankh-pherna, v. to reject, bechulun-k. v. to 
discharge, explode. ,iirts|« 

to discern, dekhna, tukna, bilokna, (to judge, q. 
V.) puhchanna, imtiyaz-k. 

discerner,, waqif-kar, tar-baz, moobussir, 
imtlyazee, tumeezee, jan, nuzra, nuzur-baz, 
V. judge, (of merit) qudr-dan, v. patron. 

discernible, dekjine-jog, qabil-idrak, zahir, khoo- 
la, V. visible. 

discerning, fuhmeedu, zeeruk, dana, hoshiyar, 
bareek-been, gyanee, bibekee, aqil, sahib-im- 

discernment, fuhmeed, zeerukee, duriyaft, tu- 
meez, idrak, imtiyaz, lihaz, moolahuzu, bibek, 
tufuhhoom, v. judgment. 

discharge, (release, q. v.) chhoottee, riha,ee, tukh- 
lees, chhootkara, chhoot, chhor-chithee, nika- 
kasee, v. absolution, nikas, v. stool, matter, 
also evacuation, (dismission, q. v.) burturfee, 
V. pardon, (explosion, q. v.) shuUuq, turup, 
(vent) sans, (for money) farigh-khuttee, (from 
an obligation) safee-namu, fuesul-namu, (per- 
formance, q. V.) uda. 
to discharge, v. a. (to free, q. v.) khulas-k. 
chhorana, (to unload) ootarna, (to fire, q. v.) 
chhorna, (to pour) dalna, (to pay a debt) uda-k. 
(to perform, q.v.) buja-lana,v. to execute, nam- 
katna, v. to liberate, bhur-d. puta,e-d. v. to 
liquidate, bursana, v. to rain, (to expectorate) 
phenkna, girana, v. to throw, vomit, (to eva- 

cuate, q. V.) nikal-d. door-k. (by stool) bueth- 

na, V. to issue, (to dismiss, q. v.) juwab-d. 

V. n. khool-jana, jata-ruhna, nikulna, chhoot- 

na, phootna, v. to absolve, exude, 
disciple, sikh, shagird, tulmeez, talib, mooreed, 

yar, chela, balka, dust bue, v. follower, pi. 

us,hab, V. companion, (the four) char yar ; a 

disciple of Christ, huwaree. 
disciplinarian, qa|idu-dan, hookm-ran, v. strict, 


•«N ••'/ .. 

discipline, v. awe, subordination, (education, q.v.) 
turbiyut, udub, tadeeb, uzlo nusb, dab, v. in- 
struction, (regulation, q.v.) bund o bust, aras- 
tugee, (subjection, q.v.) hookm, ikhtiyar, bus, 
(punishment, q. v.) tumbeeh, tarna, marpeet, 
mardhur, v. correction, (mortification, q.v.) ri- 
yazut, jog, yog. 

to discipline, turbiyut- tueyar-k. sikhana, buna- 
na, (regulate) bund o bust-k. (to chastise) 
tumbeeh-d. chunga^bunana. [^a^ .■jiMi.ViiA- • 

to disclaim, in.kar-k. 

disclaimer, moon,kir. 

to disclose, khol-d. but-lana, ashkara- sha,ee,u-k. 
bolna, le milna, phorna, v. to discover, blow, 
izhar-k. huwa- chung-k. v. to confess, (to 
tell) kuh-dena, gosh goozar-k. 

to be disclosed, mukshoof-h. v. to expose. 

discoloration, cli,heep,sclee,luhsun,chhaheen,ku- 
luf, koo-rung, v. infra, also stain. 

to discolour, budrung- daghdar-k. dhubbe- dagh- 

discoloured, bud or be-rung. 

to discomfit, mughloob-k. shikust-d. v. defeat. 

to discompose, (agitate, q.v.) ghubrana, hueran-, 
maDzturib-k. behuwas-k. iztirab-d. (to trou- 
ble, q. v.) tusdee,u-d. (to displace, q. v.) oolut 
poolut- ubtur- durhum burhum- be turteeb-, 
mootufurruq- moontushur-k. bithrana. 'M-i ^a- 




discomposure, iztirab, intishar, hueranee,be-k<ilce, 
V. disorder. 

to disconcert, v. to discompose, (a scheme) oora-d. 
khulul-<l. bigarna, choole-ookharna, v. to over- 
set, frustrate. 

disconsolate, oodas, ufsoordu, dil-geer, dil-tung, 
be-dil, ghum-geen, nuilool, mughmoom. 

diseonsolateness,CKx\asee, ufscnrdugee, dil-geerec, 
ghum-geenee, be-dilec. 

discontent, discontentedness,discontentmeni,he-su- 
bree,udheeruj ta,run]ecd\jgee,\. dissatisfaction. 

to discontent, roothana. 

disconteyited, discontent, be-subr, be-qina,ut, be- 
zar, na-khnosh, runjcedu, na-razee. 

to he discotitented, roothna, koorhna. 

discontinuance, discontinuatimi, (cessation,q.\.') 
naghu, tU|Uteel, wuqfu, unjha, (disruption) fa- 
si) u, beccli, furq. 

to discontinue, naghu- muoquof- moonqutu-k. 
inoo,uttul- bund-k. chhorna, rokna, v. to stop. 

discord, discordancy, na nioowafuqut, un-rus, bi- 
gar, phoot, nachaqee, chukha-chukhee, fitnu, 
ashob, na-sazee, fusad, uks, khulish, usbundh, 
V. difference, dissensioti, m isunder standing, {in 
music) be-soorec. 

to discord, na-moowafiq-h. 

discordant, na-moawafiq, iia-saz, bur-iiks, mookh- 
alif, na-muozoon, be-dil, be ittifaq, mookhtulif, 
V. inconsistent, talbetal, be-tan, unmel, {iti mu- 
sic) be-soor, be-tal. 

discordantly, na moowafuqut-se. 

to discover, zahir- ifsha- u,uyan- fash- ashkara-, 
numood- prlkash- mcnnkushuf-k. nirekhna, 
tarna, v. to observe, mukshoof-k. v. to betray, 
disclose, divulge, {to shew) butlana, dikhlana, 
{to tell) kuhna, gosh goozar-k. {to spy) dekh- 
na, tukna, {to know, q.v.) boojhna, {to detect) 
pukunia, {to find, q. v.) dhoondh-nikalna, {to 
invent) nikalno, eejad-k. 

discoverable, pane-jog, zaiiir. 

discoverer, yabindu, pane-wala, kushshaf, purdu- 
dur, prikashcc, v. inventor. 

discovery, {revealing) inkisliaf, izhar, ifsha, pur- 
du-fasli, V. detection, invention. 

discount, butta, chhoot, phirta, muUt, muhanu. 

to discount, chhoot-d. 

to discou7itena7ice, mooiih- rookh-phirna. 

to discourage, {to depress) duba-r. dubana, {to de- 
ter, q. V.) duhshut-d. kuchiyana, bhugana, 
V. to frighten, as-boojhana, himmut-torna, v. 
to dishearten. 

discouragement, dil-shikun, tukhwcef, v. obstacle. 

discourse, gooftugoo, bat-cheet, bol-clia], qeel o 
qal, tuqrceb, tulufFooz, sookhun, bat, v. con- 
ference, conversation, {speech) kuUmu, {trea- 
tise) risalu, v. argument. 

to discourse, bat cheet-k. butiyana, bukhanna, 
kuthiyana, v. to argue, talk. 

discourser, mootukuUim, bukta, go.iudu, mcnqur- 
rir. ' 

discourteous,hud-id\co]c[, bud-ukhlaq, rooklia,un- 
mila, be-roo, dooroosht, v. i~ude. 

discourteously, bo roo,ee- be mcoruwwutee-se. 

discredit, bud-namee, ueb, ilzam, dokh, v. dis- 

to discredit, {to distrust) nu-manna, {to'disgrace, 
q. V.) budnam- scxjbook- be abroo- hulka-, 
buddoo- khufeef- fuzeehut-k. 

discreet, sookhun-sunj, aqibut-undesh, sahib-im- 
tiyaz, aqil, gumbheera, gurwa, sunjeedu, fuh- 
meedu, sahib-siileequ, suleeqn-shi,ar, purhez- 
gar,v. cautious, deliberate, discriminative, mo- 

discreetly, tudbeer- &c. -se. 
discretion, imtiyaz, uql, fikr, undeshu, ghuor, 
tu,ummcDl, soch, uqll mu,ash, bichar, v. pru- 
dence, {will, q. V.) niurzee, bus. 
discretionary, mootluq, v. absolute. 




to discriminate, imtiyaz-k. puhchanna, bicharna, 
V. to discern, bina,e- &c. -k. bilgaiia, v. to di- 
versify, separate. 

'discrimination, tumeez, tufreeq,furq,fus],byora, 
qoowwuti moomueyuzu, tufreequ, tuqseem, bi- 
na,e, v. distinction. '3 M'-W: 

been, bilga|00, bicharee, v. judge. 

discus, kuttee, tueya, chakra. 

to discuss, (eit'amzwe,q.v.) janchna, mcobahusu-k. 
(to disperse) tuhleel-k. buethalna, ootarna, luo- 
tana, v. to reduce. 

discussion, (e.vamination, q.v.) tuhqeeq, tuhqee- 
qat, moobahusu, moonazuru, tuqreeb, imtihan, 
rudd budul, juwab suwal, kuthnee, kuh soDn, 
V. resolution and resolvent, {of a tumour) tuh- 

discutient, mcohullil. 

disdain, ihanut, hiqarut, kiirahiyut, nung, tuh- 
qeer, v. contempt, indignation. 

to disdain, hulka- scobcok- khufeef- huqeer-jan- 
na, khifFut- hiqarat-k. ar- nung-r. peshab-k. 
dhar-marna, thookna, v. to spurn. 

disdainful, mughroor, mootukubbir, uhunkaree, 
goostakh, be-roo, be-mooruwwut. * t\wi*»^>*»' 

disdainfully, hiqarut- be roo,ee-se. 

rooree, tukubboor, goostakhee. 

disease, azar, be-aramee, rog, muruz, kusalu, 
arizu, illut, zuhmut, v. ail, complaitit, pain, 
sickness. The names of some in Hindoostan, 
the nature and English of which I have not 
yet learned, are as follows : ha,o, rusoolee, 
ookuota, sungruhnee, gangun, kunch-hun, v. 
dropsy, &c. as they occur in this work. ' 

to disease, azar-d. beemar-k. 

diseased, beemar, azaree, mureez, rogee, kahla, 
runjoor, durd mund, uleel, dookhee, karunee. 

to disembark, v. a. ootarna ; v. n. ooturna. 

to disembogue, v. n, nikulna, phootna, phoot-ni- 

to disenable, be muqdoor-k. v. to disable. > 
to disenchant, jharna, ootarna. » 

to disencumber, hulka-k. chhora-d.,'>?«^w.»j«ftie\'> 
to disengage, v. to disentangle, chhora-d. ulug-, 

jooda-k. chhora-lana, katna, kholna, v. to free, 

{to withdraiu) oothana, chhorana, {to release) 

disengaged, {unemployed, q.v.) moo,uttul, farigh, 

khalee, ghrer-munsoob, be manga, {to be) bu- 

ethna, v. idle, {released) azad, riha, khulas, 

{not betrothed) ghuer-namzud. 
rfi.sewg«r^e?wew#, furaghut,mukhluseejchhootkara, 

V. to release. '^^►iV«i»i'sj>sw>R«p ,<>i«iv.iHH?ste>-v'.'.'  
to disentangle, chhoorana, buchana, sooljhana, v. 

to unravel, 
disfavour, na mihr-banee, v. displeasure. ' '^"^ 
to disfavour, na mihrban-h. '^ ' 


tee. '-•--'• :j-;j.;. _;.;. ,.,,....,j tji-inj 

to disfigure^' higarna, betool- btid sooi*iIt-'bud 
nosma- khurab-k. v. to mangle. 

to disfranchise, behuqq- nirpud-k. v. to eject. 

to disgorge, {vomit, q. v.) rudd- chhant-k. okna, 
dokna, V. to pour, oogulna, v. to gorge. .'•'"> 

disgrace, disgracefulness, ueb, ar, nung, rooswa',ee, 
roo-siyahee, fuzeehutee, tuhqeer, v. discredit, 
dishonour, soobookee, hulka-pun, upuman, tuf- 
zeeh, hutuk, biput, uput, kulunk, be bhurum,, ghuramut, moozillut, v. shame, {to be 
in) ankh se girna, {being out of favour) tugh- 
eeree, mu,uzoolee, i,utirazee, paiC-itab. 

to disgrace, behcormut- mu,uzool-k. phitkarna, 
thookana, v. to discard, {publicly, by exposing 
on an «ss's back) hundana. 

disgraced, rooswa, bud-nam, fuzeehut, be-abroo, 
be-hoormut, be-izzut, roo-siyah, kalarmoonh^ 




buddoo, V. affronted, (out offavotir) tugheer, 
mu,iizool, muofjoof. 

disgraceful, mu.uyoob, shunee,u, zuboon, na- 
inu,uqool, na-sha,istu, na-la,iq, uebee, qubech, 

disgracefully, be h(xinnutee-se. 

disguise, (dress) bhes, bhekh, bosrqu, v. mask, 
(pretence, q-v.) heelu, mukr, suwang,v. sham. 

to disguise, (to hide, q. v.) chhipana, (by dress) 
bhes- roop-budulna, soorut-bunana, v. to disji- 
gv/re, (to make drunk) must-surshar-k. mut- 
wala-k. V. to conceal ; to be in disguise with 
liquor, nushe raen-h. 

disgust, nufrut, kurahiyut, i.iiraz, cliirb, ghin, 
bezaree, na-khooshee, v. qffenceufui :ii.'*f«>j» 

to disgust, V. to cloy, mootunuffir-k. bezar-k. 
koorhana, oochatna, phirana, ukoolana, uokta- 
na,oomthana, bhugana, hurkana,oobtana,oob- 
hana, v. to displease, offend, vex. 

disgusted, v. displeased, mootunufBr, bezar, na- 
khrash, burkhastu-khatir, khufa, ghoobar-al- 
oodu, mookuddur, nachaq, v. offended. 

to be disgusted, koorhna,phima,hiirukna, v. tired, 
also the verb. 

digustful, disgusting, kureeh, mukrooh, nagu- 
war, zuboon, ghina,ona. 

dish, V. saucer, rikabee, suhnuk, qab, mooshqab, 
tubuq, thalee, thai, tas, v. bowl, plate,hurt\in, 

\ purat, lungree, neem-cheenee, v. vessel, (of 
food) tora, purosa, v. share, (victuals) khana, 
V. meat, &c. Of these there are a great va- 
riety among the Moosulmans ; viz. quliyii, 
pola,o, dopiyazu, booghru, zurdu,hureesa,moo- 
summun,dumpokht, hoosuenee-kubab, v.roa*^, 
mulghoba, huleem, yukhnee, v. stew, hash, 

' pease, milk, rice,&c. Among the Hindoos are, 
bara, buree, uduoree, tiluoree, bujka, dhooska, 
munpoo, moongura, muthuoree, booranee, buj- 

jawur, kurhee, raburee, sulinuada, rokochha, 

kushuk, kuchra. 
a made dish, (of meat) salun, salna. ,!, 

to dish, nikalna, ootarna, kaihna, purosna. 
dishabile, charjamu, nunga-khcula, burhmchuij, 

(the adj.) lut puta. 
dishclout, safee, pochhna. t«\ ;-v ^j: 

to dishearten,shikustm\il-]i. dant bhntte-k. mun-, 

dil-torna, bedii-k. mun-marna, behimmut- be- 

jigur-k. V. to deject, dismay, 
to dishevel, khusotna, nochna, bikhrana,durhum- 

burhum-k. jhan khoor-lugana, bal-d. 
dishonest, (frriudtdent, q. v.) bud-diyanut, be- 

eeman, na-rast, huth-bul, be-diyanut, v. cheatj 

dishonestly, bud diyanutee-se. 
dishonesty, bud-diyanutee, be-eemance, khiya* 

nut, na-rastee, udhurm, huth-bulee, pukhund, 

u-kurm, u-sut, v. knavery, 
dishonour, be hoormutee, be-wuqree, be-abroo,ee, 

be-ghuerutee, bud-namee, be-jzzutee, v. dis- 

grace, shame, 
to dishonour, be hcormut-k. abroo-ootarna. 
dishonourable, niU|Uyoob, uebee, pajiyanu, ku- 

lunkee, shurm-ungez, kum-hoormut, be-juo- 

hur, upooman, v. base, ignmninious, mean, 

shameful, unprincipled, 
dishonoured, v. disgraced, 
dish-washer, deg-sho, v. scullion, 
disinclination, nufrut, kheench, v. dislike. sfe 
to disincline, baz-r. moonh- dil-phema, ooAsrd] 
disinclined, be-kh\yahish, be- or kum-shuoq, na- 

bur, V. averse, 
disingenuily, disingenuonsness, khota,ee, kuput, ri- 

ya-karee, huft-rungee, mukr, v. artfulness, 
disingentwus, khota, kuptee, riya-kar, huft-run- 
gee, fuelsoof, mukkar, v. illiberal, philoso* 






to dmnherit, aqq- kharij-k. tyagna, muhjoob ool 

disinterested, be-ghiiruz, be-tumn, nir-lobh. 

disinterestedly, be-ghurzee-se. 

disititerestedtiess, be-ghurzee, be-tuma,ee. 

to disjoin, jooda- ulug- ulahidu-k. torna, ulgana, 
bilgana, v. to separate. ' 

to disjoint, ookhar-d. talna, moonfusul-k. bund- 
bund jcoda-k. jor-kholna, choola,ookharna, 
V. to disjoin, dislocate, (to make incoherent) be- 

- rubt- be surrishtu- na murboot-k. 
disjunction, jcoda fie, iftiraq, hijr, bichhoha, firaq, 

V. the verb. 
a disjunctive conjunction, hurfi turdeed. 
disjunctively, ek ek, jooda jooda, fooradu fooradu. 
disk, (of the sun) qoors, girdu, mundul. 
dislike, i,viraz5 nufrut, kurahiyut, kheench, goo- 
, rez, kusheed, hutuk, chirh, ghin, bura,o, v. 

to dislike, i,uraz-r. nu-chahna, nakhoosh-h. napu- 
 sund-k. jee-phirna, v. displeasure, 
to dislocate, v. to displace, ookhar-d. talna, sur- 

kana, ootarna, oochtana ; v. n. surukna, oo- 

- turna, bichulna, v. luxation. 

to be dislocated, ookhur-jana, tul-mooruk-jana. 
dislocation, (luxation) tukhulkhool. ^0 fttsf 
to dislodge, ootha- huta- fal- nikal-d. door-k. 
disloyal, numuk-huram, be-wufa, be-eeman, bud- 

diyanut, kha|in, baghee, sur-kush. 
disloyalty, numuk-huramee, be-wufa,ee, be-ee- 

manee, bud-diyanutee, khiyanut, bughawut, 

sur-kushee, v. disobedient, 
dismal, (dire, q. v.) huol-nak, bhuyanuk, moo- 

- heeb, (sorrowful, q. v.) codas, ghum-geen, v. 
horrid, (dark) tareek, undhera, (gloomy) soo- 

• na, soonsan, luqduq, bhonda, v. bad, dreary, 
to be dismal or gloomy, as a deserted dwelling; &c. 

dismalness, huol-nakee, huebut-nakee, ghumgee 

nee, dilgeeree, oodasee. m^*-; Mjmnji^ 
to dismantle, nunga-k. v. to strip, (a town) shvAir 

punah-torna, v. to destroy, 
dismay, duhshut, hiias, huol, bhue, khuof, khu- 

turu. inr' StI 'fV'-ftsfin-.-ii,. ; 

to dismay, durana, dubana, dhumkana, duhshut-d. 

V. to frighteji. 
to dismember, bund bund jcoda-k. v. to hack, 
to dismiss, (to send aioay) rookhsut- moorukh- 

khus- wida,u- burkhast-k. rookhsut-d. ootha- 

na, rah-dikhlana, hoorra-k. v. to dispatch, (a 

suit) na musmoo,u- bhung-k. v. to reject, uzl-k. 

V. to cashier, (to discharge, q. v.) burturuf- 

door-k. juwab- chhora- nikal-d. (to divest of 

an office) tugheei'- mu,uzool- muoqoof- kharij-, 

dismission, rookhsutee, burturfee, burkhast,mu,u- 

zoolee, tugheree, ikhraj, chhoottee. 
to dismount, v. a. gira- putuk-d. ootarna, v. to- 

throw down ; v. n. ooturna, noozool-k. v. to 

disobedience, sur-kushee, na-furmanee, u wuggiya, 

qodool, tumurrood. 
disobedient, sur-kush, na-furraan, mootumurrid, 

gurdun-kush, ghuer-mootee or -hookmee, un- 

uggueya, huthee, hutheela, be kuha, be lugam,. 

be hookmee, v. rebellious, saucy, 
to disobey, sur kushee-k. sur kush-h. (orders) 

qodool hookmee-k. numanna. 
to disoblige, runjeedu- bezar- nakhoosh- khufu-, 

azoordu-k. koorhana. 
disobliging, kuttur, na-moola,im, be-mooruwwiit, 

na-mihrban, v. discourteous, to offend, 
disorder, (irregularity, q. v.) be-turteebee, dur- 

humee, burhumee, na-murbootee, be-bund o 

bustee, oolut poolut, v. confusion, (tumult, q. 

V.) hungamu, hurj murj, hurburee, khulbulee, 

khulul, (indisposition, q. v.) kusul, kahilee. 




: V. distemper, sickness, {perturbation, q. v.) i*. 
tirar, ghubrahut, byakoolec, be-tabee. 

to disorder, ubtur-k. v. to confound. 

disordered, v. crazy, (irregular, q. v.) ubtur, 
durhum burhum, pureshan, na-murboot, gud- 
bud, be intizam, be bundobust,v. anarchy, dis- 
orderly, (indisposed, q. v.) kusul-mund, kalila, 
mandu, muree/., (agitated, q. v.) mooztur, be- 
qurar, ghabra. 

disorderly, beturteebee- &c. -se. 

disorderly, adj. ubtur, be-bundo bust, be-zubt, 
bud-fab, awaru, mu.uyoob, v. irregular. 

to disown, in|kar-k. moon|kir-h. mookuma, v. to 

to disparage, kum qudr- be qudr- soobook- hul- 
ka- khufeef- ihanut- hiqarut-k. hurf- nooqs-, 
sookhun-lana, kusurshan-k. ootarna, v. to re- 
proach, lower. 

disparagement, v. disproportioti, kum-qudree, be- 
qudree, soobookee, hutuk, ihanut, hiqarut, ueb, 
nooqs, sookhun, v. blame, koo-mel, koo-jor, 
V. degradation. 

disparity, tufawut, furq, ikhtilaf, byora, na-moo- 

dispassionate, suleem oot-tubu, huleem, saf, mcon- 
sjf, rast-baz, behuwa o huwus, be-rus, be-pitta 
or -zuhru, be-muel or -luga,o, v. cool, impar- 

to dispatch, &c. v. to despatch. 

to dispel, oorana, dufu- rufu- door-k. nikalna, 
chulana, bhugana, phoonk-d. v. to dissipate, 
dispensary, duwa-khanu. 
dispensation, (distribution, q. v.) phuela,o, inti- 

shar, bant, (exemption, q. v.) mu,afee. 
dispensatory, ulfaz ool udwiyu. 
/o dispense, bantna,phuelana,bichhana,tuq8eem-, 
qismut-k. v. to administer. 

to dispense with, mu,af- chhima-k. v. to forgive, 

to disperse, chhitkana, bithrana, bukhcrna, khin- 
dana, phuelana, puragundu- moontusliur-k. v. 
to dispense. 
rfi«perserf,mQontushir,niootufurriq, tarputar,teen- 
teruh, tireebiree, titurbitur, puragundu, pure- 
shan, phoot-phat, phoota-phoot, juhan-tuhan, 
eedhur-oodhur, birez blrez. 

to be dispersed, chhitukna, bithuma, bikhuma, 
phuelna, puragundu-h. bichulna, bithurna, v. 
to scatter. 

rfj«pem(WJ,intishar,tufriqu,puragundugee, pure- 
sbanee, phootphutuk, bichhep, v. diffusedness. 

to dispirit, azoordu- bezar- shikustudil- oodas-k. 
mun-torna, durana, duhshut-d. 

dispirited, be dum-dil or -himmut, v. dejected. 

to displace, beja- bemuoqu- koothuor-r. bichlana, 
V. to remove, (to dismiss, q. v.) tugheer- muo- 

display, izhar, nooma,ish, numood, phuela,o, pu- 
sara, phurka,o, tunt ghunt, v, ostentation. 

to display, (spread wide) khol-d. pusama, (the 
colours) phuelana, (to exhibit, q. v.) butlana, 
jutana, numood-k. phurkana, v. to expose. 

to displease, rookana, koorhana,roothana,nakhoosh- 
&c. -k. kjiutukna, khulana, v. to vex. 

displeased,v. disgusted, na-khrosh, azcordu, kush- 
eedu-khatir, oodas, diqq, i.utiraz, bud-bur, 
-dil or -dimagh, beroo, guran-khatir, muleen, 
kusheedu, chiragh-pa, na-raz, poor dil, v. of- 
fended, angry. 

displeasing, dooroosht, naguwar, v. disagreeable. 

displeasure, na-khcoshee, runjeedugee, khufgee, 
azoordugee, oodasee, bezaree, jtab, i,utirazee, 
kheej, guranee, kawish, itab-khitab, muleenta, 
V. disgrace, ituOgnatimi, offence. 

disposal, (power, q. v.) ikhtiyar, bus, bundhim, 
qubzu, hatti. 




to dispose, {arrange, q. v.) mooruttub- arastu-k. 
sunwarna, bantna, thuhrana, sujana, v. to re- 

. gulate, khuruchna, khurch-k. puteelna, {of a 
horse) shadee-k. v. to sell, lugana, buethalna, 
V. to apply, expend, {to give, q. v.) dilana, de-d. 
hibu-k. inam-d. or -k. v. to deliver, {to destine) 

. mooquddur-k. ruchna, {to incline, q. v.) ragh- 
ib-k. jhookana, chulana, purkana, v. to induce, 
{to make) bunana, kurna, {to sell, q. v.) bech- 
na, hudiyu-k. {to place) rukhna, dhurna, v. to 

, do, go, betrothe. txi ^t-ii,- 

disposed, {arranged, q. v.) mooruttub, arastu, 

. {destined, q. v.) r ucha, {inclined) sha,iq, raghib, 
shuoqeen, ma,il. •^■"  

disposer, qasim, kureem, bukhshne-wala, bukh- 
shinduj nazim, nuzzam, moontuzim, suja|Oo, 
V. arranger, data, v. giver, regulator. 

disposition, v. position, {order, q. v.) arastugee, 
sujawut, duol, bunawut, sakht, khumeer, kir- 
daTjV. distribution, ban, shi|Ur, tuqazu, khoolq, 
munish, v. habit, nature, method, regulation, 
{temper, q. v.) mizaj, tubu, adut, kho, seerut, 
khuslut, teenut, v. inclination, manner. 

to dispossess, nikal-d. or -d. bedukhul- kharij-k. 

V. to deprive, ^sHmhinijH ,*■ '««>""'« «•«!*{«( 
to dispraise, unsurahna, bewusf-k. v. to hlame. 
disproportion, be-undazugee, tufawut, na-moDwa- 

fuqut, be-i|Utidalee, nasazee, bud-undamee, ka- 

wafcee, be-duolee, bud-sujee. 
to disproportion, be undazu- bud oosloob-k. 
disproportioned, disproportional, nar-moo wafiq, na- 

saz, be-undazu, ghuer-moo,utudil, na-moonasib, 

be-duol, bud-suj, be-hisab, be-thikana, ghuer- 

mootusawee, na-muozoon, v. inconsistent. 
to disprove, jhootha- rudd- batil- munsookh-k. 

disputant, disputer, buhhas, sumbadee. 
disp^t^af ioMs,jhugraloo, luranka, bukheriya, tuk- 

raree, hoojjutee. . \U;ii ,«V.\iito<> 


disjmte, disputation, buhs, moobahusu, sumbad, 
hoojjut, mooquddumu, tukrar, moonazuru, moo- 
jadulu, niza,u, graft o shlneed, lura,ee, khoo 
soomut, purkhash, qprbudu, v. controversy, de^ 
bate, quarrel. 

to dispute, jhugurna, buhusna, lurna, buhs-k. v. 
to disobey. 

to disqtialify, nala,iq- nasha,istu- namoowafiq-k. 

disquiet, disquietude, disquietness,he-axa.mee, be- 
chuenee, be-kulee, drakh, tusdee.u, tukleef, 
tushweesh, eeza, diqqut, runj, khufugee, khar- 
khar, zuhmut, v. an.viefy. 

to disquiet, sutana, kjbijana, dookjhana, clihema, 
moozturib-k. dookh-d. v. to displease. 

disquisition, tuqreeb, moonazuru, v. dispute.^ >;.; 

disregard, be-tumeezee, bud-lihazee, be-khubree, 
be-purwa,ee, be-iltifatee, chushm-poshee, ana- 
kanee, tughafrol, v. coldness, contempt, disre- 
spect. tc^\,',ui;.-^<\.A^V:.v \ 

to disregard, nu-manna, betumeezee-k. {to look 
over) chushm poshee- anakanee-k. {to neglect) 
ghuflut-k. kandhee- turuh-d. bughul-jhankna, 
ighmaz-k. v. to despise, slight. 

disregardful, be-tumeez, bud-lihaz, ghafil, be- 
kliubur, be-purwa. 

to disrelish, nufrut- goorez-r. be zuoq-h. v. to dis- 
like, loathe. 

disreputable, v. disgraceful, nai-va\i^\x<ioo\,y. im- 
proper. .vV4'.^«,l!|> 

disrepute, bud-namee,, fuzeehutee, be- 
qudree, v. disgrace, shame. 

disrespect, be-udubee, be-imtiyazee, goostakhee, 
shokhee, mugra,ee, dhitha,ee, be-uda,ee, turki 
udub, V. contempt. . w »)■,;■;.< M!i» 

disrespected, be-man. ,t%ui'^w ."mM 

disrespectful, be-udub, be-imtiyaz, be-udheen, 
niradur, v. impertinent, unpolite. 

disrespectfully, be udubee-se, be-muhabu. 




dissatisfaction, be-subree, be-isriqialec, na-khqo- 

shce, bezarec, khufgec, v. discontent, 
dissatisfactory, be-suwab, v. unsatisfactory, 
dissatisfied, nor-razee, na-khnosb, bezai', runjeedu, 

bur kh astu-kbatir. 
to dissatisfy, nakhoosh-k. koorbana. 
io dissect, katna, cheerna, jooda- qutu bcnreed-k. 

V. to divide, {investigate, q. v.) janchua, initi- 

dissection, kuta,o, tushreeh, (examinafuni) imti- 
. ban. iftrjw yi) ,Vi\A»^V> 

to dissemble, v. a. posheedu-k. chhipana, buha- 

nu-k. V. n. mukr- dimbh- riya-k. 
dissembler, mukkar, riya^-kar, dimbhee, moonafiq, 

moozuwwir, kuptee, zumanu-saz, saloos, kar- 

saz, moodaratee, v. time-server, 
dissemblingly, mukr-se. 
to disseminate, phuelana, chhitkana, zahir- mush- 

hoor- sha,ee,u-k. shoohrut-d. cbheetna, pusar- 

na, V. to diffuse, scatter, 
dissension, quziyu, lura,ee, bigar, bukhera, nifaq, 

mookhalufut, un-buna|0, khurkhushu, be-itti- 

faqce, na-sazee, ikhtilaf, niza,u, tor phor, fu- 

8ad, fitnu, V. altercatimi, discord. 
dissent. In, kar, v. disagreement, 
to dissent, namoowafiq-b. ikhtilaf- birodh-r. v, to 

dissenter, kliarijee,, koo-puthee, mcDn.kir. 
dissertation, bukhan, gootka, v. discourse, treatise, 
disservice, nooqsan, zurur, v. injury, 
dissimilar, na^ma>yfa&q, mcic)glia,ir,bur-uks, ulug, 

be-mel, be-jor, koosum, bueree, birodliee, na- 

jins, mookhalif, v. different, opposite, unlike, 
dissimilarity, dissimilitude, na-moowafuqut,birodji, 

mookhalufut, ikhtilaf, tufawut. 
dissimulation, riya, riya-karee, dimbh, tuzweer, 

ighmaz, rooriya, moodara, v. dissembler, hypo- 
to dissipate, clibitkaoa, oorana, phuelana, v. to 

disperse, {to spend, q. v.) surf- ghurt burt-k. 

disnpaled, uubash, awaru, v. dispersed, to debauch. 

dissipation, uobashee, v. dispersion. 

dissoluble, dissolvable, qabili-goodaz, gulunhar, 

to dissolve, v. a. {liquify, q. v.) gulana, ghoolana, 
gcodaz-k. bilana, puchana, v. to melt, {a charrn) 
ootarna, jharna, phoonkna, {to dismiss, q. v.) 
burkhast-k. {to annihilate, q. v.) funa- nest-k. 
nest na bood- nast-k. mitana, {to separate, q, 
V.) ulug- mootufurruq-k. v. n. ghoolna, gulna, 
bhila-j. goodaz-h. puchna, buhllna, v. to solve, 
vanish ; by the commander's order, the assembly 
is dissolved, surdar ke hookm se, mujlis burkhast 

dissolved, v. supra, majtuhullil, goodaz. ' 

to be dissolvi'd, {in pleasure) tuhleel- mud gulit-h. 

dissolvent, dissolver, {in comp.) goodaz, v. melter. 

dissolute, be-qued, awaru, la,obalee, choor,chhoot- 
khela, v. debauchee. 

dissolutely, bequedee-se, khoole-bundon, chhoot- 
ke, V. openly. 

dissoluteness, be-qucdec, uobashee, awarugec, 
chhootkhelee, v. profligacy. .i\-im 5A^ 

dissolution, goodaz, goodakhtugee, {dnnihilationt 
q. V.) nestce, v. death, {destruction) khurabce, 
{of an assembly) burkhast. 

to dissuade, baz-r. burujna, rokna, dil- mun-phcr- 
na, mumi-k. phirana, bhanjee-marna, v. to 
mar. r^ 

dissuader, manj, moozahim. 

dissuasion, munu, moomanu,iit, imtina,u, buruj, 
V. the verb, 

distance, dooree, ursu, musafut, tufawut, mosfa- 
sulu, ba),ud, tuppa, puUa, door-durazee, door- 
dustec, unturbed, moofaruqut, furuq, v. sepa- 
ration, space, {of time) mooddut, uwudh, (re- 




- spect) udub, sunman ; distance of behaviour, 
kusheed, rooka,o, kheench, rookawut, ihtiraz. 

to distance, pichhwana, peechhe-d. pusundakht-k. 
distant, door, bu,eed, mootufawut, door-dust, door- 
duraz, untral, v. different, also ago, while, af- 
ter, (reserved, q. v.) rookha, un-mila, na-ash- 
distaste, nufrut,tunufFcior, istikrah, ghin,v. anger, 

dislike, bud-muzugee, bud-za,iqu, be-suwad,v. 

distasteful, ghinuona, na-guwar, raoostukrih, v. 
^'offensive. .j -s;i>it 

distemper, azar, beemaree, muruz, rog, kusalu, 

illut, V. disorder, 
to distend, phoolana, nuf kh-k. pusarna, phuelana. 
distention, phoola|0, nufkh, v. breadth. 
^ distich, doha, dohra, buet, furd, v. couplet, 
to distil, V. n. (drop, q. v.) tupukna, chhunna, 

risna, mooturushshih-h. khuenchna, (twice) 
: do atusha- or dobara-k. (thrice, &c.) si,atusha-, 

eibaru^k. (spirits) ab karee-k. v. a. tupkana, 

choo,ana, choolana, also to distil spirits, moo- 

distillation, tupka,o, chukeedugee, tuqatoor, tu- 

rushshcoh, uruq-kushee, abkaree, choola,o, v. 

the verb, 
distiller, ab-kar, kular, kulwar, mooquttir, iiruq- 

kush, soondee, iirqee, (in comp.) kush. 
distinct, (different, q.v.) jooda,bhin, mootufawut, 

mcDtugha,ir, mootuba,in, mootuzad, moofussul, 
-. uiootufurruq, surkh(»d,birasihl,v. independent, 

(specified) mooqurrur, mcosliukhkhus, moo,ue- 

yun, (clear) kjicola, saf, zaliir, wazili. 
distinction, (difference, q. v.) furq, byora, imti- 

yaz, tumeez, tu,ueyun, tuqurrcor, tushkhees, 

 -I. v. specification, (division, q. v.) fusl, bhed, v. 

-■*■ diversity, bana, v. mark, also to discriminate, 

- (rank, q. v.) numood, shan, i,uzaz, v. discern- 

distinctly, moofussulun, mushroohun, tufseelun, 

V. distinct. - ' 

distinctness, sufa,ee, v. distinction. i 

to distinguish, furq- jooda-k. (to prefer; q. v.) 

burhana, hcormut-qudr-k. (to judge, 

q. V.) janna, puhchanna, tumeez-k. (to make 

conspicuous) numood- namee- namwur- rau,u- 

roof- mushhoor-k. v. to exalt, note. 

distinguished, (eminent, q. v.) moomtaz, numoo- 

dar, namee, v. distinct, 
to distort, (to wreath, q. v.) uenthna, pech-d. 
romethna, sikorna, terlia- kuj- khum-h. pher- 
na, V. to crook, 
distortion, pechish, murora, sikor, uenthun, kuj 
o kawish, chik, pech, v. convulsion, crooked- 
to distract, (to confound, q-v.) ghubrana, uklana, 
moozturib-k. chul be chul-k. v. to puzzle, (to 
. harass, q. v.) ajiz-k. sutana, (to make mad) 
distracted, ghabra, byakool, moozturib, surasee- 
mu, sur-gurdan, pureshan, ashooftu, be-huwas, 
surgushtu, betab, bequrar, hulqan, zholeedu, 
mooturuddid, moobtila, bismue, do-dila or -chi- 
ta, doobidha, v. dispersed, perplexed, (rnad, q. 
V.) suoda,ee, shoreedu, mujnoon. »)i 

to be distracted, (harassed, q. v.) ajiz- nachar-h. 

tung- pureshan-h. 
distractedly, deewanu-wai-, ba,ola-sa, v. distract- 

distraction, iztirab, iztiraree, wuswas, kushmu- 
kush, khuencha-kjiuench, qulq, tushuttoot, 
ibtila, be tabee, v. perturbation, be-kulee, hue- 
ranee, pureshanee, be-huwasee, (commotion, 
q. V.) khulul, hurburee, ghudur, ashob, foo- 
toor, (discord, q. v.) un-buna,o, fusad, nifaq, 
dooshmunee, (madness, q. v.) suoda, shoree- 
distress, tusdee,u, tukleef, eeza, uziyut, dookh, 




biput, junjal, bula, sitoh, runj, azar, bitha, iip- 
radh, kules, uchmus, suket, sukra, garb, ku- 
salu, zughtu, shacj, pech, ijz, cosrut, y. poverty, 
wretchedness, {pecuniary) kum-khurchec, v. dif- 
Jiniify, (fo be in f,n-ent) dum nak men ana, 
wuqt-purna, hueran pureshan- butung-h. v. 
afflicti(m,anguish, calamity, miserahle,misery. 

to distress,saia,n&, dookhana,tusdee,vi-d. hueran-k. 
kulpana, runjanq, sukrana, v. to harans, op- 

distressed, distressfully, the Mown,drokhiya,durd- 
nak, dil-geer, shikustu-dil, pureshan, hueran, 
tung, ajiz, mooflis, muflook, tung-dust, v. af- 
Jticted, bigut, dmrgut, be dusa, bud- or kliu- 
rab-hal, be hal, be itjb^lj dunuandu, v. cala- 
mitous.   . 

to diatribute, (to share, q. v.) bantna, bukhshna, 
hissu-k. {victuals at meals) purosna ; to distri- 
bute justice, iidl goosturee-k. v. to divide. 

distributer, qasun,h\mtwuya,gcost\xr,{of victuals) 

distribution, inqisam, tuqseem, butwara, v. divi- 
sion, (of food) torabundee, v. to share, (in 
comp.) goDsturee, v, dispension. 

district, chukla, zUii, surkar, purgunu, muhal, 
(jurisdiction, q. v.) iimul, umuUi, (region, q. 
V.) khittu, khund, tu,uUcDqu, turuf, tuppa, 
V. country, dioision, parish, quarter, thana, deeh, 
V. station. 

distrust, gooman, sbuk, I'ueb, bhurum, be-i,uti- 
baree or -i,utimadee, hoozm, apjus, v. suspicion, 
bud-zunnee. < .uiiji ' 

fo distrust, goonian-r. bhurmana, be i,iitiqad-h. 

distrustful, bud-gooman, bud-bur, bud-;/.unn,shuk- 
kee, sundehee, bhurmee,be-i,utiqad,(/»woro?«, 
q. V.) mootuwuhhim. 

distrustfully, budgoomanee- &c. -se. 

distrusffdness, bud-gc»manee, bud-zunnee, be- 

to disturb, chlierna, khijana, hurukut-d. khulul- 

-d. diqq-k. uktana, khulana, v. to distract, 

trmtble. ■» 

disturbance, (interruption , (\.y .) hurukut, hurj, 

bhung, (tumult, q. v.) hungamu, fusad, huij- 

murj, bojllur, shor, gurmee, khurkhuslui, tun- 

ta, oodhim, dunga, undor, v. clamour, cmnmo- 

tion, confusion, distraction, 
disturbed, (perplexed, q. v.) moozturib, byakool, 

disturber, fitnu-ungez, moukhil, suntapee, harij, 

dookhda,ee, tunte-baz, toofanee, v. incendiary, 

disunion, jojdaee, be-ittifaqee, doo,ee, phor tor, 

berphoot, v. discord. 
to disunite, v. a. ulug- jnoda- ulahidu-k. v. n. 

jooda-h. biphurna, bilugna, ooclierna, bhin- 

do- mufrooq- tulVeeq-k. v. to break, disjoin, 

disuse, disusage, be-isti,iimalee, be-sadfinee, be- 

riibtee, be-mushqee, be-ruwajee, v. custom, 

use. r 

to disuse, cbhor- ootha- oora-d. nast- nest- mut- 

rook- muhoo-k. clihorana, v. to leave, 
ditch, V. dilie, kbunduq, kha,ee, v. gutter, paliee, 

puegliar, niogliak, niungur, v. moat, 
to ditch, khundu<{-marna, -duorana, -khodna or 

-dena, v. to dig. 
ditcher, beend, dhangur, loniya, v. digger, 
ditto, uezun. 

ditty, geet, surod, v. elegy, 
divan, deewan. ••'-•vjb 

to divaricate, phutna, bilugna, bichhooina, doo 

dhara- dooruha- doosliuklia-h. v. to divide, 
to dive, ghotu- doubkee- boorkee-mama, doob- 

kee-khana, doobna, v. to duck, 
diver, ghoUi-khor, (a fotcl) pundcobee, ghootu 

zun or baz, doobiya, jibnecj pun booddee, 

kurunjwa, (for pearls) ghuwwas, mujjiya. 




to diverge, chhiturna, phuelana, pusuma, v. to 
diffuse, divaricate. 

divers, diverse, v. different, ku,ee-ku,ee, buhoot- 
buhcot, chund, whence chund-ushkhas, divers 
persons, v. many, sundry. 

diversification, tubuddc»l, tudbeel, tughueyur. 

to diversify, budulna, tubdeel- mrobiiddul-k. 
bhant bhant- rungrung- goonagoon-k. turuh 
' bu turuh- udul budul-k. v. to variegate, bil- 
gana, tufreeq- jmda-r. v. to discriminate. 

diversion, {amusement, q. v.) tumasha, suer, bu- 
har, gusht, tufurrooj, tufunnoon, dil-lugee, lee- 
la, kheluwul, V. play, syahu, jhookee, v. feint, 
{act of turning) inhiraf, (m war) bhcolawa, 
buehka,o, mooghalutu. 

diversity, furq, tufawut, ikhtilaf, tughaiir, fusl, 
tujawuz, rung bu rungee, v. variety, ch^^i 

to divert, {amuse, q. v.) buhlana, khilana, phi- 
rana, (oweV self) khooshee-k. v. to play, turn, 
{to turn aside) masnhurif-k. mor- pher-d. {to 
draw away) mootuwujjih-k. mohra-pherna, 
buehkana, bhoolana. 

diverter, buhla,oo, v. amusive, also to please. 

to divest, rotarna, nikalna, chheen-lena, le-lena, 
{to free) buree- pak- saf- khalee-k. 

to divide, v. a. {to distribute, q. v.) bantna, tuq- 
seem-k. {or share, q. v.) bant chant-k. bur- 
tana, muqsoom-k. liurna," doparu-k. bilgana, 
{to separate) ulug- ijlahidu-k. {to halve) do- 
tookra- dotook- bil-moonasufu-k. udhiyana ; 
V. n. jooda-h. v. to disunite. '"^•'^ '' ' 

dividend, bant, bukhra, uns, qist, bukhsh, mviq- 
soom, ihinhoo, moodh,(.5^ffTe) muqsootn jlueh, 
V. division, {in arithmetic) moonqusum. 

divider, divisor, qasltn, muqsoombihi, bhag. 

divination, ilm i ghueb, ruml, prushn, v. predic- 

divine, ilahee, ruhmanee, rubbanee, duewee, bu- 
hishtee, {presence) huzrut, v. worship, khoo- 

da,ee, sahibee, v. holy, ghuebee, asmanee, na- 
ra,enee, v. angelic; divine inspiration, ilham i 
rubbanee, {excellent) khassu, toohfu, v. charm- 

a divine, uhli fiquh, bueshnuo, sastrik, bedee, 
burhm charee, v. doctor, also priest, guide. 

to divine, v. a. butlana; v. n. tU|Ubeer-k. ruml- 
phenkna, {to conjecture, q. v.) sumujhna, boojh- 
na, duriyaft- mu,uloom-k. tarna, v. to guess. 

divinely to sing, bu luhn da|Oodee-gana,aZso qiya- 
mut-gana, likhna, &c. from this word being 
used for divinely, in such expressions. 

divineness, v. above, uloohiyut, v. excellence. 

diviner, alim-ghueb, ghueb-dan, rummal, noojoo- 
mee, jotkee, bhudree, prushnik, fal-go, kahin, 
V. soothsayer. 

diving, ghuwwasee, &c. v. diver. 

divinity; khooda|ee, sahibee, v. deity, fiquh, J)ed, 
sastur, {god, q. v.) suda se,o, v. deity, {theo- 
logy, q. V.) ilahiyat, ilmi-ilahee. 

divisible, bilgane-jog, bantun-jog, qabil-tuqseeni, 

division, tuqseem, inqisam, furq, tufarooq, tufa- 
wut, ikhtilaf, {share, q. v.) qismut, hissu, 
bhag, {partition) o\, purdu,y. dividend, {class, 
q. V.) firqu, v. company, tolee, («) misul, bu- 
raduree, v. quarter, {discord, q. v.) unrus, 
unbuna,o, {section, q. v.) fusl, bab, udhya, 
shoobu, V. section, bunta,o, v. the verb, {of 
grain) buta,ee, bhawulee, v. instalment, also 
column, district, distinction, fort. 

divorce, divorcement, tulaq, tyag. ' 

to divorce, tulaq-d. tyagna. 

divorced, tulaqee, mootulluqu. 

divorcer, tulaq dihindu, taliq. 

diuretic, moodir, drawik, indree, mota|00. -^ 

diurnal, din-ka, yuomee, rozeenu, v. daily. 

to divulge, butlana, kuhna, ueyan- fash- ulaniyu-. 




burmula- pritichh- izhar- ifsha-k. phoma, v. 
to disclose, ■proclaim. .*Wv' 

dizziness, duoran i sur, ghoomree, tawandh, chuk 
chuondhee, undha-chuondhee, gusht, v. verti- 
go ; to be dizzy, sur-gjioomna, v. giddy ; to 
make dizzy, sur-ghooinana. 

dizzy, sur-gurdan, mudhosh, chuk- or undha- 

do, (i?i the indicative^ boon, hue, &c. did, tha ; 
I did didike him hefwe, but now I do like him, 
age oose muen nu chahta tha pur ub chahta 
hoon. Do, seems either to be expressed at 
times by ana or a repetition, thus ; do come, 
ap a,o ; do hear,_ a,o sosno ; do let us go, a,o 
chulen ; do run, duoro duoro, &c. While we 
enjoy the sweets of this garden, do, my love, let 
us also drink wine together, is chumun ke suer 
men a yar peewen milke mool. Suoda. / shall 
come back soon, Imt if I do tiot, go away, muen 
juldee pher a,oonga nuheen to toom chule jana, 
V. tlie Monitor, and Vol. II. 

to do, kurna, bunana, ruchna, buja-Iana, v. to 
perform, luhna, v. to suit, {to exert) duoma, 
zor-marna, v. to act, behave, cause, effect, {to 
manage) chulana, nikalna, {to deal with) ula- 
qu- moo,amulu- surokar- kam-r. {to influence, 
q. V.) umul-k. {tojinish, q. v.) akhir- khutm- 
-k. nibahna, also {to execute) xida^Xi.; to cause 
to be done, kurana, bunwana; to be do7ie with 
any thing, chhootna, farigh- kJiulas- azad-h. 
V. done ; to do, {to fare) bona ; hoiv do you do 
now ? ub toom kuese ho ? {to answer) bona, 
bunna, chulna, kafee- kifa,it-k. ; it will not 
do, yih nu bunega, v. to succeed. 

dociVe, turbiyut-pizeer, chalak-zihn, tez-uql, sikh- 
un bar, honhar, sudJia,oo, moola,im-tubu, udub- 
amoz, islaji-puzeer, v. tame. 

docility, turbiyut puzeeree, sudhawut, v. tracf- 

dock, doond, V. stump, {for vesseU) gooddee, 
kharee, v. creek. 

to dock, lundoora-k. v. to crop, doom katna, v. 
to curtail. 

docquet, nishan, nam nishan, v. note, mark. 

doctor, V. casuist, {a learned man) alim, fazil, 
muoluwee, moodurris, nioo.ullim, mouUa, pun- 
dit, ucharij, {physician) hukeem, tubecb, bu- 
ed ; o doctor of law, mooftee, fuqeeh, uhl i 
fiquh, V. judge, moorshid, imam, hadee, shu- 
ekh, m(X)sha,ikh, arif, shuekh ool islam, moojtu- 
hid, V. divine ; a cow or cattle doctor, buetar, 
V. adept, {to pass as a) fatihu fiiragh-k. or -h. 
purichha-d. v. critic, master, philosopher ; a 
very learned doctor, moohuqqiq, iillamu ; this 
word means also a sly hypocritical whore. 

doctors, columa, fcozula, hcnkuma, utibba, fcoqu-i 

doctorship, muoluwwiyut, nioolla,ec, pundita,ee, 
moo,ullimee, hukeemee, tubeebee, bueda|Ce, 
shukhookiyut, arifiyut, v. learning. '■> 

doctrine, ilm, funn, biddya, tu,uleem, muzhub, 
musluk, bat, mushrub, muslu, mooquddumu, 
V. proposition, lesson, science, faith. 

document, v. paper, proof, nuseehut- hookm- or 
pund-namu, v. precept, deed. 

dodder, ukas bel, bunda. 

to dodge, kuniyana,kona kanee-k. peechhe-lugna, 
lendiyana, v. to flinch, tal mutol- dar mudar-k. 
V. to shuffle. 

doe, hurnee, hunnce, v. deer. 

doer, fa,il, amil, kurta, kurne-wala, kurunhar, 
kurwya, karindu, v. agent, performer, S:c. (m 
comp.) kar, karec, whence bud-kar, pap-karee, 
an evil-doer, v sinner. ;» 

doeskin, mirg-chhala, kakra, v. leather. .), 

to doff, ootar-d. v. to strip, phoonk-d. door-k. 
V. to cast. 

dog, kootta, kookur, sug, kulb, swan, ooprohit, 
Z 2 




V. male, he. The varieties are the goorjee, 
tazee, desee, wilayutee, puhariya, bhootunta, 
V. greyhound, lap-dog; to go to the dogs, gul-j. 
murbila-j. mara niara-phirna, burbad-h. suk- 
rat ke beejon ko-j. The dog which the Eng- 
lish call pariya or pariah, is by the natives 
called lendee, thinguha, khundu. A mad 
dog, ba|Ola kootta; a dog-keeper, doriya. Quere, 
may not pariya come from puraya, strange ; 
by supposing the last word to have been mis- 
imderstood by the first European settlers, on 
receiving an answer from the natives to this 
question ; Yih kis ka kootta hue ? puraya 
kootta hue, he is a strange dog. It is probable 
that this reply would be generally made, and 
as generally misconceived. 

to dog, poochhiyana, soongh-nikalna, peechhe- 
lugna, V. to trace. 

dogcheap, mittee ka mol, gooh durgooh, gooha, 
chhee chhee, v. drug. 

dog-^y, kootte mukhee, humuj, v. kennel. 

dogged, doggish, sug-teenut or -sifut, bheetur 
ghhangee, ghoona, rookha, bud-kho, v. surly. 

doggrel, zutul qafiyu, shikustu-buhr. .. 

dog-hole, soo,ur khobree, v. sty. * '■"■''■ 

dog-louse, jeewee, kilnee, chumokun, v. louse. 

dogma, qa,idu, (janoon, puth, v. axiom. 

dogmatic, dogmatical, khood-nooma. 

dogmatist, purh pusoo, puchhee, khood-rae or 
-uql, V. positive. 

dog-rose, suda-gojlab, v. rose. 

dog''s-bane, koochla. 

dogsleep, sug-kh\yabee. 

dog-star, soohuel, v. c.anopus. 

dog-trot, kookur-chal, sug-duwee. 

doings, kam, kar, kiya, boozoorgee, krit, kur- 
toot, kirdar, V. work; these are allyour doings, 
yih sub toomhara kiya hue, or yih toomharee 

boozoorgee ;^«e rfo/^g-s, pod,him-chal,v. action, 
conduct, also to junket. 

doit, kuoree, dumree, v. penny. 

doleful, dolesome, oodas, dil-geer, gliumnak, ochat, 
mulool, mughmoom, muhzoon, huzeen, v. dis- 

dolefnlness, doUs'omeness, oodasce,ochatee, dil-gee- 
ree, ghum-geenee, ghum-nakee, mulal, hoozn. 

doll, (baby, q. v.) gooriya, goodda, pootlee, good- 

dollar, tikkal, v. crown. 

dolphin, doolfin. 

dolt, koondu, dubung, sadu-luoh, thoo,a, jur, jub- 
da, V. blockhead, clod, dunce. 

domain,, v. demain, also dominion. 

dome, (cupola) goombuz, qoobbu. ■■'>.'\;^' 

domestic, (tame,({.\.) paloo, dust-amoz, khangee, 
hila, ghuruela, ghurka, pula,oo, purwurdu, 
khanu-saz, -purwur or -zad, uhlee, shuhree, 
ashiyanee,v. home,house, (iro?7)khanu jungee, 
(son in law) khanu damad, v. dependant, also 
to tame, (fond of home) khanu-dost ; domestic 
economy, khanu-daree, girhistee, v. private. 

domestic, y/abusiu, luwahiq, mootu,ulliq,lug-bun- 
doo, luwahiqat, mootu,ulluqat, wabustugan. 

domestics and baggage, umulu fi,ulu. i' 

domestics, (servants) shagird-peshu, v. servants. 

domination, dominion, hookoomut, hookm, aggya, 
bul, samurth, surdaree, riyasut, furman-ru- 
wa,ee, dawurec, khooda,ee, khoodawundee, kha- 
wundee, sahibee, sultunut, padshahee, padsha- 
hut, raj, umul-daree, qulum ruo, ruboobiyut, 
raj pat, surhungee, surkobee, hakimee, aqa,ee, 
siyadut, bura,ee, phoola,ee, zubur-dustee, v. 
district, government, power, predominance. 

to domineer, hookoomut-k. tuhukkooni- zor-k. 
sahibee-surhungee-k. sir pur churhna, v. to 
tyrannize, master. 




domino, boorqu, v. veil. 

donation, donative, bukhshish, dad-dihish, dan, 
utiyu, nuziiranu, nisar, wuhub, v. gift. 

done, kiya, buniya, hoo,a, buna, bus, bhula, uch- 
chha, V. well, yes, (to be) ho lena, bona, bun- 
na, V. to end, also to expend ,• well, whafs to 
be done now? (in despair) ub kuesee bunee, (?w 
council) ub kuesee bune, v. to perform ; to he 
done, akhir- tumam- khurj-h. ho-chookna, 
chookna, thus, to be done speaking, kuh-chook- 
na, V. the Monitor. 

donor, bukhshindu, dihlndu, data, v. giver. 

don't, mut, nu, jun, nukko, u-han, co-licwn, na- 
nu, rubne-do, jane-do; dotCt go, mut ja,o ; 
don't you? kyoon nuheen? which means liere, 
is it not 80? i J : 

doodle, nikhuttoo, pudna, v. idler, nidget. 

doom, hcxDkm, umr, futwa, furmoodu, aggya, (end 
q. V.) aqibut, unt, (fate, q. v.) quza, nusfieb, 
bhag, (rwin) khurabee. ;.v>'5. o .;. 

to doom, mooqurrur- mootu,ueyun-k. thuhrana, 
V. to destine, (to sentence, q. v.) futwa- ijazut-d. 
ruchna, budna, ropna, furmana, v. to decree, 

doomsday, \.judgvient,c(iyaxavA, purlo, muhshur, 
rozi aqibut, v. resurrection. 

door, ( portal) durwazu, dur, duwara, bur, du- 
reechu, khirkee, v.^a<e, rah, v. passage, (wood- 
en part) kewar, v. threshhold; from dcHor to 
door, dur bu dur, ghur ghur, v. hotise ; nert 
door to, lug bhug, v. near ; out of doors, ba- 
hur ; within doors, bheetur, v. without. 

door-case, chuokutha. 

door-keeper, durban, durwan, de,orhee-ban. 

dormant, sota, khawbeedu, duba, mukhfee, moo- 
uttu], V. secret. 

dormitory, khwab-gah, v. tomb, 

dose, (of medicine) moo,utad, v. purge, priman, 

khorak, petiya, v. bellyful, (quantity) niiqdar, 
unda/.u, v. share. 

to dose, moo,utad-k. 

dosil, phaha, guddee. 

dot, nooqtu, bind, bindec, soona. 

to dot, nooqtu reezee-k. nooqtu-d. godna, bindi- 
yana. . ,w>o 

dotage, (from age) khurafut, inkhiraf, suthiya- 
hut, sithil, &c. infra, v. distraction, (on a mis- 
tress) fureftugee, ashooftugee, sheftugee, joo- 
noon. 0% . ' ,;- 1 

dotard, doter, moonkhurif, sutra buhutra, shithil, 
sithilee, burburiya, mcontushir huwas, za,eel 
col ucjl, mu,usoom sifit, peerfurtoot, v. craxy, 
chootiya, turhoorhee, choor, v. cully, (on a 
mistress) fureftu, sheftu, v. lover. 

to dote, V. n. moonkhuiif-h. suthiyana, v. to rave, 
bhinna, choor-h. bidhna, suoda,ee-h. v. to 
adore, (as a loner) deewanu-h. murna. 

dotingly, be-nihayut, bu-shiddut, v. excessively. 

double, dohra, dotuh, do-lur, dookna, doochund, 
doona, dobala, ulma3z.a|Uf, mooza,uf, moosunna, 
doonadoon, doobra, dooJa,ee, doopurta, doo- 
soota, V. twice, &c. (as a letter) mooshuddud, 
doot, mcDdghum, (as coins) pukka, v. sitigle, 
(deceitful) doo-moonha, -bhashiya or -jeebha, 
do-doosiya, soruehiya, buhoo-roopiya, v. false, 
equivocator, &c. (entendre) tujnees, junika, 
V. two-fold, pair, &c. (double-dealer, double- 
tongued, &c.) doo-runga, huft-rungee, riya- 
kar, doo-gunaee-chittee, mukkar, moozuwwir, 
inconaf5q,do-rooiyu,v. hypocritical. This word 
is, in comp. generally expressed by do or doo, 
as the above and following words will illus- 
trate, of which sort there are many more in 
the language. 

double, (bow, &c.) do-rookha. 

double-cropped, do-fusla. 




'double-dealing, doo-rungee, huft-rungee, mukka- 
ree, riya-karee, tuzweer. 

double-edged, doo-dhara. 

double-handed, do-hutha. 

double-headed, do-sira. 

double-loaded, (a gun) dcxvgara. 

double-locked, do-tala. 

to double, V. a. dohrana, doochund- mooza,uf-k. 
hirkiyana, byondee-katiia, v. to shuffle, bhanj- 
na, V. to plait, (to pass, q. v.) langhna, churh- 
na, V. to weather, (to fold, q. v.) morna, v. n. 
doogna- &c. -h. v. to cheat. 

doublet, ungrukha, dugla,v.jrrocA, &c. doo-gana, 
V. pair, twins. 

doubling, double, (of a letter) tushdeed, v. dupli- 
cation, (ofajbx) hirkee, rooba,u baz-ee, pech- 
pach, V. winding. 

doubt, doubtfulness, shuk, shoobhu, ishtibah, goo- 
man, rueb, khutru, khurka, khiyal, v. suspi- 
cion, tuzubzoob, ihtimal, ibham, tuwuhlioom, 
sunka, v. solicitude, ambiguity, scruple. 

io doubt, shuk- Sec. -k. or -v. (to fear) bhurma- 
na, durna, (to hesitate, q. v.) pusopesh- shish- 

doubter, shukkee, wuswasee, wuhmee, bhurmee, 
V. sceptic. 

doubtful, (ambiguous, q. v.) mushkook, moosh- 
tubuh, golgo], ghuer-mooqurrur, v. uncertain, 
(suspicious,q.v.) wuhmee, bhurmee, v. doubter, 
(hazardous, q. v.) khutur-nak, mootuzubzub, 
v. equivocal. 

doubtfully, shojbhe- &c. -se. 

doubtless, be-shuk, be-shoobhu, yuqeen, tuhqeeq, 


dove, kubootur, kupot, humamu, (ring-) qoom- 
ree, [of which there are many, varieties] ; the 
tumbling dove, girih-baz, kubootur-bazindu ; 
the wild doue, junglee kubootur, v. turtle-dove, 
pigeon, &c. 

dove-cot, dove-house, kubootur-khanu, dhaburee; 
the boxes for the nests are called kabook. 

dove-tail, qoolfee. 

dough, khumeer, pera, lo,ee, goondhan. 

doughty, shumsher-buha-door, sher-qalee, gha- 
zee-murdee, v. brave, &c. =• rA t . 

to douse, V. a. ghotu-d. v. n. ghotu-khana, v. to 

dowager, bewu, rand, bidhwa, begum, buhoo- 
begum, buhoo, v. lady. 

dowdy, phoohur, geglee. 

dower, dowry, (portion, q. v.) juhez, dueja, du- 
hez, ulunkar, kunniya-dan, v. gift, (jointure) 
muhr, kabeen. 

dowlas, khudhur, guzee, garha, v. cloth. 

down, (hair, &c.) rom, ro,eri, rongta, roo,ee, v. 
gossamer, cotton, (of the chin) subzu, khutt, 
(pile of velvet, &c.) khwab, (wool) pushum, 
(plain) muedan, land. 

down, downwards, (prep. & adv.) neeche, tule, 
heth, zer, v. up, to, also upside ; to take down, 
ootarna, v. to dismount, (a house, &c.) ood- 
herna, v. to undo, fall, lay, &c. (in writing) 
tank- likh-r. qulum bund-k. v. to insert; to 
throw down, puchhama, letarna, putuk-d. ; to 
boil down, julana, gurhiyana, v. to inspissate, 
(with a stream) bhuthiyal, bhathee, (since) 
se; to go down, (to set) ghcoroob-h. doobna, 
buethna, ust-h. ; to fall down, gir-puma; to 
throw down, gira-d.; up and down, eedhur oo- 
dhur ; to go down, huzm- burdasht-h. v. to 
suffer, to bear, &c. ; to lay down, rukh-d. ; to 
lie down, let-ruhna; my boat was sailing down, 
and his was going vp, meree na^o bhuthiyal ja- 
tee thee o cos kee oojan. 

downcast, shurm-geen, muhjoob, laj-wunt, lujee- 
la, surnigoon, goopchoop, v. dejected, silent. 

downfall, khwaree, khurabee, tubahee, suttya- 
nasee, inhidam, mismaree, v. ruin, disgrace. 




downright, ( plain) seedha, sadu, rast, usl, muhz, 
sureeh, theek, v. blunt, {open, q. v.) saf, za- 
hir, {complete, q. v.) pukka, banka, kutta, ni- 
hayut, kamil, suklit. 

downrightly, {openly) sureehun, khoola, v. tJie adj. 

downy, {soft) nurm, kotnul, mcnla,im, mookhut- 
tutj pola, ro,endar, khwabdar, pushmee, gala- 
sa, phaha-sa, roo,ee-sa, v. nap, also balmy. 

doxy, V. drab, dhemnee, yarnee, ooruhree, v. 
strumpet, &c. 

doze, kuchee neend, neemkhwab, oonneenda, 
oogha,ee, v. nap, &c. 

to doze, V. n. oonghna, jhupkee men-h. ulsana, 
sona, ankh-lugna, pure-ruhna, v. to yatcn, loi- 
ter-, &c. V. a. oonghaua, solana. 

doxen, baruh. 

dozy, oonghasa, ghoonoodu, ulsana, v. drowzy. 

drab, buzaree, huteree-buteree, turkhnl, v. har- 
ridan, jade, &c. 

drachm, dirhum, v. dram. 

dracunculus, drajicontium, narwa, rishtu, aqur- 

draff, seethee, kho,ee, khulee, phokh, v. refuse. 

draff, {for money) burat, tunkhwah, {cattle) 
halee, uld, v. draught, burden. 

drag, kanta, jhugur. 

to drag, ghuseetna, kheenchna, jharna, chhenk- 
na, V. to sweep, {a boat) tanna, v. to draw, 
V. n. ghusitna. 

to draggle, v. a. litharna, v. n. lithurna. 

draggletail, litharoo. 

drag-net, muha-jal, chatur. 

dragon, uzhduha, ujgur, yooha. 

dragorCs blood, dumm-cnl-ukhwuen, dumm-oos- 
siban, heera dokhee. 

dragoon, suwar. 

drag-rope, goon, {sticks) burwa. 

drain, nalee, moohree, budur-ruo, moree, puwu- 
hee, V. ditch. 

to drain, {to strain) chhanna, nichorna, choosna, 
nikalna, pusana, nigarna, seech-d. {off") pusa- 
na, {to dry) sookhana, khoosfak-k. {to empty) 
khalee-k. kheech-d. 

drake, buta, but, budukh, but-nur, chukwa, v. 

dram, miskal, v. drachm, ghoont, v. draught. 

drama, indir-jal, natuk, nuql. 

dramatist, indirjalee, natukee. 

draper, buzzaz, purchu-furosh, kupriya, v. mercer. 

drapery, hoollu, buna,o, choona,o, singar, v. dress, 
also ornament. 

drastick, mcnshil, jhar. 

draught, {of water, &c.) ghoont, jooru,u, qoort, 
{beverage) shurbut, shurab, {of carriages) 
kheecha,o, kushish, khuench, v. prill, soorkee, 
dum, piyaSjV. drmA;, {delineation, slccfch)nuci- 
shu, duol, ootara, sancha, khaka, v. plan, {of 
a net) khuencha,ee, teera,ee, {of a letter) adrus, 
V. copy, {of an account) khusra, v. order, {of 
a po7id) jhar, jhura,o, {of men) nikal, niksar, 
chhant, v. detachment, {of a boat) panee, v. 
depth; a rough draught of a writing, moosu- 
wudu, {a beast of draught) ladoo, bojhuel ; of 
what draught is this boat ? yih na,o ketne pa- 
~ nee kee hue ? 

draughts, mooghul puthan. There are several 
games of this sort in Hindoostan, viz. tiyoor, 
nuogotiya, terun sula,ee, pucheesee, chuopur, 
chuosur, chhukka, bagh bukree. 

draw, khuench, v. jrull, draught, &c. 

to draw, v. a. kheenchna, ghuseetna, r. to drain, 
fchuenchna, uenchna, tanna, teema, ghuseet- 
lana, -lejana, v. to drag, {a sword) cpriyan-, 
alum-k. karhna, v. drawn, {to open or shut a 
curtain, &c.) khuench-lena, v. these verbs, {to 
bring) lana, v. to cause, {to utter) marna, v. to 
sigh, {to lead) chulana, v. to drive, {to fake 
up) mungwa- khuench-lena, v. to withdraw, 




(to emhowel) pet-cheerna, saf-k. v. to gut, (a 
picture, &c.) oorehna, cheetna, optarna, chit- 
urna, v. to copy, (a bill) hoondee-k. -likhna, 
or -bhejna, (to cast) dalna, phenkna, dekhna, 
V. lot, (out) chhantna, choon-lena, v. to select, 
(an army) tueyar-k-. v. to prepare, array, Sec. 
(water by cattle) pool-chulana, (by people) 
ghurra-chulana, (to pluck out) kheench-d. ni- 
kalna, (to suck) choosna, (to attract, q. v.) 
juzb-k. V. to contract, (to inhale) lena, (to pull 
out) ookharna, (to open) kholna, (to shut) 
bund-k. (to produce) pueda-k. (to jirotract) 
tuweel- tool-k. burhana, (to drive) lena, (to 
entice) lulchana, mohna, purchana, hurna; to 
draw for money on a person, tunkhwah-k. ; to 
draw in, (curb) utkana, baz-r. (to inveigle) 
wurghulanna ; to drazv on, (hoots, &c.) churh- 
ana, v. to put on, &c.; to draw off, (to distil) 
choO|ana, choolana ; to draw over, phor- tor- 
lana ; to draw up, (an army, &c.) suf- pura-, 
barh-b. (to compose) insha-k. likhna; to draw, 
V. n. khichna, (to delineate) nuqshu-b. nuqqa- 
shee- chiturkaree-k. v. to paint; to draw near, 
nuzdeek- pas- wure-ana, v. n. bona, hojana, 
jana, ana, puhonchna, churhna, ooturna, nikul- 
na, V. to become, approach ; to draw together, 
jumu-h. simutna, joorna ; to draw 6acA;, hutna, 
surukna, dubna ; to draiv at cards, hcokm-oot- 
hana or -nikalna; to drato a sore, buhana, v. 
to advance. See Vol. II. under kheenchna. 

drawback, chhoot, tukhfeef, ri,ayut, phirta, v. 
alloivance. , ' ^^ t :>; :; .> 

drawer, qulum-kar, v. painter, (of a bureau) 
ghur, khanu, v. waterman, attracter, (in comp.) 
kush, V. waiter. 

drawers, janghiya; long drawers, pa,ejamu, izar, 
sbilwar, sirwal, tumban. 

drawing, nuqqashee, nuqsliu, nuqsh, nuqsh o ni- 
gar, V. painting. 

drawing-room, durbar, deewan-am, subha bhu- 
wun, V. hall, &c. , 

to drawl, ghuseetna, reghana, ghelwana, ghel- 

drawn, khicha hoo,a, kusheedu, nunga, v. naked, 
(as a game, &c.) boord, sur-bu-sur, (collected) 
jumu hoo,a, (equal, q. v.) burabur, (to he) 


,V .,1'- 


dread, dur, bhue, bhuo, duhshut, suhm, dugh- 
dughu, undeshu, dhurka, khutru, muhabut, 
ghor, khuHsh, wuswas, v. fear, awe, &c. 

to dread, durna, bhurmana, duhshut- &c. -rukh- 
na or -khana, khutru- &c. -k. or -r. dhuruk- 
na, hidiyana, durupna, kudrana, pur-julna, 
bhabhna, v. to shrink, apprehend, &c. 

dreadful, huol-nak, duhshut-nak, ibrut-nak, 
wuhshut- or duhshut-ungez, ibrut-ncnma, hue- 
butee, bliueman, bhue,anuk, moohish, v. dire- 
ful, terrible. 

dreadfully, bu-shiddut, bu-nihayut, v. terribly. 

dreadfulnees, huol-nakee. 

dreadless, be-bak, nidhuruk, nidur. 

dream, khwab, supna, royu, waqi,u, busharut, 
V. vision, (idle fancy) khiyal, wuhm, dhoklia. 

to dream, khwab- &c. -dekhna, supnana, dekh- 
na, (to imagine, q. v.) khiyal-k. (to be idle, 
q. V.) soostee- kahilee- dheel-k. soost- &c. 
-h. V. to doze, &c. , 

dreamer, (a visimiary) wuhmee, khiyalee. 

drear, dreary, sunglakli, v. bleak, dismal. 

dreggy, dreggish, gudia, mookuddur, pc»r-doord, 

dregs, tirchhut, muel, koadoorut, doord, tukud- 
door, tulchhut, sifl, kusafut, ala,ish, nichor, 
V. lees, (refuse) ootar, akhor, ruddee, napoor- 
san, also (of the people) rudd khuluq, (remnant, 
q. V.) kusur, v. remainder, (of oil) kat, v. dross. 

to drench, bhigona, shur bor- turbutur- shor bor- 




-k. (to purge) jjiarna, jooUab-d. v, to swill. 

drenched, shor bor, shur bor, luth puth, suriwal. 

to be drenched, kupona, v. wet. 

dress, poshak, libas, kupre, jora, bustur, rukht, 

kiswut, jamu, puhrawa, purcedhan, muibcnis, 

baga, quba, hoDlIu, uchla, qimash, uqmushu, 

V. garment, robe, suj, (habit) bana; a uniform, 

an honorary dress, khulut or khilut, suropa. 

to dress, (clothe, q. v.) puhiima, puhirna, kupre- 
&c. -puhinna, v. to put on, sujana, sarna, saf- 
-k, V. to adjust, range, &c. (to adorn, q. v.) 
sunwarna, singarna, arastu-fc. ara,ish-d. (a 
wound) puttee-b. murhum-r. zukhm-bandhna, 
niurhum puUee-k. (to curry) teemar- khur- 
khura-k. (to prepare food, leather, &c.) seejna, 
dum-d. pukana, tueyar-k. v. to cook, roast, 
boil, furnish, &c. (to trim) chhantna, bhajna. 

dresser, sujawunhar, kupur-darnee, v. table, (in 
camp.) bund, v. gardener, (female) mooshsha- 
tu, V. cook, (of leather) chumar, chumbar, v. 

dressing, murhum, puttee, v. plaster. 

dressing-box, singardance. 

to dribble, tupukna, choona, chhcolukna, thopi- 
yana, chhulkana, v. to drop, slaver. 

driblet, khmrdu, rezu, v. farthing, (to pay in) 
lohoo mootkc dena. 

drift, (impulse, q.v.) hcnkm, ghulbu, zor, (cloud 
of dust) ghoobar, (purpose, q.v.) ghat, undaz, 
V. aim, scope; the drift of rain, wind, &c. buo- 
chhar, jhikor, jhanta, v. blast, (of sand) reg- 
ruwan, v. whirlwind, tor, v. force, (tendeiicy) 
dhub, siyaq, v. tenour, bhed, v. design; the 
drift or tenour of a mail's discourse, fuhwa e 
kulam, V. context. 

to drift, V. to drive, float. 

drill, burma, niunqub, (military exercise) qii- 

to drill, salna, chhedna, bedhna, soorakh-k. v. to 

pierce; dhuriyana, hul tuddee-bona, /ro/n hul- 
tuddee, a drill plough, v. exercise; to drill sol- 
diers, sikhlana, quwa,id-sikhlana, tu,uleem-k. 

dri?ik, shoorb, noshish, (of wafer) ek piyas or 
piyas bhur-panee, v. beverage, draught; meat 
and drink, ukl o shoorb, kliana peena. 

to drink, peena, ghootna, kheechna, soorrokna, 
(wine, &c.) muekushee-k. piya-k. (as an ani- 
mal) mirg nioonh-peena, V. to lap, (as a drunk- 
ard) nushu-khana, (to absorb, q.v.) sokh- pec-, 

drinkable, peene-jog, nosheedunce. 

drinker, kuefec, nushu-khor, peene wala, piyun- 
har, piyak, pecwukkur, sharib, noshindu, pi- 
yalu baz, (in comp.), khar, khor, v. tip- 
ler, also carousal, drunkard. 

drip, dripping, tupkun. 

to drip, tupukna, v. to drop. 

drip-stone, koond, risa-puthur. 

to drive, dugrana, higarna, v. to conduct, doot- 
karna, bhugana, rubrana, khedna, hulkarna, 
dcordoorana, oorana, choochkarna, khuderna, 
thoothkarna, buhana, hutana, v. to cast, re- 
move, thrust, (ashore) churhana, higana, v. to 
strand, (to o?J(//ro) jhukorna, jhoolana, jhoo- 
mana, v. to swing, (over or trample) ruondana, 
V. to run, ride, (cattle) hankna, chulana, duor- 
ana, (an elephant) hoohia, (to f orcein) dhusana, 
ghcDsenia, (a nail) thonkna, niarna, garna, (to 
chase) shikar-k. (to compel) zor- zoolm-k. v. 
to impel, (to expel) nikal-d. door-k. (to carry 
on) kurna; v. n. dugurna, buhna, ruburna, 
oorna, jana, churhna, niara-phirna, jhukoorna, 
ghoomna, jhookna, lugna,v. to rush, te7id, turn, 
pass, also to be adrift, chulna, duorna, (as a 
vessel) tule tule-phirna, v. to aim. 

drivel, ral, lar, loo,ab. 

to drivel, ral-d. or -girana. 

driveller, uhmuq, ga,o<lcc, v. fool. 
A A 




driver, wan, ban, hankwuya, v. bullock, (of a 
carriage) garee-wan, v. herd, carter. 

drixssle, jheesee, bishtee, jheesiyahut. 

to drizzle, phoohee- phoohar-purna, turush- 
' shooh-h. jheesiyana, phoohiyana. 

dris^sly, jheesiyaha. 

droll, (comical, q. v.) ujeeb, ujub, zor, tumasha, 

. bhula, zutuUee, v. biiffhon; a droll, muskhuru, 
huzzal ; he has a droll name, coska koochh bhu- 
la nam hue. 

to droll, muskhurugec- tumuskhcor-k. 

drollenj, muskhurugee, huzul, huzliyat, zutul, 
huzzalee, muskhuree, muzakh, v. hnffoonery, 

dromedary, bookhtee, sandnee, do kohan, v. ca- 
mel. . 

drone, dronvsh, (idler, q. v.) mujhool, moordu, 
dheela, soost, mukhee mar, gobur-dhun, v. bed- 
presser, sluggard, also to lounge, trifle. 

to droop, moorjhana, kcnmbhlana, muleen- zUiCef-, 
na tuwan-hqjana, puzhmoordu- moozmuhil-h. 
(asfotvls) oonghna, oongha,ee-]ugna, jhookna, 
girna, lutukna, v. to languish, hang. 

drop, boond, boondee, qutru, top, thop, tupkun, 
chhitkee, chheenta, bichee, v. shot, pi. qutrat. 

to drop, V. n. choona, tupukna, tuptupana, khus- 
na, toona, chhootna, nikulna, jana, khusukna, 
V. to isszie (in battle) thuor-ruhna, panee nu 
mangna, v. to sink, (out) oogul-nikul-purna, 
V. to fall, (to die) murna, (to be slain) joojhna, 
(to cease) muoqoof- jata-ruhna, (to enter unex- 
pectedly) apuraa, ajana, waqi-h. (to fall short) 
wure-girna; v. a. choo,ana, choolana, tupka- 

• na, girana, clalna, chhorana, ootha-d. muoqoof- 
k. (to utter, q.v.) kuhna, phenkna, (a letter) 
huzf- saqit- lop-k. v. to omit, nikalna, v. to 
cease, vanish. 

dropping, tuqatoor,chukeedugee,choo,an, nichor, 
V. dripping.  ,•  

dropsical, julundhurec, juloduree, moostusqee. 

dropsy, jiilundhur, istisqa, pundoodur,muhodur, 
julodur, V. anasarca. 

dross, muel, koDdoorut, foozlu, v. riist, dregs, 
(of glass) kuchlon, (of metals) keet, khoobs, 
reem, khad, moos, gooh, chirk, v. iron, leav- 

drossy, muela, inookuddur. ^^ \v»^-(v 

drove, (Jlock) gulki, (of camels) qutar, (herd) 
nar, (of elephants) hulqu, (crotvd) bheer, ju- 
ma,oo, burdee, lenhda, gehnda, gur, jhoond, v. 

drover, guUu-ban, chuopan, churwaha, bufdiya. 

drought, (want of rain) imsaki baran, khooshkee, 
sookha, quht, khooshk salee, chutka,/ro7H chu- 
tukna, to dry, q. v. (thirst, q. v.) piyas, v. 

to drown, v. a. doobona, borna, ghurq-k. dooba- 
mama, (to overpower, q. v.) mama, dubana, 
(as a Hindoo) kur-lena ; v. n. doob-muma, 
ghurq-h. boor-murna, v. to sink. 

drowsiness, neend, oongh, ulsan, peenuk, chort, 
oonghas, v. sleepy, (indolence, q. v.) soostee, 

drowsy, nindasa, khwab-aloodu, ulsana, (sloth- 
ful, q. V.) mujhool, v. dtdl. 

drub, drubbing, mar-peet, koot-peet. 

to drub, V. to flog, peetna, kootna, thuthana, 
thonkna, mama, bichha-d. dulmusul-k. koo- 
tuk bazee-k. v. to bastinade, beat. 

drudge, tuhloo,a, mihnutee, ruwunna, muzdoor; 
a sweeper''s drudge, kumera, v. slaAie. 

to drudge, tuhul- mihnut- ghoolamee-k. lohoo 
panee-k. pet mutha-k. panw-ghuseetna, dhana, 
duorna, dhoopna, v. to toil. 

drudgery, tuhul, ruwunnuguree, muzdooree, pu^ 
erdhawuree, v. to trudge. '' t'^U*' I 

drug, V. medicine, duwa,ee, duwa, udwiyu, uok- 
hud, dumian, dai'oo, (a mere) mundoo,a bu- 





rabiir, {to be) duhee duhee-h. v, apothecary, 
grocery, remedy. tit^\ ^mp^i ,t>tmimk> ( 

druggist, uttar, {prop, a perfumer) punsaree. 
He deals also in spices, &c. 

drum, dhol, clholuk, dohul, tubul, tubla, mir- 
dung, dufr-a or -ee, kunjuree, bheincha, doog- 
doogee, duraroo, digree, hoorook, mandur, ru- 
banu, dumama, tumboor, {from tambor, Por^.) 
pukhavvuj, tasa, duf, da,iru, mui'l'a, jue-dhak, 
ilunka, {head) tal, {bottom) bum, (i/ace*) jo- 
tee, {barrel) pete, khol, v. ring, also kettle ; 
a kettle-drum, nuqqaru, kos, {of the ear) kan 
ka purdu, v. Vol. II. for an explanation of 
these. Tomtom seems to have been formed in 
imitation of the sound of a drum ; but by 
whom, and when, is perhaps undetermined. 

to drum, dhol- tumboor-bujana or thonkna, nuq- 
qaru-k. or -d. doog doogana, dhol-raama or 

drummer, dholiya, tubul-nuwaz, tumboor-chee, 
dooliul-zun, dohul-kob, dufalee, tasa-nuwaz, 
supurda,ee, tubulchee, pukhawujee, duf-zun, 
doog doogiya. 

drumstick, chob, , dunka, ov thf (irwm itself, v. 
fame, he. ',,,,.4:-,, ...t-~T,fri .;«■ .>',t,', 

drunk,drunken,ni\xi-yisXa, must, mata,v. intoxi- 
cated. -VM .JU,t}<>«i>-«|l,THV»V- 

to be drunk, nushe men-hona. 

drunkard, v. drinker, shurab-khor, shurabee, da- 
im ool-khumr, khummar, nushu-khor or baz, 
mue-khar or kush, umulee, mudpee, mudoo,a, 
\. sot. .ta ,isHcdBa ,s-»ii«f!! .i-bao 

drunkenly, mustanu. 

drunkenness, niustee, kuef, shurab-khwaree, nu- 
shu-khoree, mue-khooree, nushu-bazee, v. in- 
toancation. nfmiUiikffHi ,i-'nlMit ,Jur 

dry, V. insipid, {arid, q. v.) khooshk, sookha, 
seeUia, v. sapless, {cow) thar, udheen, {thirsty) 
piyasa, tishnu, {plain) rookha, sadu, v. bar- 

ren, reserved, jjwona or jhoora, be-rus, v. tear- 
less, {as a well) undha, dhulha, be panee, v. 
thirsty, {as an answer) sursuree, be-huldee o 
phit kuree, be luga,o, v. unadorned, bud mu- 
zu, V. tasteless, {severe) sukiit. 

to dry, V. a. sookhana, sookhlana, khroshk-k. 
jhoorana, senkna, mama, chutkana, julana, 
khurk-hurana, juzb-k. v. to absorb, scorch, 
{to wipe) ponchhna ; v. n. sookhna, khooshk- 
-h. murna, julna, jhun jhunana, {as milk of 
cows, nurses, &c.)chutukna, tootna, v. to cease. 

dryer, jazib, sokh. i^;,-^ 

dry-kmd, khooshkee, sookha. 

dryly, v. dry, yoonhee, rookha,ee-se, v. coldly. 

dryness, v. insipidity, khooshkee, scokhawut, yoobs, 
yooboosut, {of temper) rookhawut, v. sterility, 
{between friends) koodoorut, bud-muzugee, 
shukur-runjee, rookha,ee-se, \. frigidity. 

dry-nurse, duda, da,ee, opposed to da,ee 
pila^ee, a wet nurse, v. nurse. 

to dry-nurse, doodh se palna. 

dry-shod, sookhee jootee. 

dtcal, moosunna, doo-buchun ; the dual tiumber, 

to dub, bunana, thuhrana, kurna, v. to call, khi- 
Iiit-d. V. to install. 

dubious, \. doubtful. . .;iK.c;;> .n. .y ,jJi..»ii4>'iA 

duck, {tame) but, butuk, (eci/rf) chukweej chuk-, V. drake. This is the large duck or 
goose, well known in India by the name of 
Bruhmunee goose or duck, and in the poetry of 
the Hindoos is their turtle dove, for constancy 
and connubial affection, with the singular cir- 
cumstance of the pair being doomed for ever 
to nocturnal separation, for having oifended 
one of the Hindoo dfvinities. Whence, v 

Chukwa chukwee do June — in mut maro ko,e; 
Ye mare kurtar ke — ruen bicbhora hOiC. 
A A 2 




-' -Mark, heaveti's decree! and man forbear 
•V iTa aim thy shafts, or puny thunder, 
At these poor fowls; — a hapless pair. 
Who pass the lonely nights asunder. 

If we believe popular tradition and assertions, 
the cause is so far confirmed by the effect ob- 
servable in the conduct of these birds to the 
present day, who are said to occupy the op- 
posite banks of a water, or stream, regularly 
every evening, and to exclaim the live-long 
night to each other thus: 'iA;. «f 

Chuku,ee, muen a,oon ? Nuheen nuheen, chuk- 

Chukwa, muen a,oon ? Nuheen nuheen, chuk- 
<p--L u,ee. 

Say, shall I come, my dear, to thee ? Ah no ! in- 
deed that cannot he. 

But may I wing, my love, to you ? Nay, chuck, 
alas ! this will not do. 

(waterfowl) moorgh-abee ; the play of ducks 
and drakes, chhcochhlee ; to play at ducks and 
drakes, chhcochhliyan-khelna. 

to duck, V. n. ghotu- doobkee- boDrkee-marna, 
dqobkooree-d. or -marna, (ordeally) pundoo- 
bee-lena-k. v. to dive, (to bend the head) sur- 
jhookana ; v. a. ghotu- doobkee-d. 

duct, nulee, v. tube. 

ductile, chimra, nurm, moola,im, v. tractable. 

•ductility, ductileness, chimra,ee, nurmee, mcnla- 

dudgeon, khufgee, runjish, unrus, v. discord, ma- 

due, (proper, q-v.) la,iq, mu,uqool, wajibee, (ex- 
act, q. v.) theek ; to be due, ana, nikulna, bo- 
na; there are four rupees dtie me from him, oos 

pur mere char roopu,e ate huen ; due, (as a debt, 
&c.) chaheeta, baqee, lena, dena, chuhiye, la 
zim, zuroor, oochit, v. Jit, owing; there are ten 
rupees due me from you, apse mere dus roopu,e 
chaheete huen, or team se moojhe dus roopu,e, 
pane huen, v. to owe ; a due, (right) huqq, 
pud, huqq-hulal, v. right, duen- or mal-wajib, 
V. debt, (fee) mursoom, zabitanu, v. duty, per- 
quisite, &c. pi, hooqooq, (custom, q. v.) muh- 
sool, dustoor, lagut. 

due, adv. seedha, rast. 

duel,, khanu-jungee, chhooree kutaree, 
maljoodh, v. combat. "* 

to duel, muedan-k. 

duellist, jung-jo. 

dug, thun, choonchee, jijee, (disease of) thun- 
uela, also having dugs; (a^ a horse) thunee, v. 

dulcet, mudhoor, ruseela, v. sweet. 

to dulcify, sheereen, meetha-k. v. to sweeten. 

dulcimer, sitar, tumboora, qanoon, chuotara, v. 
organ. ,» \ u^i. jh4.'.j v; 

dulco-acid, khuth meetha. 

dull, V. blunt, (dullard) ga,odee, uhmuq, sutu- 
hee, ugoorh, moordar-mittee, budzihn, kordil, 
v. blockhead, moordu, moo^a, munda, bharee, 
V. dead, be-chohul, be-rus, be-ruonuq, v. dry, 
gloomy, (sad, q. v.) oodas, ufscordu, (slothful, 
q. v.) dheela, mujhool, (dim, q. v.) undha, 
(drowsy, q. v.) khwab-nak, ulsana ; to be dull 
of hearing, ooncha-soonna, v. insipid, flat. 

to dull, kojnd-k. marna, dubana, bharee-k. v. to 
blunt, damp, deaden, dim, stupify. 

dully, himaqut-se, soostee-se. 

dulness, kuodunee, koondu-zihnee, ghubawut, hi- 
maqut, ubluhee, sadu-luohee, sutahut, hcwmq, 
be ruoniiqee, v. heavitiess, (laziness, q.v.) soos- 
tee, kahilee, (dimness, q.v.) undhla,ee, (drow 
siness, q. v.) nindas, khwab-nakee. 




duly, uch-chhee turuh-se, kuma huqqoohco, jue- 
sa chahiye, tJieek, v. dtie, as, regularly. 

dumb, goonga, goong, lal, bcnkm, goop, choop, 
moonh-bundlia, choopka, un-bolta, mooka, v. 
speechless, {bells) mogdur, (*«7f7«<)ch(Dp,choop- 
chap, khamosh, sakit, {mute as beasts) be- 
zuban, zuban-bustu, un-bola. 

to dumbfound, dhumkana, soonmoon-k. v. to con- 

dumimess, goongee, khamoshee,be-zubanee, goon-, goongapun, mookee, v. silence. 

dumpling, peetha, khaDda,ee-ruhm, gool-goola, v. 

dumps, dosn moon, mulola, bhurumbhor, v. brown 

dun, adj. shirghu, sumoond. 

dun, dunner,, tuqaza-dar, moohussil, 
dhurnuet, dustukee, suzawul, chum-cheechur, 
V. bailiff. 

dun, {importunity for money) tuqaza, oogahee. 

to dun, tuqaza-k. urana, moohussilee-k. dubana, 
dhurna-d. dhoonee-d. v. to press. 

dunce, uhmuq, bhukwa, oot, be-wuqoof, ooloo, 
chootiya, bhoogga, buleed, ghubee, v. booby, 
dolt, dull, illiterate. 

dung, V. cack, gooh, chirkeen, gundugee, buraz, 
ghuleez, kiriftugee, jhara, mul, bistha, lendee, 
V. e.vcrement, {of goats) mengnee, bjhelandee, 
(of elepha7its) pinda, v. cow-dung, mootralee, 
V. litter, {of horses) leed, {of birds) beeth, 
peekhal, {of cows) gobur, surgeen, {mamire) 
khad, pans. 

to dung, {manure) khad-d. pansiia. 

dungeon, syali-chah, bhuksee, bhuonra, v. cell, 

dung-hill, kooia, muzbulu, ghoor, gunduor, gob- 
rar, kooree, v, vile, {cock) unjue-moorgh. 

dunner, ooguhiya, v. dun. 

dunning, ura,o, v, urgency. 

dupe, modhoo, mootee.u, bukree, bundur, v. cuUy, 
fureftu, mooreed ; whence, zun-ma>reed, a dupe 
to a woman, v. to cheat. 

duplicate, mcusunna, pueth, mookurrur, ootar, v. 
copy, fold, second. 

to duplicate, dohrana, dootuh-k, v. to double, 

duplication, tushdeed, idgham, dohra,o, dohra,ee, 
doognahut, v. fold. 

duplicity, doo-rungee, riya, dimbh, v. deceit. 

durable, pa,e-dar, der-pa, oostoowar, qa,im, sabit, 
tika.oo, moostuqeem, moostuhkum, thuhra,oo, 
rasikh, muzboot, mookhullud, v. strong, last 

dura mater, comm ood-dimagh. 

duration, durableness, durability, duraiKt, pa,e-da~ 
ree, der-pa,ee, oostoowaree, khuta,o, tika,o, qi- 
yam, istihkam, sooboot, subat, buqa, roosookh, 
thura,o, miyad, v. continuance, prison. 

during, men, beech, bote, jubtuluk, a,endooI or 
indool, ruhte, durmiyan, mabuen, iien, ruhte, 
bhur, V. while; during thejever don't take this 
medicine, tup ke bote yih duwa nu khana. 

dusk, {of the evening) dhcnr-sanj, neema-sham, 
godhoor, godhlee sumue, diye jule, diye lisan, 
guodhookan, v. darkness, dusky, twilight. 

dusky, duskish, dhoomla, kala, siyah, tareek, 
dhoondhulka, muela, dhoondlila, v. gloomy, 
dark, obscure. 

dust, dhoor, dhool, gurd, khak, ghoobar, punkuj, 
ruj, kunj, v. earth. 

to dust, V. to sweep, jharna, jharjhutuk-k. bhoor- 
bhoorana, v. to powder, {iti the Holct^ dhoor- 
heree-khelna, khak-bazee- or -undazee-k. v. 
to wipe, {to sprinkle with dust) dhooriyana, 

dusty, gurd-aloodu, ghoobar-aloodu, dhurkundo, 
dhooluha, dhoomuela, gurd- or khak-amez, 
V. dirty. 




dutiful, duteous, rusheed, su,eed, khuluf, supoot, 
nek-bukht, sha,istu, numuk-hulal, wufa-dar, 
hookmee, karakajee, muiiinhar, v. attentive, 
submissive, {obedient, q. v.) aggya-karee, ad- 
heen, moo,uddub ; a dutiful servant, hookmee 
bundu, V. respectful..  j-mxA 

dutifully, sha,istugee- &c. -se. 

dutifulness, rushadut, su,adut, nek-bukhtee, sha- 
istugee, numuk-hulalee, wufa-daree, v. obe- 

fluty, (obligation, q. v.) furz, shurt, (office, q. v.) 
tuhul, kam, v. business, dutifulness, (of a sol- 
dier) chuokee, tu,eenatee; who is for duty to- 
day? aj kis kee chuokee hue? (tax, q. v.) 
muhsool, lugta, v. custom, kaj, fureezu, huqq, 
V. concern, rukhwaree, v. guard, (various im- 
posts) vix. zabitanu, tuh bazaree, sa,ir, zukat, 
kur, lagut,, nukhkhasee, ghutwalee, 
tulashee, v. due, fee, toil, 
iiwarf, buona, thoomka, v. pigmy. 

dwarjish, chhota, thingna, nata, v. small. 

io dwell, ruhna, tikna, busna, ghm-k. sookoo- 
nut-k. bood o bash-k. v. to reside, bukhanna, 
V. to expatiate, (on a subject) jana ; dwell not 
on her beauty, but mentiou lier accomplishments. 

ooskee khoobsoortee pur mat jaiO, oos ke hoo- 
nurbutla.o. ,-^::?,^f;> /sb 

dweller, mooqeem, basee, bashindu, sakin, ruhne 
wala, ruhinhar, booniyadee, ru,ees, v. inhabi- 

dwelling, (abode, q. v.) mukan, mooqam, muskun, 
jae, juguh, v. habitation. 

dwelling-house, huwelee, ghur, muhul, grehi, 
bhuwun, kothee, v. mansion. 

to dwindle, ghutna, kumkotah-h. chhutna, oo- 
turna, sookhna, sookoorna, jhoorriyana, v. to 
decay, tuhleel-h. gulna, v. to pine, (to degene- 
rate) bigurna, khurab-h. v. to diminish. 

to dye, V. to die. 

dying, murta, (giving a colour) rungta, rung- 
wa,ee, v. to colour, (vat) mat, v. to die. A 
species of dying is called bandhnoo, from the 
white stripes that are left uncoloured while 
the rest is dyed. 

dynasty, v. family, sulumut, raj, ghuranu, khan- 
dan, buns, jutai'a, al, tubqu, v. generation, 
race, &C.' 

dysentery, unteesar, ishal, juriyan i shikum isha- 
li dumwee. 

dysury, qpsr col buol, hubs col buol, kurk moot. 



e, when single, in this work, has the sound of 
the slender a in rate, (thus ret, sand) or the e 
in where, there. It is never mute as in En- 
glish, at the end of words; ee is used to express 
the sound which e has in be ; thus beebee, a 


each, hur-ek, ek-ek, ek ; ek ek ko marte huen, 
or ek ko ek marte huen, tJiey heat each other, 
V. one another. It is often omitted or express- 
ed by reduplication, ghur peechhe, or ghur 
ghur, signifying each house, v. both, every, a, 





each other, ek-deegiir, apojs, bahuni, v. together, 
also other, all, &c. ; cwt each side, hur do turuf. 

eager, shuoqeen, huwiis-nak, arzoo-mund, v. de- 
girous, ma,il, tueyar, tun-dili, ubhilakh-ee, luo- 
leen, mootuwujjih, surgurm, {impetuous, q. v.) 
juld, tez, V. keen, ardent, ardour, &c. 

to be eager, chahna, v. earnest. 

eagerly, shuoq- &c. -se. 

eagerness, shuoq, huwus, chomp, arzoo-niundee, 
chah, surgurmee, tun-dihee, {impetuosity, q. 
V.) toondee, juldce, v. violence. 

eagle, qoqab, hooma shaheen, sardool. 

eagle-stone, khayu i iblees, khulas moohra, kur- 

eagre, kuthal, v. bore. 

eame, um, v. tmcle. 

ear, kan, gosh, sruwun, kun-hur, kun-rus, v. 
hearing, also io hear, (handle, q. v.) kan, dus- 
tu, {diseases of) kun-bichee, kunchutta, kun- 
pher, {wig) putbichhee, gojiya, kungojur, also 
(a whisperer) kunlugwa, {wax) knnuohwa, 
khidee, chirk-gosh, v.^^/A, {pncker) kunsii- 
la,ee, t. centipede, {boring) kuniyo, {of wheat, 
green) gada, {of corn) bal, balee, khoshu, 
sees; to be up to the ears, gula gop-h. {by the) 
kun kutMwwul-k. tukurna, kut- lur-murna, 
{to set by the) tukrana, lurana, v. to fight, &c. 
about the ears, sir pur, v. head ; up to tlie ears, 
nak tuk, nak o nak ; to give ear, kan-d. {to 
have the ear of) kan-lugna, v. to ingratiate. 

eared, kuna, goshu, v. angle, &c. 

earless, kun-kuta, boocha. 

eariiness, shitabce, juldee. 

early, adj.sawcra, (as fruit, &c.)ugmuna, (for- 
tcard, q. v.) ugeta, ugla, ungoot, v. premature, 
(in time, q. v.) bur wuqt; early in the morning; 

 turke, buree fujur, {i7i the evening) suri sham, 
{vulg. suesanj) ; a}i early riser, suhur-khez ; 
early rising, suhur-khezee. 

early, adv. juld, shitab, suwere, bhinsar, sukare, 
bihane, bheensare, bhulke, v. dawn, &c. 

to earn, hasil- pueda- ooparjun-k. kumana, khu 
tana, v. to gain. 

earliest, adj. bujid, mooqueyid, moostu,jd,, 
sur-gurm, dil-soz, gurm, v. eager. ■' 

earnest, sub. numoonu, v. specimen, {token of a 
bargain) bue,anu, khichree bue,anu,e urbabi 
nishat, {advances, q. v.) sa,ee, roka,ee, v. hand- 
sel, pledge, chashnec, (i'm-) sutbha,o, bil-yuqeen, 
V. truly, indeed; are you in earnest? toom such 
kuhte ho ? v. serious. 

earnestly, shuoq- surgurmee- &c. -se. 

earnestness, dil-sozee, sur-gurmee, koshish, su,ce, 
jilid, V. solicitude. 

earning, kuma,ee, khuta,o, v. gains. 

ear-rings, [are various, and chiefly as follow], 
jhoomka, koondul, door, awezu, balee, bala, 
bichkuna, mcnrkee, qurunpbool, turka, lolka, 
loluk, khiloo,a, putta, gokhroo, dhendhec, ku- 
dum, khontla, luchha, chhura, jhoomuk, ku- 
nuora, khoshu, goshwaru, doorbuchu, chuoda- 
nu, gcombuzee, beer, v. ring. 

earth, mittee, matee, khak, gil, znmeen, bhoom, 
pirthmee, urz, muhee, bhoo,een, v. ground, 
hnid, {world, q. v.) dooniya, juhan, alum, v. 
country ; the face of the earth, roo,e zumeen; 
to eat earth or bole, thikree-khana. 

to earth, muttee-churhana, zumeen doz-k. v. to 
bury, hide. Sec. ; animals who earth are called, 

earthen, gilee, sufalee, mitiyala, (dish) syora, 
(ware) sifaleenu. 

carthUng, eartliborn, &c. muttee ka pootla, kha- 

earthly, urzee, khakee, doonyawee, muttee ka sa, 
mittee ka, gilee, v. worldly, corporeal. 

earthquake, zulzulu, bhoon-chal, hala dola, bul- 




chul, bhoo,een dol, zumeen lurza, shuq ool urz, 
V. crack. j, _ *, ., _ 

earthworm, kechoo,a, khurateen. 

earthy, khakee, miteela, v. earthly. 

ear-waw, khoond, kan ka muel. 

ease, aram, asoodugee, asa.ish, chuen, sookh kul, 
rahut, istirahut, foorsut, furaghut, bisram, rifa- 
hiyut, anund, tumaniyut, iimniyut, tuskeen, 
ifaqut, thundhuk, v. rest, respite, freedom, &c. 
{^facility, q. v.) asanee, sulasut, (opposed to 
stiffness') moola|imut ; at ease, aram-se, khoosh, 
chi-glium, la purwa, ba-furaghut or -aram, 
tazu dum, v. happy, {to sit) uel phuel-bueth- 
na, V. pleasure, enjoyment. 

to ease, aram- &c. -d. or -bukhshna, buhlana, 
hulka-k. V. to assuage, to relieve, (nature) isti- 
rahut-k. muedan- jungul- ja|ez.uroor-jana or 
-phirna, wuswas-mittana, quza- hajut-jana, 
julas raj-j. drig sunka-k. v. stool. 

easement,Y. ease, aram,v. advantage, conveniency. 

easily, he ghul o ghush,yoonhee,buethe buetha.e, 
V. freely, &c. aram- asaniyut- &c. -se, (rea- 

' dily) khooshee-se. 

easiness, Y. ease, (of temper) moola,imut, nurmee, 
hilm, tuhummool, ghureebee, ahistugee, bho- 
la-pun, boord-baree. 

east, poorub, mushriq, shurq, khawur, mutlu, 
or mutulu, (facing the) mushriq-roo, poorub- 
moonh, (guardian of the) indur, (wind) mut- 
lu,ee-huwa or -bara. 

easterling, poorbiya, v. eastern. 

eastern, easterly, poorbee, musbriqee, shurqec; 
an easterly wind, poorwa; eastioard, poorub- 
turuf, poorub moonh. 
easy, at ease, asan, suhl, suhuj, sulees, seedha, 
soogum, sudharun, hulka, nurm, panee, v. 
light, suhloot ool wusool, suree,!! ool fuhm, 
(in circumstances) asoodu, khcosh-hal, asoodu- 
hal, farigh, scokhee, muhzooz, mooruffu, (of 

temper) moola|im, huleem, mootuhummil, bho- 
la, boordbar, ghureeb, suleem cot tubu, waristu 
mizaj, ullah log, guo admee, meetha, seedha, 
V. good natured, credulous, (in mind) unchinta, 
V. satisfaction, khoolasu, mokla, v. wide. 

to eat, khana, bhojun- tunawool-k. jyona, v. to 
graxe, bhuchhna, pa,ona, churna, chatna,chab- 
na, choogna, nosh- chut-k. chut buzm-k, ni- 
gulna, V. to consume, chew, licTc, &c. (two out 
of one dish) dookusee-khana, v. to corrode, dis- 
solve, (speaking respectfully) noshjan-k. (to cor- 
rode) kha-lena or -d. (-up) kha-j.; to eat one's 
zoord, bat pher-lena. 

eatable, qabil i tunawool, khane-jog, khoordunee, 
khane-wala, makool, pi. makoolat, v. edible, 
victuals, food. 

eater, khoorindu, kha,oo, akil, bhuchhee, kha- 
wiya, V. supra, also glutton, (in comp.) khor, 
khwar, udharee. 

eating, khorak, v. board, (house) bhuthiyar-kha- 
nu, V. inn, cook, shop. vv ■•,,.? 

eaves, oltee, oree. 

to eaves-drop, oltee- dhooka-lugna, v. to listen. 

eaves-dropper, ooltee-lugwa, kuole-luga. 

ebb, bhatha, juzr, opposed to juwar, mudd, the 
Jlow, (decline, q. v.) zuwal, v. decay. 

to ebb, bhatha-lugna or -h. khurukna, ooturna, 
churna, oodurna, khusukna, (to decay) ghutna, 
V. to fall. 

ebony, abnoos. 

ebriety, mustee, sur-sharee, v. intoxication. 

ebullition, josh, joshish, oobal, v. effervescence. 

eccentric, kuj-ruo, bukurchal, v. devious, ghalee, 
wuhshee, bhurkuel, khubtu, v. extravagant. 

eccentricity, ghooloo, khubt, v. wildness, kujru- 
wee, V. irregularity. 

ecclaircissement, tusfiyu, v. explanation. 

ecclesiastic, fuqeeh, sastrik, v. priest, guide, doc- 
tor, deenee, v, religious. 




«cho, goonj, awaz, suda, v. sound, &c. 

to echo, goonjna, awaz-ana. 

edat, ruonuq, shoohrut. 

eclegma, khunieeru. 

eclipse, guhln, gruhin, (total) surb guhin, v. 
shade, (of the sun) koosoof, inkisaf, {of the 
moon) khoosoof, inkhisaf. 

to eclipse, mama, dubana, tareek- bazarkasid-k. 
V. to darken, surpass. 

ecliptic, mintuqut-ool-bcorooj, krantiwiit. 

economic, economist, klfayut-shi,ar, jcoz-rus, kifa- 
yutec, girhist, karbaree, surfu-kar, kum- 
khurch, bala-nusheen, v. parsimonious. 

econotny, khanu-daree, girhistce,kifayut-shi,aree, 
uql i mu,ash, jooz-rusee, kifayut, vara, gliur- 
kurna, tudbeer, v. disposition, system, surfu, 
\. frugality, (arrangement, c[.\.) turteeb, in- 

ecstacy, wujd, ush ush, suma,u, be-khoodee, v. 

ecstatic, mugun, bagh-bagb, v. rapturous. 

eddyi bhuonree, bhunwur, gird-ab, bhuontee, 
(wind) gird-bad. 

edge, (of a blade) dhar, barh, v. keenness, dhig, 
V, border, ab, san, v. sharpness, (margin, q.v,) 
kinaru, lub, qor, (to set on) dant-sihrana or 
-koond-k. (to be on) dant-khutte w -goothle- 
-h. V. lace. 

to edge, (to sharpest) barh-r. tez-k. (to fringe) 
jhalur- hashiyu-liigana, (to move forward) 
burha-lana, kutrana, tirchhiyana, kutrake-a. 
-j. or -chulna, v. to cvasperate. 

edged, ab-dar, tez. 

edgeless, be-ab, nidhar, v. plain, blunt. 

edge-wise, tirchha, khura, qultnee, v. the verb. 

edging, jhalur, suiijaf, to,ee, mughzec, v. edge. 

edible, khane-ka, (roots) kund-mool, v. vege- 

edict, munha,ee, I'urman, v. order. 

edification, v. to instruct, tu.uleem, tadeeb, tuli- 
zeeb, turbiyut, arastiigee, bhula,ee, ludha,o, v. 

edifice, iniarut, huwelee, ghur, niuhul. 

to edify, sikhlana, tu,uleem- &f. -k. 

edition, v. correction, clihapa, clihupa,cc, v. im- 
pression, taleef, v. compilation, publicatimi. 

editor, mooruttib, sihhut-rusan, v. corrector, moo- 
uUif, V. compiler. 

to educate, turbiyut- &c. -k. sikhlana, soodharna, 

education, v. breeding, turbiyut, purwurish, see- 
chha, pirtpalun, sikhla,ee, tu,uleem, v. to in- 

to edicce, nikalna, v. to produce. 

eel, bam, undhee muchhec, guocliee, mar-mahee, 

to efface, metua,chheelna, kat-dena, qulum-klioor- 
du-k. dho-dalna, bhojlana, dho- rauhcx>-d. mul- 
met- silput-k. v. to erase, nikal-d. v. to obli- 

effect, usur, taseer, umul, byap, rucha,o, kurum, 
mu,ulool, moosubbub, hookm, kucfiyut, nuqsh, 
(to /tav(?) lull na, lugna, thuhurna, v. to answer, 
hookm-r.peshruft-h. v. to succeed, (consequence, 
q. V.) nuteeju, sumuru, phul, (purpose, q. v.) 
ghuruz, mutlub, v. etid. 

to effect, effectuate, kuma, kurana, bunana, rast- 
lana or -k. pesh-lejana, theek-lugana, unjam-d. 
chulana, thuhrana, sarna, kurlena, hasil-k. v. 
to accomplish, carry, cause. 

effects, mal, usbab, saman, mal o muta.u, ja,e- 
dad, muojoodat, umwal, ushiya, usasa, a,en 
ool mal, dhun, sumput, v. goods, (of the dead) 
turku, mutrooku, w furniture ; cause and ef- 
fect, illut o mu,ulool, V. reason. 

effectual, effective, efficacious, kar-gur, moo,ussir, 
kafec, gojn-karee, houkmee, moosir, teer bu 
huduf, moojurrub, goonec, kaiuoo, kam-ka, ka 




ree, nafiz, v. ahility, competent, {men) lume 

murne-wale, v. able, 
effectually, effectively, efficaciously, qurar waqu,ec, 

kuma yumbughee. 
(ffemitiacy, na-murdee, zunami-pun, booz-dilee, 

joobn, V. delicacy, 
effeminate, v. finical, na-murd, zunanu, booz-dil, 

hetha, boda, nindola, rindee sa, zun sifut, na- 

poonsuk, aram-tulub, v. delicate, voluptuous. 
to effeminate, namurd-k. rindee-bunana. 
to effervesce, oobulna, phenana, phool-cnUinaj oo- 

bal-khana. 'oobukna. 


effervescence, oobal, oobak, ghooliyan, josh, phe- 

nahut, V. fermcjitation. 
effete, v. barren, fursoodu, khooshk, be-jan, v. 

worn out. 
efficacy, efficiency, &c. v. effect, 
efficient, illut fa.ilee, v. causal. 
effigy, soorut, shuki, tusweer, shubeeb, moorat, 

chitur, goodda, pootla, v. figure, {tlie hearse, 

&C. carried by the Mwsulmans) guhwaru, du- 

ha, taziyu. .-'H ,-mi! ,* j^^i 

efflorescence, phoolun, pittee, oobhar, phoolawut, 

V. eruption, (saline) khora, sihia, v. mould, 
effluvium, bookhar, bhap. 

efflux, he. phootun, buramud, v. effusion, eman- 
ation, exudation, 
effort, su,ee, jihd, koshish, humlu, hullu, duor, 

V. struggle, pull. 
to make an effort, zor-marna, su,ee- duor-k. v. to 

strive. .'«b > .A'.*'wii*u»»t\» v . 

effrontery, be-shurmee, be-huyaiCe, goostakhee, 

shokhee, v. impudence, {to have great) sir-, 

effulgent, moojuUa, jila-dar, nooree, chumkeela, 

julwa-furma, v. refulgence, 
to effuse, nlkulna, phootna, buhna, v. to oo%e,fiow. 
effusioYi., buha,o, rezish; effusion of hhod, khoon- 


e.g. {for example) musulun, musul top musulun, 
juesaki, choonanchi, v. instance, r^nt <,' 

egg, unda, buezu, tookhm, {mundane) burhm- 
and, {dish or bed) unde-dan,buez,u-dan, {fried) 
khageenu, kookoo, v. pan-cake, {having) un- 
duela, V. layer. 

to egg, ishti,aluk-k. or -d. ooskana, pooslitee-d. 
churhana, lugana, dum-d. sunkarna, v. to in- 

egg-plant, buengun, Iwdunjan, bhanta, {old or 
Sd year's) maroo-buengun. 

eglantine, nusreen, syotee. 

egotism, unaniyut, humkar, apunha,ee, khoodee, 

to egotise, humkarna, upnee-gana. 

egotist, khoodfurosh. 

egregious, sukht, bum, ushud, kutta ; an egre- 
gious fool, sukht uhmuq. 

egregiously, bu-shiddut. 

egress, egression, nikal, khoorooj, buramud, v. in- 

to ejaculate, phenkna, nikal-phenkna, v. to shoot. 

ejaculation, doo,a, doorood, bur, v. prayer, nida, 
V. exclamation. 

to eject, {expel) nikal-d. door-k. be duklil-k. 
oojarna, chula-d. v. to expel, {to void) rudd-, 
que- istifragh-k. jharna, girana, chhandna, v. 
to void, koojat-k. v. to excommunicate, reject. 

ejection, ikhraj, be-dukhlee, oojra.o, chhanta,o, v. 
the verb. 

ejectment, v. supra, baz- or ikhraj-namu, v. bj?- 

eigh, uha, oho. 

eight, ath, utha, husht. 

eighteen, utharuh. 

eightfold, ath-goona. 

eighth, athwan, ushtoomee, {an) uthuns. 

eighty, ussee. 

either, {pron.), kO|ee-ek, v. any, ek nu ek. 



ELE nu ko,ee, v. one, sa, ek, juonsa, 

ko,ee- jo, jo koochh, jo ko,ee, ko,ee to bhee, 

yih ya wooh, yih wcDhee, wooh yihee, kya, 

V. each, or, whether ; (both) donon, adv. ya, 

khwali, cliaho, bha|On ; either stay or go, 

kh-wah ruho khwah ja|0 ; tliey were eo like, a 

man might swear that either had been either, 

uese mcnshabih the ki hur kO|ee admee qusum 

kha sukte ki yih woohee, uor wooh yihee tha; 

let no one vome here to-day, either Hindoo or 

Mcosxilman, aj eehan kisee ko ane mut de, kya 

Hindoo kya M cosulman. 

to eke, burhana, syara-k. v. to protract. 

elaborate, inooshkil, duqeeq, mooghluq, kuthin, 

elaborately, diqqut- mihnut-se. 
elaboration, islah, sulahiyut, sura,o, v.perfectioji, 

also to prepare, 
to elapse, goozuma, bona, jata-ruhna, chula-jana, 

beetna, mconquzee-h. 
elastic, chimra, lucheela, dum-dar. 
elasticity, chiinra,ee, luchuk, dum. 
elate, phoola, mughroor, ghumundee. 
to elate, phoolana, mughroor-k. 

V. high, 
to be elated, phoolna, bughlen bujana, khilna, v. 

to blossom, also to exult, 
elation, gbcDTooT, mughrooree, ghumund, phoola- 

wa, oomung, turung, luhur, v. exultation, 
elbow, koohnee, mirfuq, arunj, ghootnee, v. an- 
gle, (Jto be at one''s) kandhe or sir pur-bughul 
men-b. or -rubna, v. shoulder, 
to elbow, kohniyana, v. to push, 
elder, bura, jetha, kulan. 
elderly, udher, boodha, sal-khoord. 
elders, bure, bcozoorg, pooruniye,boozoorgan, pee- 

ran, v. aged, ancestors, chief, 
eldest, sub se bura, v. elder. 

I elecampane, rasun. 
elect, muqljool, burgoozcedu, mcojtuba. 
to elect, pusund-k. choon-lena, chhant-lena, moon- 

tukliub-k. bachhiia, v. to select, also chosen, 
election, burgaizcedugci', muqboohyut, (willy q. 
V.) ruza^mundee, v. choice. i > 

elective, intikhab-ee, ikhtiyar-ee, v. choice, 
electively, pusund-pur, v. selection, 
elector, moontukhib, choonwuya, v. elective, 

mookhtar, v. free, 
electric, kushindu, khuencha,oo, v. attractive, 
electuary, mu,ujooD, nosh-daroo, v. cordial, 
elegaiice, elegancy, v. beauty, lootf, lutafut, iiuza- 
kut, nazookee, mulahut, buhar, komulta, kue- 
fiyut, ruonuq, naz, zeba|ish, zeba,ee, nmtanut, 
fusahut, V. eloquence, rus, toohfugee, v. infra, 
also delicacy, neatness, 
elegant, v. beautiful, luteef, nazook, nazneen, 
khoosh-oosloob, khoob, khrash, besh, niuleeh, 
khassu, toorfu, soothra, komul, sookhwar, 
khoosh nooma, khoosh qutu, mcoquttu, usloob- 
dar, khoosh uda, khnosh chhub, unoop, ruseela, 
mcDZiieyub, v. graceful, fuseeh, mutccn, iba- 
rut ara, v. curious, excellent, fine ; an elegant 
writer, khoosh-nuwees ; an elegant speaker, 
elegantly, nuzakut- &c. -se. 
elegy, mursiyu, soz-goodaz, (poem, q. v.) qusee- 
du, wa-sokht, v. ode, (writer, &c.) mursiyu- 
khan, -go or -nuwees, juwabee, suwalee. 
element, consoor, unasir, costuqcDS, tut, (statiwi, 
q. V.) muhul, mukan, (rudiments) muo7.oo,u, 
bhoot, V. rudiment, kewul, v. principles, (the 
four) urbu conasir, \. origin, pi. (of speech) 
mcsfridat, hooroof tuhjee, v. essence, letters ; 
Euclid's Elements, tuhreer i ooqiuedoos. 
elemental, &c. qonsooree.^slec, ghuer-moorukkiih, 
boonyadec, v. constituent, (part) joozi la yu- 
tujuzza, V. atottt. 

B B 2 




elephant, hathee, feel, peel, guj, hustee, kur, mut- 

ung, kala-puhar, {young) mukna, {neck) ku- 

lawa, {forehead) mustuk, ('s mate) churkuta, 

{conjurer) shekh-bheena, (cAazw) andoo,beree, 

kuth-bundun, lukra, v. goad, {Jly) bhoond; 

the gee or geep used to him, dura, hoosh, dhut 

dhut, V. gee ; a she-elephant, huthnee ; an ele- 

' , phant-keeper, feel-ban, muhawut, fuojdar ; a 

person allowed to ride an £?Zep7taM<,feel-nisheen ; 

an elephanfs turret, huodu, huozu, umaree, 

{vulg. umbaree). 

elephantiasis, feel-pa, da,e,oolfeel, god. 

to elevate, oothana, burhana, boalund-k. v. to elate. 

elevated, boolund, u,iila, moomtaz, moortufu, sur- 

furaz, ma3,ulla, wala. 
elevation, boolundee, burhtee, turuqqee, surfura- 

zee, qorooj, su,qpd, irtifa,u, v. dignity, 
eleven, igaruh. 
eleventh, igarwan. 
elf, bhootna, ghool, shuetan, jinn, boo,ee, v. 

fairy, imp. 
eligible, v. worthy, bihtur, uola, usluh, unsub, 

V. proper, munzoor, pusund, v. preferable, 
eligibility, liyaqut, bihturee, v. propriety, 
elision, gira,o, lop, huzf. 
elixir, ukseer, v. essence, &c. 
elk, baruh-singa, guwuzn, ghora-roj, sambur, v. 

ell, guz, zira,u, v. ctibit, yard, 
ellipsis, mooquddur minhoo or unhoo, [kulam-tuq- 
deeree, kridunt, v. understood, {in geometry) 
moostuteel moosunna, chumr chukur, v. oval, 
elm, booqeezar. 
elocution, fusahut, luqluqu, lussanee, zuban-awu- 

ree, v. eloquence. 
to elongate, lumbana, tanna, tool-k. burhana, tu- 
• weel- mumdoodu- deergh-k. v. to lengthen, 
elongation, burha,o, luraba,o, mudd, v, long. 
to elope, bhagna, chumput- firar-h. rum-jana, 

nathna, nikulna, bhajna, jata-ruhna, rufoo 
chukkur-h. v. to abscond, {as a female) oo- 
hurna, oodhulna, v. to seduce, 
elopement, firar, goorez, roo-poshee, bhag, oodh- 

la,o, V. flight, 
eloquence, fusahut, bulaghut, khoosh-gO|ee, go- 
ya,ee, khoosh-tuqreere, sheereen-gooftaree, hu- 
lawut, uzoobut, v. elocution, 
eloquent, v. orator, fuseeh, buleegh, khoosh-go, 
khoosh-gcoftar, sheereen-kulam, lussan, luffaz, 
sookhun-dan, door-rez, sheereen-zuban, guohur- 
rez, ufsuh, mith-bola, khoosh-gup, v. fluent, 
eloquently, {to speak) moonh se phool jjhurna, v. 

else, pron. uor, doosra, ilia, v. otherwise, age, 
bilkool, uor bhee, v. more, other, also ; any one 
else, uor ko,ee, adv. {otherwise) nuheen to, 
wugumu, wu,illanu, ya; com,e, if you mean to 
come, else I shall shut the door, ana ho to a,o 
nuheen to durwaza bund kurenge; he is a liar, 
else I am mistaken, wooh jhootha hue ya hum 
ghultee men huen; somewhere else, uor ku- 
heen ; any where else, hur kuheen, i. e. every 
where; what else need I say? age kuhoon kya? 
Y. except; what else? pheruorkya? — ghuer- 
uz khcoda ke bilkool ko,ee nuheen humara, 
b'esides God we have none else to assist us. 
elsewhere, kuheen uor, unte, v. besides, some, 
to elucidate, zahir- wazih-k. kholna, ruoshun-,^ 

saf-k. V. to defeat, illustrate, 
elucidation, tufseel, shuruh, tuozeeh, tu,iibeer, 

buyan, tushreeh. 
to elude, {to eA'Cffpe)buchna,nikul-bhagna, chhoot- 
na, khisukna, ankh-chhipana, v. to evade, de- 
elusive, elusory, dekha,oo, buhka,oo, v. deluder. 
elysian, bihishtee, junnutee. 
elysium, bihisht, junnut, udun, buekoonth. 
to emaciate, sookhlana, gula-d. dcobia- laghur-k 




puchkana, lutarna, jjhoonjhoonana^ adha-k. 
lutana, v. to waste. 

emaciated, doobia, laghur, nuheef, hunkar, ma- 
riya, luqat, zarnizar, v. lean, {to he) puchuk- 
na, lut-j. V. to fall off. 

emaciation, dc»bla-pa, doobla|Ce, dooblugee, lagh- 
uree, puchkahut, sookhlahut, v. co7isumption. 

to emanate, nikulna, chliitukna, v. to issue. 

emanation, chhitkahut, bookhar, nikas, v. exhala- 
tion, ray, noor, zuhoor, uotar, v. radiance. 

to emancipate, azad- khulas-k. chhorna, v. to li- 

emancipation, azadugee. 

to emasculate, v. to castrate, namurd- &c, -k. v, 

to embalm, khrosh bo-bhurna. 

embankment, V. mound, pooshtu-bundee, gil-unda- 
zee, V. to bank. 

embargo, munha,ee, munadee, ghat- or phatuk- 
bundee, v, proclamation, (a voluntary) huth- 

to embark, v. a. cliurliana, {to engage another) 
sbureek- sbamil-k. milana, v. n. churhna, shu- 
reek- rufccq-h. moodakhulut-k. bhurna, v. to 
load, juhaz nusheen-h. suwar-h. hath-d. or -d. 
qudum-marna, v. to engage. 

embarkation, churha,o, bhura.o, juhaz- or kish- 
tee-nusheenee, suwaree, v. to mount. 

to embarrass, ghubrana, mcozturib-k. tung-k. 
mooshkil- dooshwar-k. ooljhana, v. to distress. 

embarrassed, ajiz, hueran, sur-gurdan, giriftar, 
lachar, ghultanpechan, A\xrma.nd\i,v. perplexed. 

cmbarrassment,\. distraction, ghubrahut, iztlrab, 
junjal, ooljhera, tungee, kusha-kushee, tus- 
dee,u, diqqut, sur-gurdanee, giriftaree, pech, 
lupta, jala, suket, ajizee, v. difficulty. 

embassador, v. ambassador, he. 

embassy, embassage, puegham, puyam, sundes; 

sundesa, doota,ee, elchec-gurce, wukeelee, v. 

deputation, message, 
to embellish, singarna, arastu-k. ara,ish-d. tujum- 

mool-k. zeb- ab-d. rungcen-k. sajna, chihana, 

chiknana, v. to decorate, 
embellished, ai-astu, mooruttub, mrozueyun. 
embellishment, ara,ish, arastugee, turteeb, sujawut, 

chiknahut, rungeenee, sobha, {of style) ibaruU 

ara,ee, v. ornament, 
embers, bhoobhul, bhook, bhool bhool, {cinder^ 

ungara, chha,ee, v. ashes, 
to embezzle, kha-jana, oorana, khiyanut- &c. -k. 

mar-khana, chat-jana, nigulna, huznl- hul-k. 

hath-marna, dukarna, chut-k. gup-k.v. to pur- 
loin, steal, wast^. 
embezzlement, choree, kliiyanut, dust-brord, tu- 

surroof, tughuUoob, goree, surt-burt, lupet-su- 

pet, dust-durazee, hath-pheree, ghubn, tufa- 

wut, tujawojz, V. peculation, 
embezzler, gha,oo-ghup, ghagh, boord-mar, mal- 

murdojm khor, lulilot, v. peculator, 
to embitter, tulkh- &c. -k. v. bitter, also to ex- 
emblem, ulamut, nishan, puhchan, cliinh, bha,o, 

puta, tumseel, drishtant, tabiyu, v. allusion, 
emblematical, turtiseclanu, v. supra, 
to embody, moanjusm- majjussum-k. {men) fuoj- 

or ghol- bundee-k. v. to collect, 
to embolden, diler-k. istlqlal- dharus-d. 
embolism, udhika,ee, v. intercalary, 
embolus, pichookka. 
to emlmss, phoolee- gool-jurna, {to engrave) moo- 

nubbut- gokhroo-k. 
embossed, moonubbutee. 
embossment, phoolee, mconubbut. 
to embowel, pet-cheerna or -chak-k. iintree-ni- 

embrace, bughul, aghosh, god, godee, unkwar, 
kuoree, kuniya, wusl, kuola, wisal, v. arms. 




to embrace, v. n. bughul geeree-k. milna, hum- 
a ghosh- hum kunar-h. gule-lugiia, moo,anu- 
qu-k, V. a. god men-lena, gule-lugna, gulba^ 
hen- bughulgeer-k. kuoriyana, liputna, chi- 
putna, ghutput-k. v. to cling, puchh-k. v. to 
adopt, pukurna, v. to catch, gherna, v. to sur- 
round, (an opporticnity) ganthna, (a religmi) 
ikhtijar- ukhz-k. v. to comprise, (to receive) 
manna, qubool-k. lena, v. to find, &c. 

embrasure, v. port, rund, bhimwaree, khirkee, 
top ka jhuroka, v. aperture. 

to embrocate, tila-k. mulna. 

to embroider, karchobee- &c. -k. boota-nikalna 
or -karhna, gool boota-k. v. to flower, &c. 

embroidered, lupetwan, mooghurruq, mooshujjur, 
bootedar, moonuqqush, v. brocade. 

embroiderer, zur-doz, chikun-doz, goolkar. 

embroidery, chikun-dozee, kar-chobee, gool-ka- 
ree, ^ur-dozee, v. lace, boote-karee, quetoon- 
baffu, soznee,nuqqashee, tartor,v. needle-work, 

to embroil, ooljhana, phusana, jhonk-d. fusad-d. 
lurana, ag-lugana, jhugrana, burhum-k. lu- 
pet-lena, v. to involve, to distract, &c. 

embroiler, mootufunnee, toofanee, v. incendiary. 

embryo, buchu, juneen, sancha, moorut, gabha, 
soorut, ghoDnchu, v. hud, foetus, &c. 

emendation, sihhut, islah, arastugiee. 

emeraW, zumurrood, punna, priba], subzu, zubur- 

to emerge, oothna, nikulna, churhna, ooplana, 
tooloo,u- oopur-anaj oochulna, v. to rise, ap- 

emergence, emergency, (sudden occasion) zuroorut, 
hadisu, wuqt, sungut, v. difficulty, khuench, 
tuqazu-wuqtee, bheer, (rising) oochhal, v. 
exigency, event, also the verb. 

emergent, tung, mooshkil, (sudden) naguhanee, 
V. urgent, unexpected, rising. 

emeroids, buwaseer, v. piles. 

emery, koorunj, koorund, sumbada. 

emetic, moostufrigh ; an emetic, que kee duwa, 
mooqu,ee, v. vomit. 

emigrant, des-tiyagee, be-wutunee, v. exile. 

to etnigrate, jula wutun-h. nuql-k. purbas-k. ni- 
kul-j. -chulna,' or -bhagna, oojurna, purdes- 
&c. -j. V. to remove, also abroad. 

emigration, jula wutunee, hijrut, chulachul, des- 
tiyag, nuql-muqam or -mukam, mtiqal, v. de- 
parture, also the verb. 

eminence, eminency, (height, q. v.) oonchan, irti- 
fa,u, (exaltation, distinction, q.v.) payu, mun- 
zulut, boozoorgee, durju, jahojulal, rootbu, shi- 
koh, churhtee, chuiha,o, burha,o, uoj-muoj, 
uoj, numood. 

eminent, boolund, concha, u.ula, moortufi, wala, 
(cons2)icuous,(\.\.) bura, boozoorg, mootubadur, 
moDmtaz, namwur, sur-boolund, numood, boo- 
zoorgwar, y. exalted, nam zud, namee,v.^ea#, 

eminently, zahira, (highly, q. v.) buhoot, ziyadu. 

emissary, jasoos, hur-karu, pa,ek, bhediya, khu- 
burdar, v. messenger, nuzur-baz, tar-baz, hoo- 
zoor- or budur-nuwees, v. spy, intelligence. 

emission, khoorooj, ikhraj ; emissio seminis, inzal, 
uskhulit, V. iiocturnal, discharge. 

to emit, (send forth) dena, lana, nikalna, (in coi- 
tu) chhootna, jhurna, moonzil- khulas- khulit- 
-h. munee-tulna, uosan-k. panee-chhorna, (a 
scent) muhukna, v. to spread, throw, smelt. 

em/menagogue, huez-koosha. 

emmet, chyoonta, v. ant. ^ 

emolient, moolueyin. 

emolument, puedajsh, mahusul, nufu, fa,idu, ha- 
sil, sood, V. advantage. 

emotion, josh, durd, luhur, mulwulu. 

to empale, (a person) soolee-d. or -churhana, dar- 




pur-kjieenchna, mekli pur buethalna, mekh- 
niarna, v. to fence. 

emperic, tujroobu kar, khurbhoosee, v. quackery. 

emperor, shahunshah, sooltan, (0/ Rome) quesur, 
(of China) khaqan,fughfoor, (among the Hin- 
doos) lulraj, rajadhlraj, muha-raj,v. sovereig-n, 

emphasis, zurb, jhiruk, takeed, v. accent, force, 

emphatic, takeeclee. 

emphysematous, phepsuha, v. to pnff, bloat. 

empire, (kingdom, q. v.) sultunut, shahunshahee, 
raj, padsliahee, duolut, mumalik muhroosu, 
rujuotee, (ntUhority, q. v.) tuhukkoom, hook- 
oomut, V. state, dominion. 

to employ, (to btisy) mushghool- ooljha- bund-r. 
bujhana, phusana, maoshtughu]-r. v. to engage, 
burtna, v. to use, kam-d. v. office, to hire, to 
give, (to use, q. v.) moastumul-k. duorana, isti- 
umal men-lana, cliuiana, (as servatits, &c.) 
rukhna, kliidmut-d. lugana, mcoqurrur- tu,ee- 
nat- moo,ueyun-k. (to spend, q. v.) musroof- 
Burf- khurj-k. goozarna. 

employer, aqa, v. master, mooneeb, khawind, kar- 
furma, un-data, wulee ni,umut, v. customer. 

employment, employ, v. business, shoogbl, mush- 
ghoolu, khidmut, iilaqu, tu,ullooq, karobar, 
sur-rishtu, kani, karbar, dhundha, roz-gar, i-o- 
zee, ishtighal, luga,o, bujha|0, &c. v. the verb, 
also capacity, service, work, &c. (office) oohdu, 

emporium, urung, biindur. 

to empoverish, mooflis- mufloak- fuqeer- khurab-k. 
(land, q. v.) kumzor- kumqoowut-k. doobla-k. 
V. indigent, poor, also to weaken. 

empoverishment, iflas, fulakut, fuqeeree, khura- 
bee, na-qoowutee, kuin-qoowutee. 

to empower, niookhtar- surikhmd-k. v. to enable. 

empress, muUku, muha>ranee, v. qtteen. 

emptiness, soon, khooloo, kliula, (of head) tihee. 

dimaghce, tihee-mughzee, v. vanity. 
empty, khalec, chlioocliha, soona, rihee, tihce, 

V. hollow, vnvnnt, vanity, (ignorant, q. v.) ti. 

hee-diii)agh, tihee-mughz, uhiTiU{|, be-mugliz, 

moorukhj (vain, q. v.) maJimul, ochha, oot- 

to empty, klialee-k. nikalna, buhriyana, v. to 

pour, (a tank) seech-d. oobeechna, v. to lave; 

to be emptied, as a river, niilna, i. e. to join, 
empty-handed, tjhee-dust, v. devoid, 
empyema, dubeelu. 

empyrean, fu!u'c ool uflak, ursh, koorsee, golok. 
empyreumatical, daghee, kuchahiudee^om dagh, 

kuchahind, an empyreuma, v. burnt, 
to emulate, ghibtu-k. mooqabulut- hunisuree-, 

hum chushtnee-k. 
emulation, v. ambition, ghlbtu, hiska, mookabiru, 

rushk, rees, danj, huons, ghuerut, luluk, hu- 

onsa huonsee, buraburee, v. competition, envy, 
emulous, nain-jo, huonsee, &c. v. rival, 
emulsion, v. milk, sheeru, doodh; the emulsion of 

almonds, sheeru i badam. 
emunctorics, mukharij, v. excretory, 
en, V. tlte privitive part. dis. 
to enable, v. to authorise, qoDTrwut tuqwiyut- 

qoodrut- bul- tuwana,ee-d, sukut-d, v. ability. 

This, like other verbs of the kind, must be 

often expressed by the causal verb. 
to enact, furmana, hookm- umr-k. thulirana, kuh- 

na, chulana, v. to ordain, 
enamel, v. gloss, nieena, ab, also (of the teeth) jila, 

V, layer, koondun, koft, rung,.juta|0, jura,ee, 

panee, v. varnish, 
to enamel, v. to inlay, meena karee- koft* &c. -k. 

V. to polish, emboss, 
enameller, meena-kar, koft-gur, panee-karee. 
to enamour, a^iiq- fureftu- luttoo-k. utkana or 





enamoured, v. lover, girweedu, sheftu, fureftu, 
ashooftu, luoleen, {to he) murna, v. captivated, 
to dote, &c. 

enarthrosis, choola. 

to encamp, deru- khuemu- mooqam- pura|0-k. 
puma, ootuma. 

encampment, pura,o, lushkur-gah, v. camp. 

to enchant, v. to bewitch, ufsoon- jadoo- tona-, 
tuskheer- muftoon- bus-k. mohna, lookh- 
mookh-chulana, mooth-marna, nuzurbund-k. 
dant-keelna, v. to captivate, {to delight, q. v.) 
dil hath men lena, v. to please. 

enchanted, sihr-zudu. 

enchanter, }a.doo-g\xr, ufsoori-gur, sahir, dithbund, 
shU|Vibidu baz, v. sorcerer. 

enchantment,] adoo-guree, ufsoon-guree, sihr, dith- 
bundee, lutka, chootkoola, beer-banoo, shu,ubi- 
du, V. conjuration. 

enchanting, dil-fureb, dil-kush,dll-bur,dil-rcDbaj 
V. charmitig. 

enchantingly, qi|amut, qiran, bula, v. divinely. 

enchantress, jadoo gurui, sahlru, tonha,ee. 

to enchase, jurna, thusa-k. v. to inlay, enamel, en- 
grave, &c. 

to encircle, moohasuru- gird- ihatu-k, gher-lena, 

. roondhna, beendhna, nurghu-k. hulqu- &c. -b. 
V. circle, also to surround. 

enclitic, hurfi za|id, v. expletive. 

to enclose, {grou?id, &c.) barh- ihatu-b. {to in- 
clude, q. V.) mulfoof- bund-k. lupetna. 

encloser, moohasir, gherunhara, v. the verb. 

enclosure, v. raily {fence, q. v.) barh, char dee- 
waree, hisar, kot, v. court, beer, bara, kyaree, 

• v.Jield, {in a letter) mulfoof, y.fold, {bounds) 
ihatu, ( place inclosed) suhn, chuok, v. confine- 

encomiast, muddah, suna-kh\yan, ma3,urrif, bhat, 
madih, moonaqib, ustootee, v. panegyric, to 

e7JC<MwiM»j,tu,ureef,mudh, ustoot, tuhseen, afreen, 

V. praise. r ^tf^m 

to encompass, gird- &c. -k. v. to enclose, vraoiiia 
encore, pher pher, doosra-kur. 
encomiter, {battle, q. v.), judul, {dispute, 

q. V.) quziyu, jhugra, khurkhushu, {sudden 

meeting) but bhera, v. address, 
to encounter, lurna, ghutput- samne- dochar- moo- 

qabil-h. mooqabilu- mookh bhera-k. moond- 

tukrana, v. to engage, oppose, {to meet) moola- 

qat-k. milna. 
to encourage, dum- dilasa- poorchuk-d. dilawur-, 

moostuqil-k. jaDr,ut-tuhreek.d. churhana, dil- 

daree-d. moonh-lugana, phoolana, bhurosa- 

barh-d. ghuerut-dilana, v. to embolden, egg, in^ 

encouragement, tuqwiyut, tuhreek, dilasa, tusul- 

lee, V. mcitement, &c. {countenance, q. v.) hi- 

mayut, inayut, mihr-banec, dust-geeree. 
encourager, moohurrik, dumbaz, poorchukee, v. 

exciter, {of arts) qudr-dan, v. patron, 
to encroach, hath-d. puethna, dukhl-k. qudum- 

marna, katna, dubana, upnana. burh-chulna, 

V. to invade, hudd-torna, v. to break, 
encroacher, dust-duraz, dubwuya, &c.v. the verb, 

also intruder, 
encroachment, dust-durazee, ziyadu-tulubee, zi- 

yadutee, kat, duba,o, hudd shikun-ee, v. in- 

to encumber, bojh-d. ladna, phusana, bharee-k. 

dubana, utkana, doobona, v. to sink, bhur- 

marna, v. to crowd, 
encumbrance, v. mortgage, bojh, bar, bharna, v. 

load, panw kee beree, gule kee phansee, gule- 

ka bar, chhatee- or sir ka-puthur, puhar, v. 

impediment, burden. ,i ^fti.fii ^w,.'., v.-.-.r. ^^i 
encyclopcedia, jami- gr mtijrau-ool ooloom, skr- 

end, {extremity) sira, or, khoont, turuf, akhir. 




Kinaru, anchul, aho {remnant, q. v.) ootar, 
kachh, doombalu, payan, buramud, nidan, ni- 
kas, V. tail, &c. (of a poem) muqtu, v. last, 
close, (of a month) sulukh, poorun masec, unia- 
wus, chand-rat, v. conjunction, mas ka bar, v. 
day, (medium) thikana, v. bound, also head, 
foot, &c (of a turban) shumulii, v, border, 
(conclusion, q. v.) tumanee, sur-unjam, hudd, 
nihayut, unt, v. consequence, gha,it, mcontulia, 
V. close, (of a book) khatimu, (death, q. v.) 
muot, rihlut, (abolition, q. v.) inqita,u, (pur- 
pose, q. V.) mutlub, qusd, moorad, ichha, un- 
daz, (consequence, q. v.) nuteeju, mu,al, hasil, 
phul ; in the end, akhiriish ; to tvhat end, ka- 
he ko, kis waste ; to the end that, is waste ki ; 
to no end, ra,egan, be-fa,idu, Ja-hasil; from 
beginning to end, uwwul se akhir tuk, surapa, 
surasur, sur se panw lug ; to stand on end, 
khura-h. sihuma, v. upright, also termination. 

to end, V. a. tumam- akhir-k. niberna, chookana, 
poorun-k. niptarna, sarna, v. to terminate, (to 
destroy, q. v.) met-dena, nest- mu,udoom-k. 

, thikana-lugana, katna, v. to cease ; v. n. tu- 
mam-h. v. to conclude. 

to endanger, khutre- Stc. men-d. v. danger. 

to endear, uzeez- pyara-k. 

endearment,^. attraction, blandishment, pyar,dos- 
tee, mookubbut, oolfut, ikhlas, ittihad, uzeezee, 
mu,ushooqee, ashiqee, lugan, lar, naz,v. caress, 

endeavour, su,ee, jihd,inihnut,istiqlal, jidd o jilid, 
purisrum, oodiyog, qusd, iqdam, v. effort. 

to endeavour, mihnut- qusd-k. v. to essay, strive, 
fikr-k. zor-marna, muqdoor bhur-k. v. try. 

endeavourer, sa,ce, mihnutee. 

ended, tumam, akhir, v. done. 

endemick, desee, khass, v. peculiar. 

to endite, endict, v. to accuse, tusneef- insha-k. 
likhna, likhana, muzmoon- &c. -kuhna, qulum 

bund-kurana, v. contents, also to compose, write, 

enditement, &c. muhzur, du,uwa, nuql du,uwa, 
V. declaration. 

endive, kasnee, hinduba. 

endless, be-niiiayut, be-hudd, be-intilia, be-unt, 
be-payan, un-unt, be-thikana, shuetan kee-unt- 
ree, na-mootunahee, v. eternal, unbounded, in- 
cessant, (continual, q. v.) moodam, ulud-du- 

endlessly, humeshu, suda. 

be-untee, humeshugee, duwam. 

to endorse, v. to write, peshanee^aghna, v. to 

endorsement, peshance-dagh, v. signature. 

to endow, juhez-d. dena, bukhshna, wuqf-k. 

endowment, v. portion, khuerat, nuzr, niyaz,wuqf, 
(quality, q. v.) wusf, goon, hoonur, juohur. 

to endue, dena, bukhshna, uta- inayut-k. 

endurance,v. dMra^iow,burdasht,subr,tab,v. pa- 

to endure, (to bear, q. v.) burdasht-k. suhna, 
kheenchna, khana, dekhna, sosna, v. to suffer, 
chulna, ruhna, v. to continue, (to last, q. v.) 
derpa-ruhna, khutna; I cannot endure it, is 
kee burdasht hum nuheen kur sukte. 

endurer, suhunhar, v. sufferer. 

endwise, khura, v. upright. 

enemy, dosshmun, shutoor, mc»,anid, bud-undesh, 
doorjun, sutroo, doondee, uree, doosht, rip, 
khusum, (in India it means a husband,) v. ad- 
versary; a mortal eriemy, dosshmun i janee. 

energetic, muzboot, moDstuhkum, mootuhurrik, 
mooslr, V. forcible, (style) pookhtu, muteen, 
thos, chita.oo, v. vigorous, 
energy, v. power, qojdrut, qoowwut, bul, shukt, 
tuqwiyut, zor, usur, mutanut, v. operatioti, 

C c 




to enervate, enerve, z,u,eef- natuwan- naqoowut-, 
kumzor- nirbul- doorbul- heez- namurd-k. 

enervation, na^tuwanee, na-qoowwutee, kum-zo- 
ree, zoo,vif, na-murdee. 

to enfeeble, v. to enervate. 

to enforce, quwee- muzboot- moostuhkum- sabit-, 
eostuwar- porha^k. zor- &c. -d. pookhtu-k. 
chulana, umul men lana, v. to urge, enable, 
tuqwiyut-d. v. to corroborate, also /orce. 

enforcement, v. compulsioii, also the verb. 

to enfranchise, azad- khulas- ru,ees- shamil-k. 
,' V. to admit, manumit, liberate. 

to engage, v. to employ, {tojight, q-v.) muedan-k. 
bhirna, {to attach, q. v.) upna- chuspeedu-k. 
{to emharTc, or engage one's self in business) pa,e- 
bund-k. phusana, dalna, utkana, ooljhana, lu- 
gana, dhusana, jhonkna, luptana, duorana, 
bandhna, v. to embark, (to encounter, q. v.) lur- 
purna, ghutput-h. (to agree, q. v.) ot-lena, v. 
to promise, (to employ servants) rukhna,mush- 
ghool-k. (to contract, q. v.) shurt-bandhna, 
quol o qurar-k. ; to engage as security, &c. z.a- 
min-h. zimmu-k. v. to pawn, enter. 

engaged, mushghool, mooshtughil, nam zud, v. 
disengaged, bujha, &c. musroof, mooqueyud, 
V. busy, confined, (attached) girwedu. 

to be engaged, utukna, phunsna, lugna, oolujhna, 
bujhna, phusna, dhusna, bundhna, duorna, li- 
putna, V. to entangle, (to be betrothed) mun- 
soob- namzud-h. manga-jana. 

engagement, (fight, q. v.) lura,ee, mooqabulu, 
mu,uriku, v. battle, (contract, q. v.) hor, 
shurt, quol qurar, wa,idu, munnut, miyad, v. 
obligation, bujhnee, jhoormut, mookh bhera, 
ghoomrol, v. rencounter, (of the mind) mush- 
ghulu, shooghl, V. security, adherence 

engaging, pyara, bujha,oo, v, the verb, also al- 
luring, charming. 

to engender, v. a. pueda-k. lana, nikalna ; v. n, 
pueda-h. bhirna, jot-khana or -bhurna, jee- 
oothna, v. to breed, copulate, impregnate. 

engine, huthyar, hurbu, uozar, kul, sunut, v. de- 
vice, instrument, machine, weapon. 

engineer. There are none in the Asiatic armies; 
gurli kuptan (from gurh, a fort, and captain) 
is the name our engineers go by among the 

english, corrupted to ungrez, and this, by the 
wits of India, to rungrez, a dier, q. v. 

to english, ungrezee-k. 

to engrain, v. to stain, puewust-k, ruchna, bhi- 

engrained, juohuree, jiguree. 

to engrave, khodna, kundu- nuqsh-k. ookharna, 
V. to impress, mark. , -5 . 

engraven, moontuqush, nuqsh kul hujur, v. inde- 
lible, to imprint. ' 

engraver, kundu-gur, moohr-kun.  N't'C''- 

engraving, mcohr-kunee. -f—^-. 

to engross, le-lena, kheench- sumet- loot-lena, 
rokna, chhenkna, upnana, juphiyana, huthiya- 
na, V. to copy, monopolize. 

engrosser, rokunhar, juphiya,oOj v. the verb and 

to enhance, mol-buihana, qeemut ziyadu-k. v. to 

enhancement, burhtee, ziyadutee. 

enigma, puhelee, cheestan, moo,umma, looghz, 
tU|Umiyu, ditharee, disht-kootuk, eeham, bhed, 
V. infra, 

enigmatical, ghamiz, duqeeq, mooghluq, goorh, 
rumz-amez, v. obscure. 

enigmatist, looghz-go, moo,uma-go, rummaz, tu,u- 
miyugo, v. idle. 

to enjoin, kuhna, furmana, hookm-k. takeed-fc. 

to enjoy, luhna, pana, lena, oothana, oorana, loo- 
tana, khana, iiesh-k. kam ran- kam yab-. 



muqsudwur-h. bhoogutna, bilusna, birujna, 
peena, gajna,riis-leQa,ruchana, dekhna,chakh- 
na, dundunana, niiioj-niarna, biluchna, thun- 
thunana, v. to delist, live, feel, moorad-pana, 
V. desire; to enjoy one's self, birajna, (Jife) zin- 

enjoyer, bilsiya, ueyasti, {in comp.) khor, v. epi- 
cure, eater, possessor. 

enjoyment, khooshee, aram, asa,ish, sookh, anund, 
uesh, hoolas, mungul, muzu, luzzut, hulawut, 
kuefiyut, ushrut, uesh-ushrut, tumuttco, rus, 
bhoogta.o, V. fruition, pleasure, uesh juesli, 
lojtf, buhar, choohul, suma, v. happitiess, mer- 
riment, mosbashirut, rut kcl, v. coition. 

to enlarge, v. a. burhana, kooshadu- furakli- wu- 
see.u- «iyadu-k. v. to expand, {to release, q. v;) 
azad-k. v. n. burhiia, phuelna, v. to expa- 

enlargement, burha,o, burhtee, furakhee, koosha- 
dugee, V. augmentatimi, {release, q. v.) khu- 
lasee, riha,ee, chhoottee, {exaggeration) moo- 

to enlighten, oojla- ruo^un- moonuwwur- noora- 
nee-k. {to instruct, q. v.) tiirbiyut- arastu-k. 

enlightened, sahib- or uhli-dil, uhli-deed, sahib-, 
or uhh-kumal, ruoshun ra,e,sadh,huqq-shinas, 
V. godly, pious; enlightened iji mind, ruoshun- 
zumeer, agah-tlil. 

enlightener, julwa-gur, jugut jot. 

to enlist, nigahdasht-k. whence nuo-nigah-dasht, 
a recruit; nuokur-h. v. to list, bhurtee-k. 
ism nuweesee-k. nam-likhana, v. to recruit, 

to enliven, jilana, v. to exhilarate. 

enmity, dooslimunee, buer, mookhaluf ut, udawut, 
inad, khoosoomut, nifaq, budkhwaliee, uks, 
birodh, shutcnrta, hureefee, v. malice, spite. 

to ennoble, burhana, moo.uzzuz- moohturum- mco- 

shurruf- oomra,o.k. mahee muratib-d. v. jio- 

ble, peer, also to exalt, 
enormity, v. va^t, iicb, boora,ee, zuboonee, gro- 

nah, goonali i kubeeru, shiddilt, ishtidad, mu- 

ha pap, ugh, ghudr, v. crime, depravity, also 

enonnous, {atrocious) shudcetl, sukht, v. wicked, 
enormously, bu-shiddut, bc-nihayut. 
enormousness, shiddut, v. enormity, 
enough, enou, v. plenty, bus, kafee, kifayut, bii- 

hoot, bisek.h, poorun, wafee, uzbus, buhoot 

kcDchh, V. deal, koochh, ku,ee, {to have) pet- 

bhurna; the verse is well enough, yih sbi,ur 

koochh hue ; he has slaves enou, coske ihan 

ku,ee glioolam hue, v. many; will this be 

enough? yih kifayut kurega? yes, sir, that is 

enough, han sahib kafee hue. 
enpassant, goozurte-hoo.e, jate-hoo,e, zimnuij, 

moojmilun, tuqreebun, surasuree, {to call) ho- 

to enrage, burhum- ghoosse- buddiraagh- ag-k. 

julana, ghuzub nak-k. bhurkana, tulna, v. to 

to enrapture, {enravish) bagh bagh- mugun-k. 
to enrich, taliwur- tu wungur- duolut mund- ghu- 

nee- moDruiFuh- lal-k. {to fertilixe) zor-d. 

motana, tazu-k. v. to fatten, also rich, jue- 

yud-k. V. to store, 
to enrol, ism nuweesee-k. fihrist pur-likhna, nam- 

likhna, t record, 
enrolment, duftur, fihrist, Ism-nuweesee. 
to ensanguine, khoon aloodu- poor khoon- khoon- 

chikan- &c. -k. v. bloody, 
to enshrine, lupetna, ghilafee-k. v. to enclose. 
ensign, {flag) nishan, jhunda, bueruq, ulum, 

{mark) ulamut, puhchan, puta, (o^t'er) jumu- 

ensignJ)earer, nishan-burdar, ulum-burdar. 

Cc 2 




to enslave, giriftar- useer- bundhoo,a- qued-k. 
ghoolam-k. v. to subject. ^ 

to ensnare, phansna, phandna, pukrana, ghat-k. 
luga- burha-lana, v. to entrap. 

to ensue, v. n. hona, puma, ana, ajana, pueda-h. 

ensurance, (on goods) beema, awuk, hoonda bha- 

to ensure, qa,im-k. thuhrana, v. to ascertain, zim- 
mu- beema- &c. -k. 

ensurer, hoonduet, hoonda bhara-wala. 

to entail, (as a disease) bandhna, lugana. 

to entangle, phusana, phandna, ooljhana, lupet-r. 
utkana, ganthna, giriftar-k. pechdur pech-, 
durhum burhum- ubtur- ghultan pechan-k. 

 bhunwur-jal men-d. gherna, v. to bewilder, em- 
barrass, enslave, (to puzzle, q. v.) moozturib-k. 
ghubrana, v. to distract. 

entanglement, ooljhera, phunsa,o,utka,o,gutha|0, 
V. involution, perplexity. 

entendre, double, zoo-mu,unuen, tujnees, deewar- 
deepuk, (negative) mookree, v. equivocation, 

to enter, v. n. bheetur-ana or -jana, undur-ana 
or -jana, dakhil-h. puethna, ghoosna, dhusna, 
gurna, dhookna, ghoosurna, choobhna, lugna, 
beendhna, buethna, sumana, v. to penetrate, 
panw-ronpna, dukheel- burpa- khura-h. byah- 
na, V. to possess, agree, hath-d. dukhl-k. v. 
to make, meddle, (to insert) siyahu-k. tankna, 
V. initiate, (to set down in writing) moondu- 
rij-k. likhna, qulum bund-k. (to engage in) 
durana, moodakhulut-k. (enter into partner- 
ship) shurakut-k. v. to embark, begin. 

enterprise, jokhim, moohim, v. attempt. 

to enterprise, oothana, v. to undertake. 

enterprising, dil-chul, jokhimee, jhar-jhunkhar, 
jan-baz, sher-murd, gurar, munchula, dreerh, 
V. ambitious, intrepid. 

to entertain, (converse with) gcoftugoo-juwab su- 

wal-k. (a guest) mlhmanee- ziyafut-k. ghur- 
buethana, tikana, khilana pilana, asoodu-r. v. 
to treat, (to amuse, q. v.) khilana, khoosh-k. 
(to keep in service, &c.) rukhna, v. to feed, 

Entertainer, mez-ban, mihman-dar, khoosh-gup, 
V. humorous, nuotik, v. host. 

entertainment, mihmanee, mihman-daree, ziya- 
fut, tuwazoo, khana, bhojun, v. treat, (of ser- 
vants, &c.) rukha,ee, nigahdasht, bhurtee, v. 
feast, (amusement, q. v.) khel, deed, dil-lugee, 
tufurrooj, suwad, v. play, delight; a marriage 
entertainment, shadee. 

to enthrall, hulqu bu gosh-k. v. to enslave. 

to enthrone, tukht pur-buethalna. 

enthusiasm, rujut, juzb, ishq, tu.ussoob, i,utiqad, 
josh, khurosh, gurmee, mud, suoda, \. fancy, 
zeal, (religious) nushu, deenee, v. intoxication, 
(ecstacy) wujd. 

enthusiast, mootu,ussib, mujzoob, uhl i rujut, mu- 
dee, mutwala, surgurm, ashiq, v. fervent. 

to entice, wurghulanna, ooljliana, lobhana, phoos- 
la-lejana, fureb- turgheeb-d. tuhrees-k. moo- 
hana, burmana, jhansna, moobtila-k. v. to se- 
duce, mislead, teach. 

enticer, dil-fureb, dil-rcxiba, mohun. 

enticement, dil-furebee, dil-rooba,ee, ighwa, tul- 
bees, V. allurement. 

entire, tumam, kamil, poora, kooUee, sara, su- 
moocha, moisulum, dur'o bust, be-kum o kast, 
salim, suheeh, v. complete, whole, full, fresh, 

entirely, surasur, bil-kool, surbusur, ek-qulum, 
-lukht or -hurf, subhee, jharunt, bal bal, v. 
altogether, entire, wholly. 

entireness, tumamee, tukmeel, poorunta, koolli- 
yut, sulamutee, v. fulness, completeness, 

to entitle, (to natne) nam-d. or -r. (to confer a 
title) khitab-d. (to give a right or claim to} 




zeehuqq- moostuhuqq- Iniqqdar-k. moohiq-, 
suzawar-k. v. to confer, also right, m ,i»7/ 

entity, hustee, ast, wujood, zat. 

to entomfj, garna, dufun-k. 

entraik, untriyan, anten, rode, sing, imtree, ant, 
rodu, V. bowels. 

entrance, (admission, q. v.) dukhl, bar, rusa,ee, 
puhojnch, pueth, puesar, puethal, peshamud, 
V. road, moonh, v. mouth, a,ee, v. arrival, 
{warrant for) umul-namu or -dustuk, v. jws- 
session, (passage, q. v.) rah, mudkhul, (com- 
mencement, q. V,) ibtida, puhil. 

to entrance, ghushee men-d. moorchhit-k. 

to be entranced, moorchhit-h, 

to entrap, phandna, phunsana, pukuroa, r. to en- 
snare. <■ .^■■"lr'1'•^■M^^ t ,■«.>' 

to entreat, iltija- tulub- nibedun- urz-k. chahna, 
ghigiyana, v. to treat. »;•,« J jMv'j .ytt-Ai 

entreaty, iltija, istida, lujajut, sumajut, mininit, 
urz, iltimas, goozarish, nibedun, urdas, v. soli- 

entry, dakhilu, pueth, v. insertion, dyorhee, duh- 
leez, V. porch, entrance, door. 

to envelope, ewwrffp,chhipana,ilhampna, lupetna, 
topna, ghilafee- mulfoof-k. v enclosure, wrap- 
per, to cover. 

to envenom, zuhr aloodu-k. zuhr men-boojhana, 
V. to enrage. 

enviable, qabil i rushk, dahjog, hasidanu, husud- 

envied, muhsood. 

envious, envier, hasid, hoosood, dahee, ekulkhoo- 
ra,, juHya, jhulaha, bud-chushm, 
shoom, nuzur, natuwan-been, dumbhee, tok- 

enviously, husud-se. 

to environ, mcnhasuru- ihatu- gird-k. ghema, 
chhenkna, gher-lena, v. to envelope. 

environs, gird-pesh, pueramoon, gird-nuwah, as- 

pas, huwalee, nuwahee, juwar, utraf, suwad, 
chuhoodis, pas puros, damun, ghera, v. neigh- 

to enumerate, ginna, ginana, shoomar-k. tufseel-, 
buyan-k. moofussul-kuhna. 

enumeration, gintee, shoomar, hisab, tu,uddood, v. 
relation, &c. fJr/ivffjJftKj.i 

to enunciate, v. to pronounce, also declaration. 

envoy, wukeel, doot, suffeer, v. ambassador, mes- 

envy, husud, dah, rushk, ag, julun, tok, khooj, 
dhumbh, husrut, gheens, jhul, v. grudge, ma- 

to envy, husud- &e. -k. khoojna, khiskhisana, 
julna, tokna, khoonsiyana, neshzunee-k. v. 

epaulet, jhubba, phoondna. 

ephemera, bhoorbhooree, drintee-jur,v. almanack^ 
fever, journal, &c. 

epicure, ueyasb, uobash, rusiya, rusikh, tumasha- 
been, petoo, shikum-purwur, shikum-bundu, 
bhogee, chutora, petpaloo, shikura-purust, v. 
sensual, luwurious, &c. 

epidemic, epidemical, alum-geer, da,ir o sa,ir, am, 
juhan-geer, surb byapik, ghurghur, v. general^ 

epigram, luteefu, joogut, ncoktu, jhoolna, mook- 
ree, rooba,ee. 

epilepsy, mirgee, surii. 

epileptic, mirgiya, musroo,u. 

episode, v. digression, bat men bat, qissu dur qis- 
su, V. story. 

epistle, khutt, rooqu,u, chithee, patee, namu, put- 
ree, muktoob, shooqu, mojrsulu, kitabut, nu- 
wishtu, likha, v. letter, 8ec. 

epistolary, khuttee, muktoobee; epist'j-.ary corre- 
spondence, khutt kitabut, roos! o, namu 
o puyam, chithee-patee. 

epitaph, kitabu, tareeklj qubur. 




epiihalamium, shahanu, raungul, nuhchhoo, so- 

hag, Jul we ka geet. 
epithet, sifut, wusf, tu,ureef, luqub, bisek,h, khi- 

tab, V. ]}hrase, name, title, 
epitome, ikhtisar,mcDkhtusur, sunchhepun,v. bre- 
viary, compendium, &c. 
to epitomise, muntukhub- &c. -k. 
epoch, epocha, sun, tareekh, duor, sumbut, saka, 

sal, V. date, 
equal, adj. burabur, eksan, moosawee, mooqabil, 
ekhee, v. alike, one, humta, moowafiq, mootu- 
sawee, mootabiq, surbusur, ek-jor, -sum, or 
-soo, hum-sung, -wuzn, -turazoo, -shoomar, 
-qudur, -jum, -puhloo, -qud, or -sufeel, &c. 
ek-tuol, ek-misi, v. same, also the other words 
compounded like comrade, companion,kc.nii, 
theek, v. exact, (adequate, q. v.) qabil, la,iq, 
{even, q. v.) suleem, {in comp.) hum, v. mode- 
equal, subs, hum-sur, mooqabil, (in age) hum- 
yAee, hum-cpmr, v. compeer, (fellow, q. v.) 
moomasll, doosra, v. match, 
to equal, v. a. burabur- &c. -k. puhonchna, ek- 
saij- &C. -b. milna, pukurna, ek tukkur ka-h. 
V. to cope, answer, 
to equalise, pasung-d. ek- theek- &c. -k. v. uni- 
. form, to regulate. 

equality, equalness, buraburee, sumta, moosawat, 
hum-suree, hum-chushmee, hura-oomree, tus- 
awee, humta,ee, mooqabilu, moowafiqut, milap, 
V. likeness, uniformity, hum-qudree. Sec. v. the 
adj. and nouns below, 
equally, burabur, v. equal, 
equanimity, humwaree, sunjeedugee, sulahiyut. 
equation, i,utidal huqeeqee, tu,udeel. 
equator, khutti istuwa, muddhi nareebrit, naree- 

willa, niriksh desh. 
equerry, hueput, meer ustubul, meer akhor, jilo- 

equestrian, v. horseman, ghore suwar, shulwsu- 
war, suwar, qurawul, v. cavalier, i-ifl^al^ 

equidistant, hum-fasilu, mootusawee ool ubad, ek- 
or hum-pulla. 

equilateral, mootusawee ool uzla,u. »' 

dal, buraburee, sumta, hum-wuzunee or -tura- 
zoo,ee, V. balance. . o«otf : 

equinoctial, moo,uddil oon-nuhar, v. equator. 

equinox, (the vernal) i,utidal i rubeCiee, wishoo- 
pud, (the autumnal) i.utidal i khureefee, hori- 
pud. .>«j<(rt!yj«»^x 

to equip, moosulluh- iarastu- tueyar-k. saz o sa- 
man-d. v. to prepare, khura-k. sarbohar-k. v. 
to furnish. 

equipage, (furniture, q.v.) usbab, surunjam, saz 
o Iraq, saz, sumaj, kuree-kanta, samugrihee, 
deru, pesh khanu, (retinue, q. v.) qor, rikab, 
V. carriage, baggage, train. 

equipment, tueyaree, kumurbundee. 

equitable, adil, mconsif, dad-gur, such-cha, rast, 
mojtudueyin, v. fair. .Wh 

equitably, moonsifanu, insaf-se. 

equity, insaf, udl, nya|0, dad, udalut, huqq, rast- 
bazee, v. honesty. 

equivalence, equivalency, v. equalitr/, iwuz, budlu. 

equivalent, hum-qeemut, hum-qudr, budul bura- 
bur, iwuz mcoqabil, hum budul, moobadihl- 
mootusawee, v. compensation, equal. 

equivocal, moobhum, moozubzub, gol gol, mcotu- 
zulzul, pecheedu, v. doubtful, (generation) 
ookhmuj, V. ambiguous, uncerfaiti. 

equivocally, shoobhe- ]uga,o- &c. -se. 

equivocation, equivocalness, ibham, tuzubzoob, tu- 
zulzodl, lughzish, doobdha, pher, ghooma.o, 
ghol ghooma,o, mukur-chukkur, eeham, tuj- 
nees,, v. evasion, ambiguity, luga,o, 
V. reservation, also doulde, and its derivatives. 

to equivocate, bat- zuban-pulutna, lughzish- &c. 




-k. pher-j. gol-bolna or -liJchna, v. to preva- 
ricate, shVjffle. 

equivocaior, v. shuttle, joolahe kee dhurkec, v. 

era, tareekh, sun, sutnbut, v. epocka. 

to eradicate, ookharna, bekhkunee- isteesal-k. 
{to end) muoqoof- batil-k. ootha-d. 

eradicative, bekli-kun, ookharoo, juIa,oo, v. ew- 
tirpatiou, &c. 

io erase, metna, chheel-d. hukk-k. khak siyah-, 
tuluf-k. dha-d. muhoo- munsookh-k. kat-d. 
V. to destroy, efface. 

eraaemerU, mitao, nuskh, mismaree, tuluf. 

eraser, {knife) nihumee, kuzluk, hukkee, v. to 

erasure, kat koot, chheel chhal, qulum khoordu- 
gee, V. blot. 

ere, age, qubul, puehle, tuk, lug, toree, tUiCen, 
V. before, to, till, &c 

ere long, ek mooddut men, ek urse men, kOiCe 
dum men, t. soon. 

■ere now, ubJug or -tuk. Is wuqt tuk. 

ere while, is ke age, v. formerly, yet, sooner, ra- 

erect, khura, istadu, qa,im, seedha, rast, sur o 
tur, sihee, nasib, mcnstuqeem, tadh, v. to stand, 
ipold, q. V.) mojstuqil, nWur, be-bak, t. vi- 

io erect, v. a. kluira- qa,im- istadu- nusb-k. (to 
build, q. V.) imarut-k. bunana, {to exalt, q. v.) 
boolund-k. burhana, {to settle, q. v.) qa,im-, 
burpa-fc. V. to animate, form, &c. v. n. khura- 
&c. -h. oothna. 
erection, istadugee, istihkam, imarut, tu,umeer, 
oothan, ootha,ee, ootha.o, {of the penis) thith- 
ka,o, no,cpz, istadugee, v. building, establish- 
erectiiess, seedha,ee, khura,e€, rastee, tudhaiCe, 
V. uprightness, elevation. 

ergot, gimb, v. kTutt. •■■n 

ermine, qaqum. . i 

to erode, katna, kluma, v. to corrode. > 

to err, chookna, ghulut- khuta- &c. -k. bhoolna, 
\Aaunia,v. to forget, {in singing) awaz-tootna, 
V. to mistake, be out, {to stray, q. v.) bhutuk- 
na, V. error, to wander. .^\>ii~Ani'i 

errand, puegham, sundesa, v. message. 

errand-boy, ruwunnu, v. messenger. 

errata, gliulut-namu. > 

erratic, errant, v. arrant, rumta, sueyaru, suela- 
nee, dawtindol, surgurdan, oopum basee, v. de- 
vious, &c. 

erroneous, ghulut-go, v. incorrect. 

errotieotisly, ghulujee- &c. -se, bu ghulut, khnta- 
un, suhwun. i 

error, ghultee, suhoo, usoodh, zulal, bhool, bis- 
ra|0, zulalut, koonu, fee, tufawut, v. slip, mis' 
take, sin. 

erst, puehle, age, &c. v. formerly. 

eructation, dukar, arogh, oobak, dhikar, oodh- 
kar, phoophkar, v. to belch. 

erudition, jlm, juohur, bidya, fuzl, fuzeelut, qa- 
biliyut, V. knowledge. 

eruption, khoorooj, oobhar, bookhar, chhajun, 
small poT), nikal, nikas, buramud, 
{of a volcano) dhudhuk, phoophkar, fuwiraru, 
dum, V. explosion, blaze. 

erysipelas, scorkh-badu, bimb, hoomra. 

escalade, kumund undazee. 

escape, goorez, firar, bueha,o, riha,ee, mukhlusee, 
nujat, V. mistake. 

to escape, bhagna, gosrez-k. v. to flee, chliootna, 
nathna, jana, tul-j. v. to elope, ruhna, v. to re- 
main,{notice) ankh-buchana,chhipana or-cho- 
rana, v. to elude, to forget, {to miss) chookna, 
bhoolna, {to shun, q. v.) buch-nikuka, buch- 




na, muhfooz- sulamut- buch-ruhna, nikul-j. 
buch-purna, riha,ee- &c. -pana. 

eschar, khorthee, v. cautery. 

to escheat, buetoolmal-h. v. to fall. 

escheats, la waris muhal, buetoolmalee, gulutuns, 
V. heriot. 

escort, budruqu, qafilu-kush, buhur-kush, v. to 
conduct, guard. .-.jtn^niji ' 

to escort, racnhafuzut-k. 

escritoire, qulum danee, sundooq-chu, v. writing- 
desk, ni.'tufi ".'in-vv' ,-i 

esculent, V. edible, &c. (herbs) bhajee, v. greens. 

especially, khcosoos, khoosoosun, ulul-khoosoos, 
purunt, oodhbun, udbudake, khass, mukh- 
soos, V. special. 

esplanade, qili ka-muedan or -sa,ir, v. plain. 

espousals, byah, nikah, shadee, guth-bundhun. 

to espouse, {to wed) byah- &c. -k. v. to betrothe, 
(a quarrel, q. v.) lena, {to defend, q. v.) poosh- 
tee-k. sumbhalna, v. to support. 

to espy, dutna, tukna, dekhna, v. to spy. 

esquire, v. page, buha-door, singji, ra,e, vulg. roy, 
V. squire. 

essay, {attempt) qusd, {trial, q-v.) azma,ish, {en- 
deavour, q.v.) su,ee, koshish, {of metals) kus, 
ta,o, uyar, {treatise) risalu. 

to essay azmana, kusna, qusd-k. purukhna, dahna, 
V. to assay, dekhna, v. to try, exert, {t)ietals) 

essence, juohur, zat, mahiyut, uen, nufs, wujood, 
jat, wujih, mayu, usl, mool, sut, heer, burhm, 
sar, durb, jan, sudmij, rus, ruskus, urq, v. spi- 
rit, being, entity, {perfume) phooleel, chO|a, 
utr, {of a composition, &c.) khoolasu, khoolus, 
zoobdu, sararth, v. existence. 

to essence, ma3,ul;tur-k. 

essential, adj. zatee, juohuree, uenee, bura, bha- 
ree, v. principal, uslee, jubillee, v. constituent. 

{necessary, q. v.) zuroor, {pure, q. v.) khalis, 
khoolasu, heer, v. important. a* fSioyirt 

essential,sub.v.essence,nature,kc,; the essentials 
for any thing, zurooriyat. 

essentially, bizatihi, v. really. 

essoine, ri,ayutee, mu,vizoor. 

to establish, qa,im- khura-k. bunana, thuhrana, 
kurna, budna, bandhna, theek- sijil-k. jutn- 
kana, buethalna, jumana, rompna, nusb-k. lu- 
gana, v. to fix, make, confirm, appoint. 

established, qa,im, muzboot, pa,edar, oostoowar, 
moostuhkum, mooqurrur, moo,ueyun, bu-hal, 
burpa, v.firm, {custom) dustoor ool umul, v. 
confirmed, current, usual. 
' establisher, v. founder, moostuhkim, nasib, wazj, 
ropunhar, v. the verb, also author. 

establishment, thuhra,o, qiyam, pa,edaree, oostoo- 
waree, bundhan, v. tofi^v, {regulation, q. v.) 
bund o bust, intizam, {income, q. v.) saliyanu, 
yaft, V. allowances {fixed state) tu,ueyun, tu- 
qurroor, tushukhkhoos, {foundation, q.v.) boon- 
iyad, v. settlement, {religious) mootu,ueyunu, 
idrar, moo,ueyunu, birt, oopruont, mooqurru- 
ree, v. confirmation, muzbootee, bur-quraree, 
qa.imee, ruha,ee, v. continuance. 

estate, v. condition, state, {possession, q.v.) mal, 
{pi. umwal,) milk, {pi. umiak) dhun, sum- 
put, V. effects, duolut, durb, v. farm, property ; 
a hereditary estate, meeras ; a landed estate, zu- 
meendaree, sooknu, chuk, bhoom, guonwu,ee, 
muhlool ; an estate given as a pension, ja,e-gM: 
or -dad, u,emmu, v. land, also patrimony, rank, 
income, &c. 

esteem, {regard, q. v.) pyar, tupak, chah, {esti- 
mation, q. V.) i,utimad, qudr, wuzn, v. affec- 
tion, {consequence) man, i,ujaz, jus, bojlibhar, 
V. weight, {respect, q. v.) hoormut, izzut, v. 
veneration, belief, credit. 

to esteem {to regard) chahna, moohubbut- &c. -r. 




uzeez-janna, {to imagine, q. v.) jaqiiq, ginna, 
rukhna, v. to consider. '^.S'ivk Jmim .»•*. 

estimable, esteemed,uzeez, moo,uzzuz, moohturum, 
pyara, murghoob, nek, nek-bukht, jus-wunt, 
V. dear. 

estimate, v. calculation, koot, kun, danu-bundee, 
schoodkar, kunkoot, hustobood, kunha,ee, tuk- 
dutna, nuzur-undazee, v. statement. 

to estimate, utkulna, ankna, tiikhmeenu-k. koot- 
na, tarna, nuzur undaz-k. v. conjecture, to cal- 

^stimatimi, undazu, shnomar, lekha, ank, tush- 
khees, uql, janiba, v. judgment, appraisement, 
{opinion, q. v.) fuhmeed, sumujh, khiyal, nu- 
zur; in their estimation, oon ke nuzurmen, v. 
esteem, regard. 

estimator, utkul-baz, kuniya, tar-baz, buduk, 
guoro, V. broker, appraiser: i*>0'*^) 

to estrange, beganu-k. oothana, phirana, hurka- 
na, kheech-lena, chit-torana, v. stranger. 

estranged, v. misunderstanding, khoon-sufed, v. 
averse, cool. f.Iii .•urfcf ,1i»*A>l- 

to be estranged, oochit-ruhna, v. to withdraw. 

estrangement, beganugee, v. distance. 

etc. et cetera, wughueru, gliuer-zalik, fulanu fu- 
lanu, umka dhunika, uoi- sub, itiyadik, adik, 
mawura, v. rest, also besides. 

eternal, iibudee, da,im, qaim, Ia,eezal, nit, suda, 
jumjum, surmud, unad, un iint, chirinjee, iib- 
he nasee, mcokhuUud, ubd nol abad, uzulee, 
V. perpetual, {Miss) su,udut, da,imee, {punish- 
ment) uzab ubudee, v. immortal; the Eternal, 
queyoomJ* ii'■i'^ /  

eternally, humeshu, suda, moodam, da,im-un, nit 
nit, shub o roz, v. the adj. also ahcays. 

eternity, duwam, ubud, humeshugee, moodawu- 
mut, khoolood, qudamut, qidm, buqa, uziil, 
nit-ta, V. immortality, aqibut. 

to eternize, ({&,inx- he. •)£.. i^ij ,t-^ii.vii- 

ether, ukas. 

ethereal, asmanee, v. celestial. 

ethics, ilm i ukhlaq, pund- or nuseeliut-namu, 
geeta, v. moral. 

etiquette, udub, adab, v. form, ceremony. 

etymology, {of words) ishtiqaq, vvujih-tusmiyu, 
{derivation, q. v.) tushuqqooq, muthapi,u, {in 
grammar) surf, tusreef, gurdan, v. declension, 

an evacuant, mcosjiil, joolab, jhar. 

to evacuate, {to empty) khalee-k. {to discharge, 
q. V.) nikalna, chhantna, kharij-k. ikhraj-k. 
jharna, chhorna, cbhorana, girana, tyagna, 
tukhliyu-k. chhor-jana, v. to void, to quit, 
{by stool) chirikna, hugna, pokna, chherna, 
V. to ease, purge. 

to be evacuated, nikulna, jhurna, girna. 

evacuation, tukhliyii, tunqiyu, ikhraj, idrar, prl- 
1)3, pi. buol glia,it, mul-mootr, v. discharge, {a 
stool) dust, jhara. 

to evade, {to elude) talna, onrana, {to escape) ni- 
kul-j. nikul-bhagna, buhanu-k. kutrana, kha- 
or luga-j. qulum undaz-k. v. to shun, parry. 

evanescent, v. fleeting, {a.<i colours) kucha, kham, 
oora,oo, V. volatile, {as life) cliula jata, nuqsh 
bur ab, v. imperceptible. 

evangelist, v. testament, revelation, wuhee- or in- 

to evaporate, v. n. oorna, huwa- kafoor-Iiojana, 
mootusa|id-h. julna, sookhna, chutukna, bhab- 
na, V. to vanish, v. a. oorana, su,qod-k. julana, 
sulb-k. V. to disperse.itih^mnA^i'/ 

evaporation, oora,o, tusa,qod, chutka,o, jula,o, v. 
fume, vent, tubkheer, tubukhkhoor, v. exltala- 

evasion, tala, tal mutol, bala, ooran, ooran-gha,ee, 
heelu-huwalu, heelu, pus o pesb, opzr, v. ex- 
cuse, ulmut, pecli-pach, panch o sat, v. shuffle, 





evasive, gol gol, moozubzub. 

even, (level, q. v.) humwar, moostuwee, chuorus, 
eksan, v. equal, {straight, q. v.) seedha, rast ; 
an even number, jooft, zuoj, jor, joogum, dos, 
V. odd, sura, putsum, v. smooth, saf, phurcha, 
be kum o kast, be baq, v. clear. 

even, adv. ban, such,, are, bule, bee, ee, 
to, bulki, yu,unee, v. for, khuer, v. verily, 
well, halanki, v. notwithstanding, bhee, v. also, 
tuk, huttaki, eehantukki, v. likeivise. 

to even, burabur- &c. -k. 

to be even, bumwar- &c. -h. 

evening, sbam, sanjh, sundhiya, suri sham, usr, 
mughrib, uwul shub, v. vespers, dusk ; in the 
evening, sham-ko. 

evenly, burabur, v. even. 

evenness, bumwaree, buraburee, seedjia,ee,rastee, 
soodh, V. equality. 

event, sur-goozusht, majra, ittifaq, ubwal, hadisu, 
nuobut, birtant, sanihu, bat, soorut, qissu, kue- 
fiyut, khubur, churitr, leela, v. case, circum- 
stance, accident, (consequence, q. v.) nuteeju, 
sumru, akhirut, phul; in the event, uhiyanun, 
V. should; at all events, bu hur-hal or -soorut, 
bhule boore, khwah mu khwah, v. incident. 

eventful, poor-hadisu, nuerung, gurdishee, v. 

eventual, ittifaqec, arizee. 

eventually, ittifaqun. 

ever, kubhee, kubhoo, ee, bee, ki, sa, ek, ko,ce, 
jo, e, kus, kudam, kudhee, kuheen, been, (al- 
ways, q. V.) humeshu, humwaru, (in any de- 
gree) koochh, whence jo-koochh, w hat-ever ; 
forever, evermore, nit nit, bur bumesli, v. con- 
stantly; whenever, jyon been; ivherever, juhan 
kuheen; whoever; ]o,ee; nujy he prosper for 
ever, dam-iqbaliboo. 

evergreen, suda buhar* ;>«;», -.i^«j .-_^- 


ever happy or married, as women, suda sohagun, 
V. as, when, just, while, &c. . .- .fiUii-i;" 

everlasting, da,ini, qa|ini, usthit, nit, la-zuwal, 
be-zuwal, unbinas, v. eternal, always. 

ever-pleasing, suda mohun. 

every, hur, ek ek, sub ko,ee, hur-kus or -kudam, 
sub-jo, (thing) sub koochh. •Mj^hc»rf3-> 

every day, kur-roz. ,'*»Nfill*ii^'»r(.tfn; 

every one, hur-ek, hur-ko,ee, hur-shukhs, sub, 
V. all. ^ ' 

ever-young, saAa.]\iyf3ii\. -<-■■ 

evert/where,hur kuheen, hur juguh, charon turuf, 
V. around. It is very often expressed by re- 
duphcation, whence, danu-danu, every grain; 
rezu-rezu, every particle ; dum-dum or dum- 
bu-dum, every instant, v. one, each, ever, &c. 

evidence, (testiinony, q. v.) shuhadut, sakhee, 
(proof, q. V.) dulalut, istidlal, sunud, (witness, 
q. V.) guwah, v. clearness. 

to evidence, shuhadut- &c. -d. dulalut- 8sc« -k. 
V. to evince, vi,,.. t.,, 

evident, zahir, ulanlyu, viyan, wazih, mu,uloom, 
ruoshun, pueda, budeehee, pudeed, soowuree, 
moobruhin, huweda, yuqeen, ootput, v. clear, 
obvious, certain, apparent, conspicuous. 

evidently, sureehuij, zabira, rah sureehun, v. 

evil, adj. boora, bud, zuboon, v. bad. 

evil, sub. boora,ee, budee, zuboonee, ueb, qub- 
ahut, nooqsan, khurabu, mulamut, khubasut, 
khoobs, unwad, v. wickedness, (root of all) 
oomm ool khuba,is, (prince of) khunnas, v. de- 
vil; be evil averted, chiihsm bud door, which is 
used as a propitious expression before praising 
any thing, v. mischief, (hour) bud-sa,ut, v. un- 
lucky, ill, (misfortune, q. v.) bula, kusht; 
king's evil, kunth-mala, khunazeer, v. disease, 

evil-doer, bud-kar, huram-kar, goonah-gar, koo- 




kuruiee, pap-karee, bud-fi,ul or -kirdar, v. teic- 

evil-minded, bud-bat in, bud- zat, moofsid,ootpatee, 

bud-kho, -dil or -undesh, v. malevolent. 
to evitice, zahir-k. duleel-Iana, butlana, junana, 

V. io prove, show, 
evilable, talunhar, goorez-puzecr, v. to avoid, shun, 
eulogy, V. praise, encomium, quseedu, v. elegy, 
eunuch, k)ioju, khwaju-sura,l)e-khayu murdanu, 

napoonsuk, miyan. There are two kinds, sun- 

dulee and badamee ; heejra arid zunanu are 

also a species of eunuchs. 
to evolve, khojhia, nikulna, v. to disclose, 
evolution, Imrkut, v. motion, pi. quwa,id, v. ex- 
euphony, moola,imut, khoosh-awazee, tuhseeni 

tulufiooz, V. sweetness, 
euphorbium, furbiyoon, furfiyoon, seej, zuqqoom, 

curopean firungee, from firung, Europe, 
euthanasia, khoosh uiurg. .•srso-A 
ewe, bheree, merhee, dcombee, bher. 
ewer, aftabu, vulg. uftawu, kurwa, budhna, bus- 

na, jhuree, lota, v. pot. 
ex, (i« comp.) oo, nikal, v. out. 
exacerbation, v. aane, shiddut, josh, mud, v. par- 

exact, theek, doorcost, poora, burabur, mookum- 

mul, V. methodical, {accurate, q. v.) suheeh, 

soodh, {punctual) wu,idu wufa, (severe) sukht- 

geer, (honest, q. v.) khura, saf, v. nice, 
to exact, tulub- durkhwast-k. chahna, mangna, 

lena, nichorna, (to demand ofrigiit) du,uwa-, 

exaction, mootalubu, ubwab, rojsooni, huboobat, 

bazee-jumu, muthuot, v, oppression, (extortion, 

q. V.) nichor, (tribute, q. v.) muhsool, lugta. 
exactly, sihhut- &c. -se, hoo,a hoo,a, nikhund, 

nira, hoo bu boo, bi.uenih, anman, khure; e,i^ 
aclly twelve o'clock, khure do puhriya, v. com- 

exactness, buraburee, tukmeel, turteeb, dooroostee, 
arastugee, sodh,, hostiiyaree, rastee, 
V. correct. 

exactor, bala-dust, ziyadu tulub, mooqtuzee, ta- 
lib, mootuqazee, v. extortioner, innovation. 

to exaggerate, burhana, moolmlughu-k. lumba 
cliuora-k. phuelana, oor-chulna, bura,ee- &c. 
-k. V. to amplify. 

exaggeration, moobalughu, burha,o,, tool- 
tuweel, lumbee chuoree, v. to ea/patiate, 

evaggerator, moobalughu-go, bur-bola, bhat, foo- 
zool- or poor-go, v. hyperbole. 

to exalt, burhana, turuqqee-d. boolund- surfu> 
raz-k. churhana, oothana, v. to raise, (to praise) 
tU|Ureef-k. v. to improve. 

exaltation, v. improvement, irtlfa,u, bcolundee, sur- 
furazee, sur-boolundee, bura,ee, oorooj, rufut, 
bol-bala, uoj, uoj rnuoj, v. promotion. 

exalted, sur-furaz, sur-boolund, iizeem oosh-shan, 
moo.uzziz, moomtaz, moo,ulla, tpmdu, bala, 
burtur, moofukhkhur, bala nushecn, v. high, 
(in camp.) alee ; thus, alee jab, alee shan, &c. 
exalted in station, he. 

examination, imtihan, tujroobu, azma.ish, bazr- 
poors, tufteesfa, tufuhhoos, tujussoos, dhooadh 
dhandli, khuoz, puruk,h, v. consideration, poor- 
sish, poochh poochhar, turaeez, tujweez, v. 

to examine, v. to collate, azmana, piu-uk.hna, kus- 
na, janchna, khojna, dhoondhna, imtihan- t«h- 
qceq- ghuor-k. dekhna, niliarna, chhan be 
chhan- nuzur uudaz-k. bicharna, v. to inspect, 
study, (clothes) khata-k. v. to essay, (accounts^ 
moohasibuJena, v. to investigate, interrogate, 

examiner, moomtuhin, mootufuhhis, tujroobu-kar, 
Dd 8 




purk,hiya, moohasib, budur-nuwees, tulashee, 
junchwuya, v. inspector, inquirer. 
' eicamplary, moostuhsun, sunjeedu, mu,iiqool. 

example, (copi/, pattern) numoonu, musul, tum- 
seel, misal, mcomasil, maduree, drishtant, nu- 
zeer, sunud, kur, v. instance, (a person pi'o- 
posed as a model) dustoor ool umul, peshwa, 
mocqtuda, hadee, qidwii, v. proof. 

example, (applied to punishment) ibrut, siyasut, 
chushm-nooma,ee, tukhweef, chetun, v. warn- 
ing ; to take example from, tutubbro-k. v. to 
imitate ; for example, musuliin, musul to mu- 
sulun, chinanchi, juesa ki, fil-musul. 

exanguinous, be-khoon, u-ruktee. 

exanimate, be-jan, nir-jiya, v. lifeless. 

to exasperate, khufa- ghoosse- diqq-k. khijana, 
sutana, rookana, dahna, julana, tulna, ooksana, 
bhurkana, oobharna, v. to aggravate, provoke. 

to excavate, korna, khukhorna, khodna, khok- 
ha- khalee- chhoochha-k. 

excavation, v. to dig, khoda,ee, khonkh, v. cavi- 
ty, khokhur, khol, khoolra, v. holloic. 

to exceed, ziyadu-h. burhna, jeeta-h. nikulna, 
burhiya- surjeet-h. churhna, ooburna, v. to 
surpass, ziyadutee-k. v. excess ; this exceeds 
that by an inch, yih oos se tusoo bhur jeeta 
hue, V. to excel. " 5S»o.>v>vniK 

exceeding, exceedingly, ziyadu, buhoot, niput, ni- 
hayut, bu-shiddut. 

to excel, ghalib- fa,iq- ugla-h. churhta- nikulta-h. 
turjeeh-sh'uruf-r. fuoqiyut- subqut- go,ee-leja- 
na, shuh-kuhna, pookhtu- poora- pukka- ka- 
mil-h. V. to surpass. 

excellence, excellency, ziyadutee, udhika,ee, ku- 

malj fuzl, fuzeelut, fuoqiyut, turjeeli, shuruf, 

bura,ee, bcozoorgee, khoobee, loatf, tufzeel, is- 

tiswab, bhula,ee,, sursa,ee, v. stipe- 

. : riority, purity, fineness. 

* S i « 

excellency, (title) junab i alee, huzrut, muha-raj, 
V. worship. 

excellent, v. prime, bihtur, khoob, nek, toohfu, 
luteef, khassu, mu,uqool, pakeezu, uch-chha, 
bhula, neeka, besh, un-ootha, soothra, chokha, 
oobedha, oottim, soondur, nadir, fazU, fuoq, 
chungoor, sums, prubeen, unsub, moostusna, 
suwab-deed, v. choice, good, (bravo! q. v.^ 
soobhan oollah, v. welldone, (eminent, q. v.) 
kamil, ufzul, fa,iq, (in comp.) khaish ; thus, 
khoosh-nuwees, an excellent writer. 

excellently, uch-chhee turuh-se, khassee turuh-se, 
V. exceedingly. >"vsj« < 'n f.-^-Jn .-y *> . 

except, siwa, bu-jcoz, chhoot, ilia, chhorke, chho- 
rake, qutu nuzur, v. bitt, ghuer, bin, bina, 
bidoon, v. besides, (unless, q. v.) ugur, mu- 
gur, hurgah, jo, [these are used negatively} 
except you go, I cannot go, jo toom nu ja|Oge 
hum nu ja sukenge, v. without. 

to except, chhor- jane-dena, furogoozasht- moos- 
tusna- istisna-k. chhorna, chhorana, bhin-k. 
tokna, V. to leave, cavil, exempt, (to object, 
q. V.) i|Utiraz- choon o chura-k. 

excepted, moostusna, bahuree, chhoota. 

exception, istisna, shaz, tukrar, meenmekh, chho- 
ra,o, chhoot, rok tok, v. exclusion, pukur, gi- 
rift,- V. censure, (to take) boora-manna, v. ano- 
maly, offence, (objection, q. v.) nooqs, sundeh, 
V. dislike. 

exceptionable, qabil i i,utiraz, giriftunee, i|Utira- 
zee, eerad-puzeer, pukurne-jog, v. the verb. 

excess, ziyadutee, udhika,ee, sursa,ee, booh tat, fi- 
rawanee, kusrut, ifrat, shiddut, tooghiyanee, 
tujawooz, tufawut, v. violence, (noun of) ismi 
moobalughu, v. noun, burhtee, beshee, v. over- 
plus, (intemperance, q. v.) bud-purhezee, fu- 
zoolee, V. r<^e. jiu .^;^■l;^-a^l^au;• 

e,^'cess^^)e, ziyadu, nihayut, udhik, buhoot, surtis, 
sukht, niput, utum, v. extreme, vehement. 




e-rcefisifc/^jbu-shiddut, bc-hudd, hudd se ziyadu, 
V. excessive. 

exchange, budul, tubdeel, tuqleeb, budlee, ucUa 
budlee, mcD,awuz.u, moobuddul, budla,ce, era- 
pheree, moobadilu, v. change, barter, {on bills) 
hoon-dawun, hoondiyawun, v. discount, {com- 
pensation, return) iwuz, budul, budlu, {ofmo- 
•ney) furq, pher, kurdu, barha, phirta, qoosoor, 
butta ; the two last signify the balance or de- 
ficiency to be made good in payment; {aplace 
for merchants) chuok, v. bill, &c. 

toexchange,h\xdi\\\na, budul-d.udlabudJee- iwuz-, 

exchequer, khalisu, khuzeenu buet ool ma\,v. trea- 

excise, nuzuranu, niuhsool, bihrcc, abkaree, sa,ir, 
V. duty, tax. 

to excise, nuzuranu- Sec. -b. 

exciseman, v. collector, zukatee, tuh bazariya, 
oogahunhar, ghulwal, v. publican, tax. 

excision, {to make) kat nikalna, cheer nikalna, v. 
to amputate. 

to excite, oothana, khura- pueda-k. dalna, chher- 
na, hurukut- turgheeb- poorchuk- dum-d. ish- 
ti|aluk-k. ruchana, ooksana, oobharna, chur- 
hana, duorana, chulana, sunkarna, jugana, la- 
na, burhana, v. to cause, rouse. 

exciter, moohurrik, mooshtuhee, v. provocative, 
ooksa,oo, luga.oo, v. incendiary, promoter, {in 
comp.) ungez ; thus, fitnu-ungez, an exciter of 
discord, &c. v. cause. 

excitement, y. motive, tuhreek, chher, rucha.o, 
mucha,o, v. the verb. 

to exclaim, shor-k. bang-mama, chillana, rona, 
ro-pokarna, v. to cry, pokar-oothna, hank po- 
kama, gurgurana, jhurjhurana, v. to vocife- 
rate, reproach. 

cxclaimer, shoree, ghuogha,ce. 

exclamation, shor, ghool, furiyad, shorshur, wa- 

wuela, furiyad-fighan, nalu, ha,e ha.e, wa,e 

wEiC, tuobudhar, v. complaint, clamour, 
to exclude, nikal-d. kharij- murdood- munu-k. 

baz-r. barna, rokna, chhorna, baliur- budur-k. 

nikasna, muhroom- raoostusna-k. v. to disiih- 

herit, dismiss, dheengana. 
exclusion, {of air) roka,o, {expulsion) khoorooj, 

ikhraj, irtidad, tyag, phira,o, v. exception, re- 
exclusive, exclusively, masiwa, ulawu, qutu-nu- 

zur, mawura, chhorke, v. except, besides, 
to excommunicate, murdood-k. nikal-d. koojat-, 

ujat-k. bahur kur-dena, muloon-k. v. to expel, 
to excoriate, ghisna, riigurna, kat-d. oodherna. 
excoriation, ghisa,o, rugur. 
excrement, gcoh, ala|ish, gha,it, v. dung, 
excrement it ious, ruddec, ty agee, h\ira.zee,v. filthy, 
excrescence, giru, musa, ganth, kutuor, rusuelee, 

V. wart, icen. 
excretion, khoorooj, tyag, jhura,o, dhar, ikhra), 

V. evacuation, ; 

excretory, mukhruj, pi. mukliarij, rundhri, ind- 

to excruciate, dookh- azar- uzab-d. v. to torture, 
to exculpate, chhorana, bcgoonali-thuhrana, uir- 

exculpation, i,utizar, moo,uzirut, chhema-kar, v. 

excursion, {ratnble) suer, mutur-gusht, v. trip, 

{expedition) duor, takht, y oonsh, \. digression, 

excusable, qabil i oozr, qabil 1 ufoo, mu,uzoor, 

cozr-puzeer, chhema-jog, wajib cDl-ri,a.yut ; 

the person excused from duty, ri|ayutec, v. tofa- 

excuse,v. sham, oozr, hoojjut, mu,uzurut, bulianu, 

pozish, mintcc, bintee, nakee, nuktora, nukh- 

ru, hcelu, tukrar, chochla, v. pretence ; a fri- 
volous excuse, rozr na-musmoo,u. 




to excuse, cozr- hoojjut-k. bat-bunana, buhanu-k. 
V. to pretend, kuniyana, lendiyana, v. to flinch, 
{to remit, q. v.) bukhshna, chhor-d. chhima-, 
niii,af-k. durgcDzur-k. 

exctiser, mo3tu,uzzir, (forgiver) khuta-bukhsh. 

execrable, mukrooh, kureeh, muloon, lU|een, mur- 
dood, muqhoor, Iu,unutee, phitkaree. 

execrably, bu-shiddut, v. very. 

execration, lu,unut, lu,un, nufreen, surap, v. curse. 

to execute, {to jierform, q. v.) kurna, bunana, 
tumam- akhir- uda-k. busur-lejana, chulana, 
sarna, kurana, v. to accomplish, {a work, &c.) 
ijorehna, ruchana, chherna, v. to operate, (to 
punish capitalhf) qutl-k. gurdun-mama, mar-d. 
{to kill) chula-d. jan-lena, v. to punish; gul-d. 
is much used for hanging by the Indian ser- 
vants, but whether as a corruption from gal- 
lows, from gula, the throat, or gulana, to des- 
troy, is the question. 

execution, iklititam, nibera, chula,o, v. the verb, 
kar-ruwa,ee, purdakht, nibah, parunjat, v. per- 

 formance, {of people) phansee, qisas, &c. v, to 
hang, also punishment, {on goods) ugyarec, 
qoorq-namu, v. to distrain, {to do, as a sword, 

' gun, &c.) kat- mar- tor-k. huqq buja lana, 
huqq uda-k. v. havoc, effect, operation; capital 
punishment, qutl ; to do execution, kam- kar-, 
umul-k. ; to put i7ito execution, jaree-k. v. 
practice; a place of execution, qutl gah, muq- 

- tul. 

executioner, jullad, budhik, qatil, chundal, Qs of- 
fice) juUadee, v. hangman. 

executive, kar-gcozar, hookm-ran, kar-furma, 
amil, amilanu, dargeer, chukiOo, mookhtar- 
kar, V. agent, efficient. 

executor, executrix, v. administrator. 

exemplary, {as punishment) jbrut-ungez,ibrutee, 
chetuona, jbrut-nooma, ibrut-anu, bhuyanuk, 

V. terrible, sunudee, bhula, bharee, wuzunee, 
sahib tureeq, v. examplary, temperate, virtuous. 

to exemplify,^, example, misal-lana, nuzeer- tum- 
seel-k. sunud-pukurna, v. to instance, 

exempt, exempted, v. to excuse, bahur, muhfooz, 
kharij, moobura, mconuzzuh, khalee, mu,af, 
mufee, mu,umoolee, ruhit, v./reft*^'*^^'''**"""V 

to exempt, chhora- bucha-r. kbulas- azad-k. 

exemption, mcohafuzut, bucha,o, tunzeeh, ibra, 
chhootkara, riha,ee, v. immunitj/, leave, freedom. 

exequies, krya kurum, fatihu durood, sradh,bhoj- 
bhat, {to perform) sradh-k. pinda-pama. : 

ex'ercise, v. recreation, (labour, q. v.) riyazut, 
milinut, kusrut, wurzish, sadhun, ishtighaJ, 
shooghl, hurukut, (use, practice) isti,umal, 
moohawiiru, ubbhyas, (task, q. v.) durs, su- 
buq, tu,uleem, suntha, putiya, {motion, q.v.) 
kulbul, phirchul, dol dal, ooth bueth, ooddim, 
purisrum, ^vi^d, v. work, comoor deenee, poo- 
ja-path, V. devotion, (gymnastic) dund, suron, 
buyam, buethka, surUiCe, roomalee, v. execu- 
tion, hurkat suknat, chaldhal, v. posture ; mi- 
lita/ry exercise, quwa,jd. 

to exercise, v. to drill, (to employ, q. v.) shooghl- 
mushq- isti,iamal-k. utka- luga-r. chulana, 
kurna ; to exercise authority, hookoomut-k. 
hookm-chulana ; to take exercise, riyazut- phe- 
ra-k.; to exercise as troops, quwa|id- sadhnee- 
-k. V. to practise, (dogs, &c.) ba,olee-d. slkh- 
lana, v. to train, {the dumb-bells) moogdur-hi- 
lana, -bhanna or -phema, v. to move, walk. 

to exert, endeavour, koshish-k. duoina, sur- zor- 
marna, muqdoor- bhur-k. tugopo- dhoondh- 
bhal-k. V. to strive, perform. 

exertion, koshish, su,ee, jihd, judd, sur-gurmee, 
dil-sozee, dil-dihee, tun-dihee, mihnut, puris- 
rum. ' : ' _ 

exhalation, exhalement, su,qod, oothan, {vdpot^ 
bookhar, bhap. 




to exhale, v, to emit, ootfina, huwa- raootusa.jd-h. 

su,(>od-k. oorna, muhukna, v. a. oorana, v. to 

to exhaust, v. to evpend, khalee- khurj- surf-k. 

oorana, kheench- nikaUena, torna, tumam-k. 

seetha-k. v. to drain, Jinish, dinn7iish. 
exhaustless, be-zuwal. 

to exhibit, dikhlana, kholna, zahir- moonkushif-, 
. izhai^k. butlana, numood- purgut-k. nikalna, 

V. to shew ; to exhibit a complaint, nalish-k. 
exhibition, izhar, inklshaf, dikhla,ee, numood- 

daree, v. display, pension, exposure, show. 
to exhilarate, khrosh- mugun- bagh bagh- shad-k, 

phoola-d. hcolsana. 
exhilaration, tufreeh, fiirhut, khroshee, hoolas. 
to exhort, nuseehut- Sec. -d. 
exhortation, wu,uz, nuseehut, pund, oopdes^ v. 

advice. 'uixAAof^.yjii 
exhorter, wa,iz, nasih. 
exigence, exigency, exigent, zuroorut, ihtiyaj, tu- 

qaza, mooqtuzu, bheer, khuencli, kushish, 

zughtu, lacharee, v. difficulty, necessity, {dis- 
tress, q. V.) muohim, tungee, shiddut ; accord- 

ingto the exigency, bu-qudr i ihtiyaj, jeta cha- 

exile, V. refuge, (banishment, q. v.) shuhur-bu- 

duree, des tyagee, muhroom, moolk randu, be- 

wutunee, v. to banish, {the person) shuhur-bu- 

to exile, jula wutun-k. 
to be exiled, jula wutun-h. 
io exist, bona, rubna, muojood-h. ustee-r. ast-h. 

lugna, V. beitig, to be, consist, live, 
existence, existency, hustee, ast, wujood, bood, 

zindugee, ustee, bidhan, boodundugee, tu,ue- 

yoon, V. life, 
existent, v. present, bust, muojood, ast, bawu- 

jood, hota, jeeta, v. alive. iJ ;*?»«»■ 

eceit, V. departure, 8jc. tB <99^ 

to exonerate, khalee- hulka-k. nikal-jhar-d, ib- 

ra,e zimmu-k. bojh-ootarna, stobouk bar-k. v. 

to disburden, 
exoneration, khnoloo. 
exorahle, chhemakaree, oozr-puzeer or -shognwa, 

V. placable. 
evorbitance,exorbitancy, foozoolee, ziyadutee, bfir 

nihayutee, v. enormity, 
exorbitant, v. extortion, ziyadu, udhik, be-hudd, 

be-nihayut, be-undazu, be-qiyas, ziyadu tu- 

lub, be-thikana, v. eatravagunf. 
to exorcise, jhania, ootarna, julaiia, phoonkna. 
e.rorcMcr, erorciA'f,du,uwutee,hazratee, ojha, sya- 

na, amil, bhoot beUar, jan, v. conjurer. 
eJwmm,dii,uwut,j,har-phoonk,hazirat, muntur- 

juntur, suefee, {to perform) dum-k. v. to 

exordium, deebaju, kliootbu, v. preface, 
exotic, pur-desee, des a.oree, ujnubee, bi-desee, 

pur-moolkee, v. foreign, 
to expand, v. to enlarge, phuelana, chliitkana, 

biclihana, kholna, pusarna, chuorana, v. to 

widen, khilana, phoolana, bigsana, v. to open, 

also liberal; v. n. pusurna, v. to spread, {an 

ajlower) kliilna, phoolna, shigooftu-h. bigusna. 
expanse, expatuion, phuela,o, bichha,o, sut,h, ^uhn, 

kooshadugee, pusar, pusra,o, phoolawut, v. the 

verb, also extent, space, 
expansive, phoola,oo,'^usra|00, moosutlih. >jr: 
exparte, {evidence) ghuer-hazree, (tujweez), v. 

to expatiate upon, tufseel- tushreeh- tufseer- p,hue» 

la,o-k. burhana, bukhanna, tool tuweel-k. bu- 

yanwar- tufseelwar-kuhna, v. prolix, to dwell, 
to expect, rah-dekhna, intizar- &c. -k. nioontu» 

zir- chushni bu rah-li. bat-nihama, ooUeeluia, 

johna, nigraj}-k. v. to look, janaa, soclma, v. 

to apprehend. ^&na^ tfi 

expectant, expecter, mosntuzir, oommed-war, Bioov 




turussld, mooturuqqib, mootuwuqqu, asrik, as- 

ruet, mooshtaq, v. candidate, 
cvpectation, expectancy, intizar, chushm dasht, 

also, {hope, q. v.) tuwuqqtp, as, turussood, tu- 

ruqqoob, rija, intizaree, chushm, nuzur, asra, 

commed waree, ishtiyaq, v. prospect. 
to expectorate, chhantna, jharna, khunkharna, 

girana, nikalna, v. to spit. ' ,a*t«vnrit 

expectoration, (phlegm) bulghum, kuf, kufshi- 

kunee, khunkhar, chhunta,o, v. the verb, tu- 

nukhnukh, v. evacuation, 
expectorative, bulghum boor, chhunta|0, kuph- 

nasik, mcostukhrij. 
expediency, expedience, wujoob, loozoom, zuroorut, 

Hjaqut, moonasubut, sha.istugee, suzawaree, 

expedient, wajib, zuroor, lazim, moDnasib,, 

unsub, uola, joga, durkhoor, sha|istu, suza- 

war, oochit, theeek, furz, v. proper, {to he) 

chahna, v. to behoove, also necessary, 
expediejit, tudbeer, jlaj, tudarook, charu, O0pa,o, 

V. shift. Tfnd. !•.>!; 

to expedite, {to hasten, q. v.) duorana, juld-k. 
shitabee-k. chumkana, v. to quicken, {to fa- 
cilitate) asan-k. v. to dispatch, 
expedition, {haste, q.v.) juld-bazee, shitab-karee, 
chalakee,choostee,tu,ujeel, qojlut, phoort,(Joi«r- 
ney) sufur ; a military expedition, duor, uzee- 
mut, mcohim, v. adventure, takht, v. invasion, 
{with) ilgharon, v. express, {against injidels) 
jihad, ghuza. 
expeditious, expedite, yAA, shitab, choost, chalak, 

juld-baz, shitab-kar, phoorteela. 
expeditiously, duor a duor, juldee-se. 
to expel, nikal-d. hankna, khuderna, bahu'- door-, 
dufu- kharij- awaru- randu-k. tyagna, mar- 
chulana, v. to excommunicate, gurdunee-d. v. 
to banish, eject. 
to expend, khurj-k. oothana, lugana, tusurroof-k. 

musroof- mubzool- be-baq-k. khugana, ni- 
berna, khupana, lootana, v. to spend; to ex- 
pend profusely, oorana, israf- fcozool khur- 
jee-k. ./ (Stkiyivna 0^ 

to be expended, oothna, lugna, isra£-h. khugna, 
hochookna, khupna, niburna, kutna. 

expender, mootusurrif. 

expenditure, expence, khurj, {pi. ukhrajat) surf^ 
musruf, oothan, buzl, khupa,o, lugut, khuput, 
khugit, kutut, dam, v. charge, tvaste, bur- 
dasht, oochaput, bueyootat, khurchee, v. house- 
hold, {cost, q. V.) mol, v. price. 

expensive, {costly) qeemutee, guran-buha, muhn- 
ga, {extravagant, q. v.) raoosrif, oora,oo, moo- 
buzzir, Iuta,oo, v. prodigal, sungeen, guran, 
damee, zerbar, v. dear, heavy. 

expensively, khurj- &c. -se. 

expensiveness, guranee, foozool-khurjee, ziyadu- 
khurjee, israf. .-(s».vnvs\j.'' 

experience, tujroobu, imtihan, azma,ish, azinbo- 
du-karee, tujroobu-karee, waqif-karee> .kflr- 
d&nee, V. practice. -t ""•ft'.Knf fc'/i-mr.: 

to experience, kusna, imtihan-k. azmoodu-lena, 
purukhna, v. to try, pana, khuenchna, khana, 
V. to suffer, {tojind') dekhna. 

experienced, expert, v. versed, azmoodu-kar, tuj- 
roobu-kar, kar-dan, waqif- or banee-kar, kar- 
azmoodu or purdaz, v. conversant, skilful, {in 
affairs of the world) juhan-deedu. 

experiment, imtihan, tujroobu, azma,ish, puruk,h. 

experimentally, imtihan- &c. -se. 

experimenter, experimental, imtihanee, pmichijiuk, 
V. trial, practical. .^ .v ,e(r':»l 

expert, chalak, choost, phoorteela, khubur-dar, 
chutoora, chuokus, waqif-kar, mahir, pukka, 
pookhtu, syana, suleequ-shi,Hr, v. eleven, 

expertly, hoshiyaree- &c. -se. , w^-wr .» ,V»v^Sm'/> 

expertness, hoshiyaree, khubur-daree, waqif-ka- 
ree, muharut, chutoQra,ee, chuoksaiCe. .7 . 




eatpiable, kufaru-puzeer, chhue-jog. 
to expiate, kufaru- &c. -d. initana, dhona, katnn, 
chhue-k. v. to atone, qonrbanee-d. v. sacrifice, 
expiation, kufaru, goonah-garee, v. atonement, 
expiration, (conchtsion,q.y.) inqi7.a,akhirut,unt, 
V. respiration, hung, neechc ka dum, v. inspi- 
ration, dumi wapuseen, nuzii, oordli, v. death. 

to expire, (to breathe out) dum-chhorna, dura- 
chhootna, (to die, q. v.) duin-nikulna, jata- 
ruhna, unt- fuot-ii. murna, dum-tootna, v. to 
end, (to perish) ruu.udoom- nest-h. mitua, (to 
terminate, q. v.) akhir-li. gooj.urna, moonqu- 

to explain, explicate, butlana, sumjhana, buyan-, 
zahir-k. kuh-soonana, soojhana, boojhana, ju- 
tana, mu,unee- &c.-kuhna,v. rm'aning,\\\o\na, 
sooljliana, inushrooh- moojulla-k. v. to solve, 

explainer, sharih, moofusslr, bukta, kashif, kush- 
shaf, phankeekar-ee, suinjha,oo, v. solver. 

explanation, explication, buyan, tufscel, shurul:, 
tuqreer, burnun, bistar, tushreeh, bixyhbooj- 
ha,o, sumjhuotee, inkishaf, tiluk, bitha, phan- 
kee,v. account, interpretation,svSa^ee,m\irmyf- 
wul, iTiilap joolap, v. construction, description, 

explanatory, buyanec, buyan-war, shuruh-war, 
tufseelee, mooshurrih. 

expletive, pudpooruk, pmr-koon, tukiyu-kulam, 

explicable, sooljha.oo, khrolun-jog, hull-puzcer. 

explicit, khoola, saf, sureeh, wa/.ih, zahir. 

explicitly, zahira, surcehun. 

to explode,v. to discard, cora- ootha-d. murdood-k. 
be ruwaj-k. bund-k. v. to abolish, kurukna, 
bhuk-de -ooina or -khana, v. to crack. 

exploit, moohim, joor-ut, kuramut, v. deed, toper- 

to explore, dhoondhna, khojna,chhan-marna, joost 

o joo- tujussoos- tulash-k. ghotu- khoj- tutol- 
marna, to,iya- koo,e men bans-d. v. to sound, 
examine. ' • J  .-j*! -n; 

explosion,\. abolition, dhumuk, tusadoom, dliura- 
ka, awaz, dhandhan, bluiraka, jhuraka, kuruk, 
oora,o, phoophkar, bhuk, v. eruption, farce. 

explosive, oora,i)o, &c. phoophkarec. 

export, irsal, inursoolu, (pi.) mursoolat, v. to 

to export, ladna, blmrtce- nikasee-k. lojaua, bhej- 
na, bhurna. 

to be exjiorted, ludna, bhurtee-h. 

exports, exportation, nikasee, bhurtee, ruftunee, 
buramud, v. the verb. 

to erpose, (publish, q. v.) sliayii- fash- aslikara-, 
burmula-k. izliar-ifsha, purdu durce-k. pri- 
kash-k. V. toevhibit, (to cast out) clahia, clihor- 
na, (to put in danger) khurke men-(l. khutre 
uien-d. (to lay open) khohia, oogharna, (to 
make contemptible) bud nam- rooswa- fuzee- 
hut-k. V. to censure, disgrace, dikhana, v. to 
display, (to throw) jjionkna, phenkna, hoolna, 
V. to leave, drive, letarna, puchharna, v. to con- 

crposition, erpositor, mu.unoe-nooiTia or-purdaz, 
urthik, V. commentator, interpreter, explanation, 
explainer, exposure. 

to expostulate, gooft o shineed- hoojjut-k. dookha- 
kc bolna, v. to remonstrate, kuha kuhee-k. 
V. to wrangle. 

expostulation, groft o shineed, rudd-budul, tuk- 

rar, juwab-suwal, kuha-kuhee, judd o kudd, 

choon-chura, koon-kaii, (charge) gilu, shik- 

wu, shikayut, oolahna, hoojjut, nuktora, sur- 

zunish, ah o zarco, v. altercation, discussion, 


expostulator, shikwu-mund, gilu-goozar, shakec. 

exposure, (disclosure) izhar, ifsha, purdu-duree, 

tushheer, v. pillory, dikhawut, dikha,o, oogh- 

E E 




ra,o, V. fhe verb, jhonka,o, v. danger, situa- 

to expound, buyan- &c. -k. v. to explain. 

expounder, v. explainer. 

express, adj. (apparent, ({.v.) ashkara, saf, khoola, 
V. indubitable, {particular) natiq ; an express 
order, h(xikm i natiq. 

ea!press, (messenger, q. v.) pa,ek, puek, duoraha, 
sandnee suwar, {to go, come, 8ec.) ilgharon, 
ilghar, duor a duor, bhagabliag, bagtor, shub 
a shub, rate rat, raton rat, mara mar, hanka 
hank, {message, q. v.) puegham, v. dispatch ,• 
to come express, ilghar- &c. -a. 

to express, dulalut-k. puta- nishan-d. butlana, za- 
hir-k. oocharna, vJo remark, pronounce,dal-k. 
V. to represent, {to utter, q. v.) uda-k. zikr-k. 
{to squeeze out) nichor-lena, nikalna, pelna, 
V. to denote, paint. 

expressed, muzkoor, mulfooz, bariz, zahir, v. 
clear, {juice) qosaru, nichor, ufshoordu, v. 

e??pressifc/e,oocharunjog,uda-puzeer,qabil buyan, 
V. utter able, nichorne-jog, v. the verb. 

expression, tuluffcoz, lufz, bat, sookhun, kulimu, 
quol, uda, oochar, nootq, bol, bolee, buchun, 
shubd, Ijurf, v. speech, phrase, {squeezing) ni- 
chor, pela.o, pela,ee,v. the verb, also utterance. 

expressive, dal, sudrus, sancha, \. picture, bolta, 
chetuona, muteen, mu,unee-nooma, poar mut- 
lub, V. pithy, forcible, {as a countenance) num- 
keen, muleeh, sulona, sa,oiJa sulona, v. charm- 

mulahut, v. aniinatio7i. 

expressly, takeed- tuqueyud-se, takeedun, suree- 
hiin, qusdun,udbudake,v. purposely,he luga,o, 
V. plainly, ek dum, v. directly, express. 

expulsion, ikhraj, dufuyu, tyagta, jhura,o, nikaJ, 

V. to discharge, be dukhlee, v. ejection, also to 

expulsive, tyagik, dafi, moostukhrij, mcotudafi. 

to expunge, chheelna, mitana, katna, qulum-mar- 
na, hukk- muhoo-k. v. to obliterate. 

exquisite, bihtur, uch-chha, pakeezu, nufees, na- 
dir, kamil,v.eTceZZew^,ziyad,shudeed, V. severe. 

exquisitely, nufasut- &c. -se, v. extremely. 

exquisiteness, nufasut, lutafut, toohfugee, pakee- 
zugce, ziyadutee, shiddut, v. violence. 

extant, baqee, muojood. 

extatic, sur-khonsh, wujdanu, v. ecstacy. 

extemporary, extemporal, ekaek, fil-fuor, fuorun, 
fil-budeehu, naguhanee, yoonhee, be-pryas, be- 
sakhtu, be-tu,ummool, v. prompt, thought, rea- 

to speak extemporary, fil budeehu-kuhna. 

to extend, v. a. bichhana, puhoncliana, v. to 
spread, widen, {to stretch out) pusarna, lum- 
bana, {to stretch) kheenchna, tanna, {to ex- 
pand, q. V.) kooshadu-k. burhana, ziyadu-k., 
V. to amplify, {to lengthen, q.v.) liiinba- moom- 
tud-k ; to extend, {one''s thoughts, &c.) duor- 
ana, chulana, v. to continue; v. n. {to reach) 
pulioonchna, jana. 

extension,exte7isii'eness, extent, phuela,o, koosha- 
dugee,, furakhee, durazee, tool, lum- 
ba,ee, bistar, imtidad, mudd, tutweel, v. elon- 
gation,, pusar, pusra.o, v. the verb,. 
also bulk, capaciousness, capacity, space. 

extetisive,extended,kcosha.du, puhna-wur, chuora; 
chukla, lumba, bura, ureez, tuweel, v. large, 
capacious, luqduq, bistaree, phuela,oo, moom- 
tud, mokla, v. lo?ig, spacious. 

extendible, phuelane- &c, -jog, pusrunliar, &c. 

to extenuate, {lessen, q. v.) kura- mookhuffuf-k. 
tukhfeef-k. {to rarify) putla- ruqeeq-k. 




extmmatimi, ghuta,o, ghuttee, kuaitee, tuqleel, v. 
mitigation, waste. 

exterior, badiiree, beroonee, kharijee ; exterior 
causes, usbab i kharijee, v. ewternal. 

ioeivterminate, ookharna, ootha-d. mita-d. or -d. 
nikal-d. or -d. isteesal- nirmool-k. bebekh o 
booniyad-k. oopama, jur-katna, nifii dufu-k. 
V. to eradicate. 

extermi'nntioii, ookhar-puchhar, mitao, isteesal, 
bekh-kunee, be-booniyadee, oopar, ookhra,o, 
&c. V. the verb. 

exterminator, bekh-kun, ookharoo, jur katoo, sut- 
tyanasik, nirmoolee, v. destroyer. • v*i:»^-'/ 

external, sooree, zahiree,pritich,li, prugut,v. om/- 
ward; an c-vtemal object, rauhsoos, fil-kharij ; 
external appearance, soorut i zahiree, v. exte- 

externalhj, zahirnn. "■'. >*ii^ •,■}«' ■«!'! 

extinct, tumam, akhir, mconqutu, imi,adDDiT), 
rauoqoof, nest, moontuhee, gha,ib, gcom, tuh- 
leel, binasee, qutu nusl, gulit, {to he) mur-bi- 
lana, mur-puchna, gul-j. t. to annihilate, also 

to be extinct, ooth-jana, nest-h. v. to extinguish. 

extinction, extinguishment, akhirut, inqita,u, unt, 
nas, binas, udum, funa, (of fire, &c.) booj- 
ha,o, itfa. 

to extinguish, boojhana, thundha- gool- moontu- 
fee- bura- khamoosh-k. burhana, bootana, 
puchana, niarna, furo-k. dubana, mitana, v. 
to obliterate, suppress, bhnolana, v. to forget, 
(to destroy) ootha-d. muoqoof-k. v. extinct. 

extinguisher, gool-geer, gool-turash, v. snnffers. 

to extirpate, ookharna, ootha-d. or -d. khod-bu- 
hana, jur-khodna, bekh kunee-k. v. to exter- 

ewtirpatioTi, isteesal, bekh-kunee, v. extermina- 

extirpator, bekh-kun, v. exterminator. 

to rvtol, surahna, tu,ureef -suna- tuo^r- humd-, 
sita.ish- khnosbnam- ustoot- bukhan-k. bur- 

extolled, sutoodu. 

extoller, muddah, suna-khwan. 

to extort, V. to wrinfr, nichor- kheench- chheen-, 
uenth- buzor- leiia- pel- choo&-lena, le-lena, 
ziyadutee- &c. -k. v. to force. 

crtortion, nichor, kheench, dust-durazee, sukht- 
geeree, ziyadu-tulubee, ziyadutee, ghubn, loot, 
ghudur, ghusb, undher, tughuUoobee, v. op- 

e.vtorfioner, extorter, zalim, dust-duraz, sukht- 
geer, be-eeman, situm-gur, jabir, ghuddar, 
nichoroo, v. evacter. 

extract, v. essence, khooUus, khoolasu, heer, chee- 
du, mughz, gooda, beej, nubh, v. pith, kat, 
istimbat, v. epitome, {abstract, q. v.) moon- 
tukhub, sararth, v. compendium. 

to extract, kheenchna, istikhraj-k. ookhhama, 
nikalna, v. to pull, nichorna, v. to draw, suck, 
{to abstract) cbhantna, choonna, intikhab-k. 

extraction, khicha.o, istikhraj, ishtiqaq, niksar, 
ookhra.o, V. the verb, kool, nizhad, jutara, 
bekh booniyad, v. birth, race, {noble) usalut, 
nujabut, kcoleenta, v. family, {lineage, q. t.) 
usl, zat, jins, buns, v. descent. 

extraneous, beganu, ujnubee, oopuree, puray«, 
bahuree, ziyadu, be-jlaqu, be-luga,o, v. uncon- 
nected, stcperjluous. 

extraordinarily, ujeeb turuh-se, unoothee turuh-se. 

extraordinary, unootha, oobeedha, nirala, uchum- 
bha, zor, ujeeb, la-sanee, nadir, tumasha, r. 

extravagance, cxtravancy, extravagantness, ziya- 
dutee,, foozoolee, be-undazugee, foo- 
zool-khurjee, israf, zurpash-ee, wur khurchee, 
mud gulit, bit bahuree, ghooloo, moobalighu, 
Ek 2 




V. bombast eccentricity, {violence, q. v.) ishti- 

dad, ghulbu, wulwulu, bul, v. irregularity, 
extravagant, v. expensive, {prodigal, q. v.) fcoz- 

ool-khurj, oora,oo, gunj-bukhsh, shuh-khurch, 

wur-khurch, bit-bahura, chuor-chuoput, v. 

profuse, bud-wuzu, bud-tureeq, ghalee, v. pro- 
JUgate, wild, (immoderate) foozool, ghuer-waji- 

bee, be-muoqu, be-ja, v. irregular, 
extravagantly, fojzoole- &c. -se. 
extravasated, (to be) juni jana, ooturna, v. to exude, 
extravasation, juma,o, ootar, sulsulahut. 
extreme, (last) akhiree, (great) bura, ziyadu, bu- 

hoot, shudeed, ushud, utumra, uti-unt, be-thi- 

kana, v. pressing, utmost, 
extremely, nihayut, bu-shiddut, be-hudd, niput, 

bu-durju i utumm. 
extremity, (extreme end) akhir, akhirut, unjam, 

tiimamee, intiha, nihayut, hudd, payan, unt, 

clihor, nok, kinaru, sur-hudd, akhiree, nuobut, 

V. height, suket, v. despair, (to he in) qafiyu 

tung-h. nak men dum-a. (to come to) bat- 

burhna, (distress) na-charee, be-muqdooree, 

ajizee, tungee ; reduced to extremity, na-char, 

be-miiqdoor, ajiz, v. rigour. 
to extricate, chhorana, azad- khulas- riha-k. sool- 

jhana, nikalna, buchana, kholna, v. to relieve, 

extrinsic, extrinsical, zahii'ee, sooree, arizee. 
extrinsically, zahira. 
exuberance, hushoo, foozoolee, ifrat, kusrut, ud- 

hika,ee, sursa,ee, burhtee, lubrezee, firawanee, 

V. abundafice, knob, 
exuberant, ziyadu, kuseer, udhik, surus, buhoot, 

firawan mcolubbub, fa,iz, lubrez, be-huya, v. 

luxuriant, rank, superjluous, 
exuberantly, ziyadutee- &c. -se. 
extidation, risa,o, pusyo. 
to exude, v. n. risna, nikulna, rusiyana, sulsula- 

na, V. to ooze. 

to exulcerate, katna, gba,o-k, v. to corrode, jularia, 

khana, v. anguish, &c. 
to exult, hoolusna, bilusna, bihusna, ruhusna, 
phool-jana, mugun- khoosh- muhzooz- moom- 
busit- kooshadu roo-h. phoolon nu sumana, 
khoosh hal- khrosh wuqt-h. v. to triumph, 
exultation, hoolas, bilas, khmshee, bushashut, im- 
bisat, oomung, v. gladness, rejoicing. 

exuvice, kenchliyan, sing, kenchlee or kenchool. 

eye, ankh, chushm, deedu, nuen, chukh, netr, 
lien, niiyun, kutach, lochun, drig, v. to ogle, 
(of roots) ankh, v. bud, (of the wind) moonh, 
(loop) moondhee, (diseases of) nakhoonu, pu- 
roo,a, V. sty, (sight, q. v.) deetli, nigah, drisht, 
tubussoor, (regard, q. v.) lihaz, v. attention. 

eye, (of a needle) naka, (loop or catch) tookmu ; 
in the twinkling of an eye I shall return, ek pu- 
luk men phir awenge, or toorfut ool uen men 
phir awenge. 

to eye, dekhna, dutna, nigah- nuzur- lihaz-k. . 

eye-ball, dhela, dherhun, dela, hudqu, pootlee, 
murdoomuk, murdoom i chushm, v. pupil. 

eyc-hrow, ubroo, bhuoii, bhirkootee, bhroor; hav- 
iiig the eye-broxos joined, puewustu-ubroo; hav- 
ing them distant, koosliadu-ubroo. 

eye-lash, burnee, mizhi, mizhgan, pupnee, puluk, 
buronee, (disease of) bamunee. t 

eye-less, nir-unkha, be-chushni, na-beena. 

eye-let, rund, chlied, soorakh, luoshun-dan, kha- 
nu, konda, v. hole. 

eye-servant, unkh-cliora, kum-chor. 

eye-sight, beena^ec, jot, v. eye, vision. 

eye-sore, ankh ka kanta, ankh ka khar, khonch, 
V. to offend, also mote. 

to be an eye-sore, ankh men khutukna. 

eye-witness, sakhee, shahid, guwah ; / was an 
et/e-witness, or saw with niy own eyes, bu chushm 
i khmd dekha hue. 




f, has nothing particular in its sound ; it is often 
confounded with p, and p,h ; from which last, 
however, it ought to be carefully distinguish- 
ed ; pji being pronounced as in upjiill, not as 
in phrase. 

fable, (st(yry) qissu, liikayut, nuql, kuhanee, 
kutha, dastan, v. lie. 

to fable, nuql- &c. -k. or -b. qissu- &c. -kuhna. 

fabler, fabulist, naqil, hakee, qissu-go, v. story- 
teller. ■.'•>!.: .'-vsirtv (••;\A',-^sy 

fabric, imarut, v. edifice. 

fabrication, bunawut, tu,iimeer, sakht, kurnee, 
krit, V. composition, &c. 

to fabricate, fabric, bunana, oothana, tu,umeer-k. 
bandhna, jorna, v. to build. 

fabulous, wuhmee, jhootha, v. fable. 

face, {visage) moonh, niookhra, mookh, chihru, 
rookh, roo, anun, luqa, kiyafu, rookhsar, oozar, 
ariz, asi,u, budun, v. countenance, {appearance) 
soorut, puekur, munzur, {front) ugwara, aga, 
pesh, (assurance) shokhce ; the face of the 
earth, roo,c zumeen, sut.h i zumeen ; before 
his face, ooske rooburoo, ojske samne, ooske 
moonh pur, coske hoozoor ; face to face, roo 
bu roo, bilmuwajuhu, moonha moonh, char 
chushm, amne samne, v. opposite, also tojront, 
to face, {turn about) moonh-pherna, {to front) 
doobudoo- samne- mooqabil-h. sunmookh-h. 
V. against, {an instrument) moonh-churhana 
or -d. V. to coat, {to cover, q. v.) tuh-jumana. 


V. to insult ; to make wry faces, moonh- »r 
mookhra terha-k. v. to mock ; to aim or strike 
at the face only, moonhee moonh-marna. 

facetious, (persons) thuthe-baz, thuthol, khcosh- 
tubu, luteefu-go, zureef, zindu-dil, hunsor, 
sheereen tubu, shokh, khmshgup, v. merry, 
witty, (sentiment) rindanu, zureefanu, zura- 

facetiously, zurafut- &c. -se. 

facetioiisness, khrosh-tubu,ce, zurafut, thutheba- 
zce, hunsor-pun. 

facile, asan, suhl, suhuj, v. easy. 

to facilitate, asan- &c. -k. 

facility, asanee, asaniyut, suhooliyut, (softness) 
moola.imut, nurmec, hilm, (affability) khoolq, 
insaniyut, (readiness) muliku. 

facing, qor, hashiyu, to,ee, v. edf^ing, front, tuh, 
chlial, juma,o, liwar, v. to plaster. 

fact, V. case, huqeequt, usi, (deed) kam, kar, 
fi,ul, umr, hurkut, kurtub, suchuotee, huqq, 
mahiyut, mool, sut, v. truth, mutlub, bat, 
kuefiyut, v. matter, (pi.) kuwa,if, huqa,iq, 
mahiyat, v. reality; in fact, fil-huqeequt, hu- 
qeequtim, ghurz, nufs ool umr, fi]-waqu,u, jut- 
harth, V. indeed ; the fact is this, usl yoon- 
hee hue. 

faction, ittifaq, v. confederacy, fusad, fitnu, v. 
discord, (tumult) hungamu, bulwa, ghudr, 

factious, bukheriya,, fitooriya, fitnu-un-. 
gez, fusadee, moofturee, moofsid. 




Jrtctiousness, fitnu-ungezee, moofsidee. 

factitious, iimulee, tuqleedee, musnoo,ee, sakhtu, 

factor, gromashtu, kar-purdaz, kar-goozar, kar- 
koon, pesli-kar, karindu, deewan, kurta, kam- 
kajee, moodh, v. broker, agent. 

factory, kothee, kar-khanu. 

factotum, hur-babee, buhoogoona, hur-karu ; the 
last is now restricted to runnitig footmen or 
spies, &c. q. V. 

faculty, {ability, q. v.) qoowwut, qcodrut, sliukt, 
iqtidar, isti,udad, boota, (capacity) wuqoof, 
, 8hu,oor, uql, dana,ee, boojh, boodh, fuhm, sulee- 
qu, sooghra,ee, v. talent, dexterity, (qualify) 
khuwas, taseer, gosn, soobha,o, v. efficacy; the 
faculty of speaking, qoowwut i natiqu, v. hear- 
ing, &c. 

to fade, (wither) koomlana, jhoorana, jhoorna, 
khooshk-h. sookhna, moozmuhil-h. (to lan- 
guish) natuwan- nuqeeh- doobla- doorbul-h. 
{as colours, &c.) oodas- pheeka-hojana, ootur- 
-j. thus; cos ka rung ootur guy a, his complex- 
ion has faded; (to vanish) oor-jana, jata-ruhna, 
za,il-h, V, to waste. 

faded, (as colours, &c.) mand, hulka, seetha, 
roorha, v. the verb. 

J'c£ces,faRCula, (settlings) turchhut, doord, seethee, 
foozlu, V. dregs, jumawut, injimad, v. sediment, 
(excrement) buraz, ala.ish, y. filth, 
a fag, tuhloO|a, pesh-dust, v. slave. 

to fag, V. n. raandu-h. thukna ; v. a. mandu-k. 
t^ukana, tuhul-k. duor dhoop-k. v. to toil, 
duorana, thuosana, v. to harass. 

fagend, ootar, v. refuse. 

fagot, antee, bhar, bulhee, v. bundle, kaghuzee 

sipaliee, v. soldier. 
to fagot, untiyana. 

fail, failure, fcumtee, kumee, kotahee, tuqleel, 

qillut, na-daree, v. deficiency, bankrupt, (extinc- 
tion) inqita|U, nestee, \. failing. 

to fail, V. n. (be deficient) kum- naqis- kasir-h. 
V. to break, to fall, thuosna, tootna, bueth-j. 
deegna, ruh-j. suthiyana, boodhiyana, v. to de- 
cline, harna, bhoolna, v. to lose, hutna, ootur- 
na, murna, v. to droop, cease, (to perish) moon- 
qutn- muoqoof- mu,vidoom-h. ootlina, jata- 
rulina, (to decay) ghutna, dhulna, (to imss) 
chookna, khuta- qoosoor- chook-k. v. to fade, 
flinch ; v. a. (to forsake) clihonia, dal-d. v. to 
neglect, omit; wiilioutjliil, u-chook, be kum o 
kast, be-qoosoor, v. certainly. 

failing, (omission) khuta, qoosoor, chook, tuqseer, 
nooqsan, ueb, dokh. 

fain, (to be) inun-chahna, mun- jee- or dil- men 
ana, v. to wish, also glad. 

faint, (feeble) zu,eef, natuwan, nirbnl, doorbul, 
mandu, v. weak, moo,a, moordu, ruboodu, hu- 
lak, V. faded, undlila, v. dim, mcarchuha, v. 
to faint, (dejected) oodas, dil-geer, ufsoordu, 
(relaxed) soost, dheela, (not bright) pheeka, 
oodas, mand, (not loud) dheema, v. Imc. 

to faint, zoo,uf- &c. -ana, moorchhana, tyorana, 
gbushee- ghot- or moh-men-ana, ankhon men- 
undheree-ana, girpuina, jee-doobim (»• jiikul- 
na, V. to swoon, sink, fade. *'(,(f, ti f^e -•^■^■»'\ 

faint-hearted, booz-dil, boda, kucha-dil, kham- 
dil, mcordu-dil, mun-muroo, moordunee, v. 
dead, coward. 

faint-heartedness, booz-dilee, na-murdee, joobn, 

fainting, ghush, ghushiyan, zoo,uf, tanwur, foe- 

faintly, ahiste, dheeme, soostee- &c. -se, v. lightly. 

faintness, zoo,uf, nuqahut, na-tuwanee, na-qooWt- 
wutee, kum-zoree, mandugee, doorbulta, dil- 
geeree, soostee, v. fainting, lownese. 

fair, (handsome) shukeel, subeeh, huseen, aoo- 




roop, {white) gora, scnrkh o sufed, guorang, 
chitta, gml-roG, v. Jhrid, (as tcealher) sookha, 
{interval of ) ruggee, {as water) pursust, oojla, 
V. whitSy {as wind) seedha, v. favoiirah/e, {as 
hair) bhoora, kucl, v. light, wajibee, mu,iiqool, 
theek, v. rigfit, lawful., justs {and square) saf 
be-baq, v. even, {clear) saf, kiijla, nirmul, {ex- 
cellent) soondur, {not cloudy) phurchha,kha3la, 
khoosh, v.fine, {prosperous) v(\qotb.A, minwafiq; 
a fair wind, bad i inoorad, {jnst, honest) rast, 
adil, moonsif, ecman-dar,, v. equitable, 
{apparent) zahir, numood, {mild) moola.ini, 
nurm ; fair words, meethee baton ; n fair 
character, nek-nain ; fair plat/, i-ast-bazee, 

fair, adv. ahiste, buole, mrola,imut- dheeruj-se, 
V. civilly; to keep fair with people, rah-rukhna, 
rast-ruhna, buna,o-r. v. to agree. 

fair, {market) mela, penth, {meeting) scohbut, 
nihan, teeruth, chhetr, eprs, {for cattle, Stc.) 
nukhas, v. market. 

a fair one, khoob-soorut, khoob-roo, mah-roo, 
V. beloved, mistress, gool-budun, shumu-roo, 
puree-roo, v. heatUy, also sex, 

fairing, pursad, tuburrrok, v. present. 

Jairly, rastee- insai- sufa,ee-se, v. candidly, com- 

foAmesa, {handsomeness) khoob-soortee, hoosn, 
{whiteness) soorkh-sufedee, gora,ee, v. the adj. 
also, candour, propriety, {clearness) shuffafee, 
sufa,ee, nirmulta, {e.vcellenve), pak- 
eezugee, Y)hnrc\ihn.^ee,{prosperonsness) moowa- 
fuqut, {justness) rastee, rast-bazee, udl, insaf, 
nya.o,, {apparentness) zoohoor, num- 
oodaree {mildness) nunnee, mrolaimut. 

fairspiiken, sliecreen zuban, khmsh-go, mith- 
bola, but-buna, churb-zuban, v. plausible. 

fairy, puree, puree-zad, ubchhura, niunjoo, soo- 

kesee, ghoklia, {queen of) tilotuma, {stone} so- 
bun nudee ka puthur. 

faith, eeman, dhurum, i,utiqad, uqeedu, {tnt^) 
bhurosa, i.iitimad, nischne, putiyara, v. beU«f 
punth, puth, V. pcrsttasion, .iect, {religion) mil- 
lut, deen, mu/.liub, {conjidenre in God) ukas- 
birt, tuwukkool, {honesty) sut, sidq, {fidelity}. 
wufa, {promise) qurar, quel, bacha; the Mia- 
sulman faith, islam. 

faithful, eeman-dar, deen-dar, dhurmee, diyan- 
ut-dar, mootudueyun, wufa-dar, nuniuk-hulal, 
V. true, mootee,u, v. constant, mroniwwutee, 
V. attached, obedient, {as a translation) seedha, 
saf, kamil, poora, v. literal, {honest) suchoha, 
khura, sadiq, v. sitwere; the faithful, uhli. is- 
lam, mooslimeen, {sing, mooslim (wmoosuJmjm) 
moomineen, {si7ig. moomin). 

faithfully, diyanut- &c. -se. 

faithfulness, eeman-daree, diyanut-daree, wuffu 
daree, numuk-hulalee,,, su- 
daqut, V. honesty. 

faithless, be-eeman, bud-diyanut, be-^mfa, nu- 
muk-huram, udhurmee,, jhootha, ka- 
zib, V. infidel, eeman sokhtu, wufa beganu, 
be-mooruwwut, be-quol, siyab-chushm, -bud- 
iihd, be-qurar, v. treacherous. 

faithlessness, be-eemanee, be-wufa,ee, bud-diya- 
nutee, numuk-huramec, udhurm, koofr, khi- 
yanut, kizb. " 

falchion, oona, tegha, tulwar. 

falcon, shaheen, {hen) baz, shuh-baz, {coek) 
jcorra, v. hawk. 

falconer, baz-dar. 

falconry, baz-daree. 

faldage, buthan, niha,ee, v. fr^d. 

fall, sojqoot, putkun, puchhar, chot, v. tumhU'y 
{of rain) jhuree, tuqatoor, v. flood, shonwr, 
{violence ofafaH) jhok, {death) murg, hula- 
kee, (««■«■) ghanitee, suttyanasee, {downfaJ) 




tunuzzcnl, {diminution) zuwal, ghutee, (ca- 
dence) ootar, dhal, (cascade) jhurna, ab-shar, 
(autumn) khizan, put-jliur; to break the fall of 
' any thing, jhok-buchana ; to get a fall, gir- 
. purna, v. to bruise, fall; to give one a fall, 
to fall, girna, purna, gir-purna, dhulna, jhookna, 
. chhootna, puchhurna, loorhukna, dhoolukna, 
khisukna, dhoolna, puchhar-khana, v. to tum- 
ble, drop, rain, khurukna, ohurna, v. to ebb, 
murna, kutna, buhna, doobna, tulput- cliuo- 
put-h. buesukna, buethana, v. to perish, (in 
battle) thuor-ruhna, (be rejected) mutrook- be- 
man-h. v. to decline, (iji love) ankh-utukna or 
-lugna, V. to admire, (to enter) jana, so-jana, 
to fall asleep, (to he found) niilna, ana, v. to 
get, (to set about) duorna, v. to haste, handle, 
(into the clutches of) chudde men-a. v. power, 
. (to he shed) jhurna, khusna, (to join, as a river) 
milna, (to apostatise) moortud-h. phir-j. (to be 
slain) joojhna, kam-ana, khet-ruhna, (to be de- 
graded) rooswa- fuzeehut- khufeef-h. (to be 
overthrown) tuluf- pa,emal-h. (to subside, de- 
crease) kum-h. ghutna, ooturna, buethna, pur- 
jana, pust-h. phish phishana, (to begin) lugna, 
shooroo,u-k. [thus, wcoh rone luga hue, he fell 
a crying^ (to happen) apurna, ajana, bona, na- 
zil- waqi- sadir-h. (to come) ana, (to become 
the property of) puhoonchna, (to proceed or fall 
from a person) nikulna, (to be born) pueda-h. 
(to fall on) churh-buethna, v. to attack, com- 
mence; to fall away, or off, soukhna, oodurna, 
tootna, lutna, puchukna, putukna, oopurna, 
V. to decay, waste, (grow lean) gul-jana, doo- 
bla- laghur-h. v. to fade, depress; to fall back, 
V. to retire, peechhe-dubna, puspa-h. v. retro- 
grade ; to fall behind, toot-ruhna. The reader 
is referred to those simple words, in this vo- 
lume, which are synonimous with the innu- 

merable compounds formed from this verb. 
He may also consult Vol. II. under purna, 
girna, ooturna, &c. 

fallacious, jhootha, mukr-amez, v. false. 

fallaciously, mukr- &c. -se. 

fallacy, jhooth, dhokha, kizb, mukr, mooghaltu, 
ghulut, fee, lupet, v. falsehood, error, sophism, 

fallible, v. erroi; chookne-jog, nisiyan- &c. -pu- 
zeer, moomkin oos-suhoo, chookwuya, mookh- 
tee, \. frail. 

falling-sickness, mirgee, suni. 

falloWy (ground) bunjur, ooftadu, be-turuddood, 
pura, mcD,uttul, khalee, purtee, puh purtee, 
unmath, purteet. 
to fallow, parna, v. vacant. 

false, jhootha, kazib, batil, moozuwwir, na-rast, 
V. liar, khota, dughuoliya, lappa, \. perfidious, 
usutee, v. the noun, (as coin) kurra, v. Jicti- 
tious, (in comp.) kuth, kucha, whence kuth- 
mala, false beads, kuth-rona, to weep crocodile 
tears, (bad, as language) be-rubt, naqis, naka-. 
ra, (dishonest) kha,in, udhurmee, (treacherous) 
numuk-huram, be-wufa, (counterfeit) tuqlee- 
dee, libasee, (hypocritical) riya-kar, mukkar. 

false-hearted, bud-batin, bud-nihad, bud-zat. 

falsehood, falseness, falsity , Tjhooih, Ahdkha, du- 
rogh, heelu, mukr, zoor, tulbees, fureb, buha- 
nu, khota,ee, v. the adj. bhugul, kuput, lu- 
pat, usut, dughl-fusl, jhooth-mooth, v. lie, ly- 
ing, also deceit. 

falsely, &c. -se, \. falsehood; to ac- 
cuse falsely, tcchmut- iftira- boohtan- ittiham- 
-k. v. erroneously, 
falsification, tughulloob, sakhtugee, miluonee, 

tuntur, muntur, v. fabrication, forgery, 
falsifier, jhootha, (forger) ma:;qullid,.tughulloo- 

bec. ' 

to falsify, (forge) tughulloobee- &c. -k. v. false. 




(to confute) katna, jhoothalna, riukl- &c. -k. 
(to violate) torna, {to tell lies) jhooth-kuhna. 

fo falter, huklana, Imknut-k. hichkichana, lur- 
biirana, lurkhurana, diigmugana, v. fo fail, 
stagger, {to trcmfj/c) karnpna, tliirthiraiia, v. 
to stammer. 

fnme, nam, ishtihar, hoo, bhuon-wara, nekna- 
mee, v. character, khyat, jus, duiika, tuntuna, 
Iiooha, dliakh, v. celebrity, rumour, re'tiow7i, 

famed, nam-wur, mushlioor, v. famouj^. 

familiar, {affable) VL\\[,h\x\eem,{un-ceremmiious) 
be-tukulloof, khula-mula, mila-joola, {intimate) 
hila,ratn,maloof, manoos,v. acquainted, {tvell- 
knotvn) mu,uroor, mu,uloom, chulta, (orfee, 
amee, rusmee, v. common, plain, dheeth, shokh, 
nidur, V. free, pohra, v. itnpudent, yaibash, v. 
sociable, companion, {spirit) isht, mrowukkil, 
{having one) musanee, {to procure one) musan- 
sadhna. In this operation tlie Bruhmuns go 
through some ceremonies that would hardly 
be credible by those who dote on the fancied 
innocence and purity of the Hindoos, and their 
immaculate pastors, v. magician ; familiar dia- 
logues, ghuroo batcheet, rusmee suwal o juvvab, 
miyanu gooftogoo, (/ajig-aa^e)riwajee, rozmur- 
ru, V. ordinary, {acctcstomcd) humwar, moosa- 
wat, mu,vimool, v. easy ; to he familiar with, 
rubt- &c. -r. ashna,ee khurch-k, mil-chulna, 
hila mila-ruhna, v. to associate ; a familiar, 
{companion) moosahib, hum-nisheen,ashna, yar, 
{demon) bhootna, shuetan. 

familiarity, be-tukulloofee, irtibat, ikhtilat, rubt, 
kliooltu, ittihad, soohbut, mcDsahiibut, qoorb, 
oolfut, cDnsut, eetilaf, qojrbut, nuukhalitut, v. 
intimacy, joot, mel, sungut, milap, oonsiyut, 
sunsurg, raz o niyaz, v. affability, dheetha,ee, 
V. freedom, acquaintance. 

to familiarise, khogur- humwar- adee-k. hilana, 
ram-k. v. to facilitate, tame. 

familiarly, be-tukulloufanu, asanee-se. 

family, ghurana, ghurbar, tubbur, kootcnmbli, 
knornia, rn!g. koonba, khish, khandan, uhl o 
iyal, qubcelu, log bag, suge sodre, uyal-utfal, 
joroo buche, umlu fi,ulu, quba,)l, kusokob, na- 
moos, purwar, puranee, admee, log, buraduree, 
bal buch, lurke bale, musaluh, uhli-buet, v. 
Jujuschold, relations, beej, ghur, v. race, breed, 
eoctraction, tribe, liiwaliiq, wabustu, v. depen- 
dents, zat, quom, koofoo, nusl, v. class. 

famine, quht, kal, ukal, duobhouk, muhngee, gh- 
ranee, drorbhich, ukal dookal, un-dookh, hur- 
sungra, quht salee, v. drought, dearth, scar- 

to famish, v. a. bhook!;on-marna; v. n. faqoii- 

famishment, faqu, oopas, lunghun, v. hunger. 

famous, namee, nam-wur, nam-dar, mushhoor, 
mu.uroof, sir karhe, numood, v._/ame, juswunt, 
numooddar, roodar, shoohrutee, iilum nushur, 
goolbang, V. renowned, noted. 

to he famous, bajna. 

famously, shoohrut- &c. -se, v. fame. 

famoustiess, shoohrut, nam, nam-wuree, namda- 
ree, tu,uroof 

fan, punkha, punkhee, bad-kush, bena, beejna, 
furashee-punkha, mor-punkhee, mugus-ran, 
mor-chhul, chuoiiree, v. brush, {for grain) 
purtee, soop, {for Jire) phooknee, dumee, v. 
bellows, ventilator, wing. 

to fan, punkha-jhulha or -k. v. to shake, move, 
jhulna, jhupukna, dolana, phuhrana, v. to win- 
now, sift, dhuonkna, v. to blow, {flies) chuon- 
ree- &c. -k. mukhee-mama, mugus ranee-k. 
V. to separate, flap, drive. 

fanatic, muotu,ussib, v. mad, mujnoon, khubtu, 

V. tlie noun. 

F F 




fanaticism, tu,ussoob, hurarut i deenee, joonoon, 
suoda, V. enthusiasm. 

fanciful, niootuwuhliim, wuswasee, shukkee, khi- 
yalee, tilisniee, v. whimsical, imaginary, capi'i- 

fancy, khiyal, wuhm, dhyan, tupuwwoor, tuwuh- 
hoom, qiyas, utkul, {taste) suleequ, dhub, duol, 
(inclination) shuoq, chah, muel, (chimera) ti- 
lism, dhoklia, luliur, turung, munmuoj, muoj, 
mirg-trishna, dhoo.a, vvuswusu, v. caprice, con- 
ception, conceit, notion, spectre. 

to fancy, janna, khiyal- &c. -k. boojhna, utkul- 
na, tarna, siitnujhna, dekhna, mu,u]oom- zunn- 
-k. V. to conceive, think, (to like) jee-duoriia, 
chahna, luhriyana, v. to choose. 

fancy-monger, mun-muojee, &c. v. the noun, also 

fancy-sick, v. whim, wuhm-zudii, khulul-duma- 

fane, v. shnne, dewala, muth, v. temple. 

fang, nab, beer, khag, hood, khoochlee, v. tusk, 
mooiih, hath, dhukka, dam, v. clutch, (prong) 
, tungool, V. tooth, nail. 

fanged, khuguela, duntuela, v. toothless. 
' fanner, jhulunhar, v. the verb, chuonree-burdar 
or -wala, v. fan. 

fan-tailed pigeon, luqa. 

fantasm,fantasy,fantorii, khiyal, soorab, wuhm, 
dhokha, numood-be-bood. 

Jantastic,Jh7itasttcal, v. capricious, muskhurana, 
suwangee, bhuncluetee, v. grolesque, odd, fan- 

far, door, bu,eed, door-duraz, door-dust, v. very, 
pur, par ! pulepur, pure, purunt, bahur, furq, 
V. distance, (shooting) pulledar; a far country, 
pur-des, v. foreign ; as far as, dhoor, le, tuk, 
V. to, as, so, &c. ; far and near, door nuzdeek, 
wure pure, v. here ; thus far, eehan tuk ; far 
away, koson pur, [in some feminine expres- 

sions] door par, v. avaunt ; far, is frequently 
omitted in the Hindoostanee, thus, b,hu,ee, kul- 
kutta eehan se keta hoga.'^ friend, how far may 
Kulkulta be hence ? v. hmv, wJiere, (much) bu- 
hoot, ziyadu ; far off, from afar, door-se, v. 
much, distant. 

farce, bliunda,ee, suwang, peklina, v, play, also 
nonsense. ,*U( ,-;j,- «\-'.-/ •, • 

farcy, agin-ba,o, kharish, khoojlee, bursrftee, v. 

fare, (passage-money) ootra,ee, bhara, kiraya, 
khewa,ee, mulahee, newul, v. passage, ujooru, 
kuharee, moaqurruree, kuoree, v. hire, (food) 
khana, ukl, khorish, jeeka, tookra-tera, chut 
nee, chuhul puhul, v. cheer. 

to fare, (to go) chulna, (to be) hona, goozurna, 
goozuran- mu,ceshut-k. tikna, ruhna, nibhna, 
jeena, bitna, kutna, kliana peena, v. to live, 
do, &EC. 

farewell, ulwida,!!, khooda-hafiz, ullah-belee, v. 
adiezt, jeete- anund- &c. -ruho, v. happy, su- 
1am, khojsh-a, chirinjee, prinam, ramram, nu- 
miskar, dunduwut, v. good, (prese7it) bida,ee, 
rcukhsutanu, v. departure, (leave) rcukhsut, vvi- 
da,vi; to take farewell, rookhsut-lena, wida,u-, 
moorukhkhus-h. chhorna. «»e isnaym. 

far-fetclied, (simile, &c.) bu,ccd-ool-fuhm, v.Jbr- 
eign, door-ka, door-desee, v. remote; to use far- 
fetched expressions, chootur se kan ganthna. 

farina, (of flowers) ata, purag, dhool, \. flour, 

farinaceous, bhoas bhoosa, dane-dar. 

farm, chuk, muzru, qutu,u, har, jot, nijjot, seer, 
chas, khet, kasht, gaiiw, puttee, khood-kasht, 
V. land, tu,ullooqu, ijani, theeka, tu,uJihcDd, 
turuf, V. contract, cultivation, muhal, v. depart- 
ment, (fm'med into a) chukbustu, (lease, q. v.) 
chuknamu, (a manor) zumeendaree. 

to farm, (to let a farm) puta^e pur- mungut pur- 




dena, ijaru-d, v. to rent, also Vol. II. under 

fiirnter, kisan, usamee, niilkee, [also the propri- 
etor of ground] zunieen-dar, v. InndhMer, 
cliuodjuiree, chuk-dar, piutee-dar, thceke-dar,, mootu,uhlud, turuf-dar, v. renter, 
muhul-dar, amil, umul-dar, v. intendant, (eulli- 
vafor, q. v.) chas-ee or -a. jotihur, jctoo, gir- 
hist, rU|iieyut, v, subject, husbandman, peasant ; 
a fanner, or contractor, of a counlri/, nifcstajir, 
ijaru-dar, tu,ullooqu-dar. 

farness, dooree, boo,ud, v. distance. 

farrffffo, mujmoo,u, todu, puchmel, kuseer col 
ujzu, V. medley. 

farner, nu,nlbund, {horse doctor) salotur-ee, sa- 

listree, buetar. 
rt farrow, jhol. 

to farrow, byana, junna. 

farsptmt, (Jo he, as day) cbuiliiia, v. to spend. 

fart, pad, phooskee, goz, hudus, thooskeo, buwa, 
upsubd ; a farting fellow, pudora. 

to fart, padna, pad- &c. -marna, huwa-chhorna, 
thoosukna, phoosiikna, ba,o-surna. 

farter, farting, pudna, piidukkur, padoo, upsub- 
dee, goz-kar. -•- «•, ^ > 

further, doortiir, uor-door, age, {moreover) ula- 
wu, oopur is ke, {another) ek-uor, v. more, 
far, pure, burliko, v. on, sathee, v. besides. 

to farther, pcwshtec- tuqwiyut-d. v. to promote. 

farthest, sub se-door, v. utmost, sub se-pure or 
-bahur, puela, v. farther. 

farthing, udh.ela, dookra, flhibvva,'j2?;//, {fig.) 
kanee- or phootee-kuoree, duniree; a farth- 
ing's worth, ek kuoree ka. 

to fascinate, jadoo- Sec. -k. or -d. fureftu- muf- 
toon-k. muntoor-chulana. 

fascinated, chushm- or nuiur-zudu, sheflu, mara, 
V. to bewitclL, eneliant. 

fascinating, {eyes) jadoo-cliuslim, v. charming. 

fascination, ufsoon, jadoo, tona, muntunr, lutka, 
(Ihithbund, beer-ban, choree, nu7.urbundee, v. 

fashion, {form) duel, shukl, turkeeb, oosloob, 
{manner) tuor, tiireeej, rah, {cut of clothes) tu- 
rash, qutu, tuqtee,ii, chhant, byont, {custom) 
dustoor, rivviij, a,een, chulun, chal-dhal, v. 
mode, kusrut, ra,ij ool wuqt, v. usage, {rank) 
shan, shurafut, nujabut, v. rule. 

tofishion, bunana, gurhna, dhalna, v. to mould, 
{to fit) theek- humwar- burabur- mcMwafiq-k. 
V. to form. 

fashionable, {customary) ra.ij, mroruwwij, chul- 
unee, am, riwajce, rusumee, v. common, {gen- 
teel) ushraf, nujeeb. 

fast, subs, rozu, .suom, burt, oopas, lunghun, 
kuraka, ghoorru, bhookh, cheehna, v. fasting, 
also hunger. 

fast, {firm) muzboot, qa,iiti, moostuhkum, mooh- 
kum, costuwar, porha, {fi.ied) utul, puikhtu, 
uchul, Vw strong, khura, v. erect, {deep) bha- 
ree, koomkurnee, sungeen, v. sound, jukra, 
kusa, bund, tung, v. tight, {tied) bundha. 

fast, adv. {firmly) muzbootee- 5:c. -se, {?iear) 
pas, puros, nuzdeek, qurecb, {swiff) juldee, 
juld, shitabee, toorunt, te/, v. quick, deceitful, 
hard, kuske, jukurkc, gulike, v. the verb, zor- 
&c. -se, \. force, strongly; fast by, lug-bhug, 
V. close; as fast as, jyoii jyon, jue-ber, jub- 
jub, V. whenever; to stick fast, lug- sut-buetji- 
na, V. to adhere. 

to fast, {religiously) rozu- &c. -rukhna, {from 
food) faqu- faqu kushee- lunghun-k. oopasa- 
ruhna, bliookjia- &c. -ruliua, piyas- biiookh- 
&c. -mama, purb-r. bhoojunge-oorana, v. to 
famish, want; to violate a fast, rozu-torna, if- 
tar-k. ; to terminate mie, rozu-kholna, as on the 
ced ool fitr, or last day of the, v. to 

Ff 2 




to fasten, muzboot- &c. -k. (^o #ie) bandhna, ju- 
kurna, kusna, gania, marna, ganthna, luptana, 
buethana, v. to fix, link, {to adhere, q. v.) pu- 
kurna, dhurna, (a door) bund-k. ootunghna, 
sedhna, v. to lock, (to cement) jorna, niilana, 
vvusl-k. {to affxi) lugana, {as a leech) lugna, 

faster, sa,im, rozu-dar, faqu-kush, burtee, pur- 

fast-handed, tung-dil, mcomsik. 

fastidious, mughroor, mcotukubbir, wuswasee, 
khoosh-dimagh, v. dainty, nuksondhoo, chun- 
doo, cbhiiel chikniya, nuk-churha, mirza mi- 
zaj, V. proud, nice. 

fastidiously, tukubbmr- &c. -se. 

fastidiousness, mirza-niizajee, klimsh-dimaghee. 

fasting, nuhar, nihar moonh, {and sleepless) be- 
klioor o kh->yab ; f/ie fast, lumuzan, piirb, v. 
■supra ; take this medicine fasting, nuhar yili 
duwa peena, v. ahstitience, hungry. 

fastness, muzbootee, mstuwaree, istihkam, qiyam, 
pa,edaree, {fori) quhi,u, ginli, kot. 

fat, adj. mota, furbili, juseem, bliaree, tueyar, 
tazu, {as meat) churbee-dar, chikna, v. greasy, 
jtlump, goondu, molka, inotula, dhokiir, ust- 
hool, dhoomra, cbeekun, chuodhur, bustinee,v- 
corpulent, moocbiirrub, ruoghunee, poor-churb, 
riwajee, shuliuni, tel-gur, v. rich, oily ; to grow 
fat, chiknana, ro,an-budu]na, v. sleek. 

fat, {of meat) churbee, chikna,ep, peeh, ruoghun, 
rivvaj, chikkun, tueyaree, v. suet, vat. 

fat, {vat) buoz, cbub-buclui. 

fatal, {mortal) qatil, hulalul, karee, v. destruc- 
tive, maroo, sungharoo, {destined) mooquddur, 
buda, V. unlucky, deadly. 

fatalist, jubree, v. predestination, 
■fatality, Jatalness, tuqdeer, quza, qismut, sur-nu- 
wisht, V. calamity. 

fatally, quza-un, tuqdeer-se, v. mo'rtally. 

fate, quza, tuqdeer, quza o qudur, qismut, likha, 
mushiyut, riichna, nimint, tali, bhabee, kal, 
kurmanuk, duewagut, honee, bidh, puralubd, 
purabul, mooquddur, v. destiny, {death) quza, 
muot, wufat, ujul, murg, v. decree. 

father, bab, pita, baba, pidur, walid, babul, tat, 
bawa, baba-jan, pitamah, lurkora, v. parent, 
{-in-law) suolira, soosra, susoor, khoosr, {sage, 
q. V.) gooroo, shuekh, moorshid, peer-moorshid, 
V. confessor , guide, {in the composifionof Arabic 
names) ub, {speaking respectfully/ of a father) 
qiblu-gah, wulee ni.umee or -ni,umut, {speak- 
ing of an old man) bure-miyan {inventor) moo- 
jid, banee; O father! bap-re! an exclamation 
used, especially by the vulgar, when under 
affliction, whence the word, babre ! noise, dis- 
turbance, &c. so familiar to the English ; ask 
any father, kisee lurkore se poochho, v. ances- 
tor, mother. 

to father, le-pa!na, bap-k. or -kuhlana, v. to 
adopt, {to attribute) huml-k. lugana, rukhna, 
{to own) qubool-k. manna. 

Jhthcrh'ss, bc-])idur, yiiteera, nKorha, too,ur, bap-, 
baba- &c. -mooa, be bap ka, v. orpliau. 

fatherly, bap ka sa, piduranu, pidree, v. paternal, 
gooruwee, shuekh- Sec. -anu, v. patriarchal. 

fathom., bum, char hath, poorsa, adum qud. bam. 
V. cubit. 

to fathom, {to sound) mapna, thah-lena {to pene- 
trate) puhconchna, v. to reach. 

fathomless, u-thah, be-thah, umeeq, agum. 

fatigue, mandugee, soostee, {labour) mihnut, uiii- 
shuqqut, v. toil, koft, hulakee, thuka,ee, uk- 
ta,ee, su,qobut, v. weariness, 
to fatigue, mandu-k, thukana, chuhulna, letarna, 

V. to jade, tire, 
to be fatigued, mandu-h. thukna, uktana. 

fatigued, mandu, ajlz, aree, soost. 




fnflitifi, sheer-uiust, pulgur,liulwan, gliur-puloo,a, 
V. kid. 

fntner, mota.oo, plioo]a,oo, v. the verb. 

fatness, cliikna,ee, churbec, chopur, mota,ee, fur- 
Liliee, y.fnt, lusty, motapa, chiknahut, v. the 
adj. also corpulency. 

to fatten, v. a. raota- &c. -k. phoolana, motana, 
\. fat, (to fertilise) zor-d. chiknana, v. to en- 
rich ; V. n. phoolna, v. to bloat, pamper, nourish, 
(to increase) tazu- &c. -h. pulna. 

fault, tuqseer, kliuta, qrosoor, suhoo, ghulutee, 
na)q^an, nocqs, iieb, dokh, chook, v. slip, gbat, 
kliot, V. blemish, kotaliee, v. error, pakhund, 
uogcon, V. transgression, foible, (to find) khon- 
sana, tokna, nuktora-k. v. to blame, amiss, of- 
fence, crime, defect. 

faultily, gbultee-se, be-turuli, be-dhub, v. impro- 

faultiness, zuboonee, boora,ee, budee, bud-zatee, 
shurarut, v. delinquency. 

faultless, be-tuqsecr, be-ueb. nir-dokhee, kamil, 
suhech, be-qoosoor, la-jirin or -jcurra, v. per- 
fect, spotless. 

faulty, tuqseer-war, dokhce, v. blameable, ueb- 
dar, kotab, qasir, mooqus?ir, v. criminal, giiillt/, 
wrovg, (bad) bud, ziiboon, iiakaru, biura, (er- 
roneous. Sec.) ghulutj naqis, v. defertice. 

fuuset, dhutha, tbenthec, gutta. 

favour, niihr-banee, tuwujjcoh, kurum, inayut, 
fue/., lootf, fuzl, tufu/.zrol, shufqut, rafut, hi- 
inayut, nuwazisb, pwshtee, kirpa, tuqwiyut, 
moorubbee-guree, v. assistance, purtap, duya, 
muya, purwurish, usbfaq, ultaf, murhumut, 
fuezan, tufuqcod, iltifat, moora^nt, musa,udut, 
niyaz, soalook, v. kindjiess, &c. oopkar, v. au- 
spices, ni,umut, prishad, v. blessing, puchh, 
muya-moh, v. partiality, affection, (token) 
cbinh, nishan, roomal, toonu, tuburiook, luo- 
las, V. badge, keepsake, (l>enejit, q. v.) inam, 

inam-ikram, uta, v. lenity, leave; to be in fa- 
vour, sojrkh roo- pesh-h. v. favourite, aho fa- 
voured, surfurazee- &c. meu-h. v. promotion, 
(out of) itab khitab men-h. khufgee men- 
purna, v. displeasure. 

to favour, milirbanee- &c. -k. mooiili- &c. -d. 
-lugana or -diurhana, v. countenance, also to as- 
sist, (to help) inayut-k. ; used by the person 
requiring assistance. 

favourable, mihr-ban, \. favourer, (conducive to) 
monmid, mudud-gar, (convenient) la,iq, inm- 
nasib, moowafiq, v. fair, fueya?., duyal, kir- 
pakar-ee, v. favour, and the adv. aho propi- 
tious ; a favourable wind, bad i mcorad. 

favourableness, moowafuqut, v. benignity. 

favourably, shufqut- hulbhul-se, v. gracious, nu- 
wazisb- ushfaq- shufqut- &c. -anu, also the 
adj. V. courteonsly, kindly. 

favoured, muqbool, munzoor, burga)zeedu,ri,ayu- 
tee, niumnoon, kunuora, kuuuonda, v. obliged. 

well-favotired , khoob-roo, nek-munzur, khojsli- 

ill-favoured, zisht-roo, kureeh-raunzur. 

favourer, hamee, janib-dar, puchliee, \. partial, 
mooltufit, muorubbee, moonhde.oo, pooruniya, 
V. i)rotector, (in coiiip.) purwur, nuwaz, pal, 
V. well-wisher, favourable. 

favourite, maisahib, moonli-luga, mooqurrub, 
niuqbool, v. darling, uql-kcol, mouqurrub ool 
liuzrut, niunzoor-nuzur, moonb-luggoo, nak 
ka bal, v. familiar, confidant, companion, minion, 
pusund, khatir-khwah, nuirghoob, v. choice, 


fawn, hirnuota, ghizal, ahoo-buclui or -burru. 

to fawn, chaploosee- kha,e burdarec- liurkhcoree-, 
lujajut- jigjigee-k. gliighiyana, pyar-jutana. 
V. to cringe, flatter, 

fawner, chaploos, kha,e-burdar, khoosh-amudct. 




fawning, v. servility, jigjigee, suglugee, naz- 
nukhru, luput-supul, v. to wheedle. 

fawningly, chaploosec-se. 

fealty, {Jiddity) wufa-daree, {obedience) furman- 
burdarec, ita^ut, v. loyal, wufa, nuotu,ee, wu- 
faiCe, V. attachment. 

fear, dur, khuof, hiras, huol, joobn, wuh,shut, 
turs, bak, beem, v. dread, (awe) rcD|Ub, dhak, 
bhuo, tuldooku, suhin, (jmssio^i of) bhuerus, 
{danger, q. v.) chinta, v. apprehension, dread, 
risk, terror, {anxiety) undeshu, khutru, dhur- 
ka, dughdughu, v. solicitt'.de. 

to fear, {be afraid) durna, suhunina, diih,shiit-r. 
sukoochna, bhue-r. or -kliana, dubna, dubuk- 
na, duhulna, {to frighten) durana, suhmana, 
duh|?;hut-d. v. to dread. 

fearful, {timorous) duhshut-nak, tursan, hirasan, 
kha,if, booz-dil, na-murd, hetha, {dreadful) 
huebut-nak, mroheeb, dira,ona. 

fearfully, duh,shut- &c. -sc. 

fearfulness, booz-dilee, na-murdee, hetha,ee. 

fearless, be-bak, ni-dur, ni-dhuruk, bc-khiiof, 

fearlessly, be bakee-se, be khuofee-se, niduree-se, 
V. boldness, &c. 

fearlessness, be-bakee, v. hold, intrepid. 

feasible, lionhar, theek, soo-duol, roo-bu rail, rah 
bu dih, V. j)laicsihle. 

yeasf, jushn,z.iyafut,mihmanee, shadee, (this is the 
true meaning of the v.-ord, but it is now chiefly 
used for a wedding-feast or marriage, v. re- 
joicing, festival,) khana, jyonar, bhundara,bhoj- 
murjad, karakaj, shuhur tuam, nors, fatihu, v. 
banquet, {varieties of ) suth- and nuo-masa,uqee- 
qu, moondun, v. marriage, also to shave, &c. 
shubrat, /roj/i sliubiburat, the night of dispensa- 
I ' tion, V. birth-day. Sec, {treat, q. v.) ni,umut, 
prishad, v. entertainment, {a holiday) eed, pu- 
rub, tyohar. ' '^^^ ^h^'^^^'^ 

to feast, shadee- khooshee- uesli- ushrut- anund-, 
ueshjuesh-k. {to delight) khooshee- furhut- 
bukshna, {to entertain) ziyafut-k. hum ziya- 
fut-k. dundunana, gajna, v. to eoijoy, junket, 
{the eyes) ankh-senkna, v. to satisfy, pamper. 

feaster, ueyash, anundee, v. epicure. 

feasting and rejoicing, v. festivity/, merriment, rag 
rung, nach tumashu, dhoom dham, chullul pu- 
hul, V. carousal. 

feat, kani, kaj, kriya, kurtub, fi,ul, jokhim, 
umul, V. deed, nut biddya, bazeeguree, v. ex- 
p)loit, trick. 

feather, feathers, pur, punk,h, pukhna, puch,h, 
punkhree, v. down, {of a horse) bhuonree, sam- 
pun, V. circle, name, {down) bal, rongte, ro,en, 
{kind) qimash, rung, tuor, {orname7it) '^uohur, 
khrosh-nooma,ee; the long feathers of the wing, 
shuh-pur ; the feathers of an arroic, pur-gee- 

Birds of a feather commonly flock together. 

is well expressed by this couplet : 

Kubootur ba kubootur baz bu baz 
Koonud humjins ba humjins purwaz. 

lo feather, {as birds) pur-nikulna, punkh-jumna, 

puchhgur-h. {one''s nest) bal o pur-jumana, 

juguh gurm-k. v. to exalt, 
feathered, feathery, punkhee, &c. pur-dar, pur- 

geer, purind, v. bird, he. gala-sa, v. downy, 
featherless, be-pur o bal, moondla, moonda, pur- 

kuta, V. callow, 
feature, v. form, nuqshu, y.face, khutt o khal, 

ras, dhancha, chhap, v. lineament, contour, 
febrifuge, tup-mar, jur-nasik, tup-shikun, {nut) 

kurunjwa, kut-kuleja. 
Fehruary, phagoon, phalgoon, {9.d mmith) sufur, 

tezee, teruh tezee, v. the British Indian ]^o- 

nitor. Vol. I. p. 210. '■'''^ ■''■■■'■'*'' ''''*** . 




feculce or settlingn, ^adh. 

feculent, ju(na,oo, injimadcc, nisliastu ; but re- 
stricted perhaps to starch, q. v. a\s,oftBces, tya- 
gee, ruddee, v. excremcntitvous. 

fecundity, v. prolific, ank<x)r, sut, putoot, qa.w- 
wuti tuoleed or naniee,ii, teli, v. essence. 

federal, shurtce, quraree. 

fee, fell, (reward) iwu?., ujr, silu, ujooni, mih- 
nutanu, khuzanu, lugtee, purjuot, tnootuhurfii, 
malikanu, &c. v. rent, duty, puta, v. copyhold, 
{dnctnr''s, &c.) sliiigcnn, hiikeemee khurcli, 
bueda,ce, shcnkr goo7.aree, shoolcranu, v. recom- 
pence, prfsent, perqitisite, {in comp.) anu, ce, 
a,ee; tlius, uqd-anu, nikah-anu, fusul-anu, 
rookhsut-anu, ziyafut-anu, moonshee-anu, si- 
prord-anu, tushkhees-ami, &c. siirraf-ee, diil- 
lal-cc, dustoor-ee, qanoongo-ee, buya,ee, ku- 
mur koosha-ee, punclit-a,ec, ooth-a,ee, bun-a,ee, 
&c. See the Gram, page 169, &c. These 
Hinduwee words in a^ee, greatly resemble ours 
in ing, but often signify tlic price or hire only. 
Ee is like our age, in dullal-ee, broker-oire, 
Stc. (due) huqq, dustoor; lawyer'' s fees, suk- 
kakee; fees of office, roosooni, ubwab. They 
are in general distinguished by particular 
names; such as, daghanu, moohranu, dustu- 
kanu, buezanu, daroghanu, moohussilanu. 
to fee, ujooru- &c. -d. {to bribe) rishwut- &c. -d. 
V. to hire. 

feeble, na-tuwan, na-qoowwut, kum-zor, nir-bul, 
u-tutha, nuqeeh, ajiz, soost, mandu, kahila, 
V. frail, be-tab or -taqut, z.u,eef, v. imjjotencc, 
weak. •.'•ip-m ,•! 

feebleness, na-tuwanee, ioo,uf, soostee, mandugee, 
V. debility. -'r- '-> 

feebly, natuwanee- &c. -sc. 

'feed, nuharee, danu, v. tneal, mash, 
to feed, V. a. khilana, khana, v, to entertain, nu- 
muk-d. jiwana, khilana pikna, {horses, &c.) 

danu-d. -<1. or -churhana, v. to clieri-sh, {Inrds) 
tanibu-d. {prop. tn),nmu) v. food, {to graze) 
churana, chwgana, {to nourish) palna, posna; 
to feed with hopes, luhre-lugano, oommeclwar-k. 
V. to amuse, fatten; v. n. {to eat) khana, {as 
cattle) churna, chrogna, {to live on) got>7.ran-k. 
{to grow fat) j)ulna, motana. 

feeder, khilane-wala, khilawunhar, chufwaha, 
raziq, v. keeper, {eater) khoorindu, khanc-wala, 
{in comp.) khor; a nice feeder, khoosh-khor, 
iihoosk-khorak ; a gross feeder, ghuleez-khor, 

fee-farm, zumeen-daree. 

feeJ, lums, musas, mus, v. feeling, touch. 

to feel, {to touch, q. v.) chhoona, lums- mu*-k. 
nuisas-k. niulisoos-h. {to bear) khana, ootha- 
na, khucnchna, bliurna, v. to suffer, get, pu- 
seejna, v. to compassionate, ana, bona, boojh-a. 
V. to appear, {pain) durd-k. dookhna, v. to be- 
come, grow, {to grope) tutolna, tona, teepna, 
V. to handle, {to seem, &c.) lugna, jan-pui-na, 
mu,uloom-h. {to try) azmana, imtihan-k. {to 
perceive) mu,uloom- khiyal- qiyas- duriyaft-k. 
janna, sumujhna, boojhna, v. to know ; to feel 
the pulse, n\x\ix-Ack\\na.; to feel for others, dil 
sozee- ghum khwaree-durd- riqqut-k. 

feeler, moochh, bal, lamis, v. horn. 

feeling, adj. dil-soz, durd-imgcz, v. compa.isionate. 

feeling, sub. lamisu, chhoo,a,ee, to^a,ee, v. feel, 
{compassion) riqqut, dil-sozee, {perception) 
khiyal, fuhm, boojli; the sense of feeling, qoow- 
wut i lamisu, huth rus, v. the verb, also pity, 
sense, &c. 

feelingly, riqqut- he. -se, v. powerfully. 

feet, pucr, panw, v. foot. 

feetless, be-puer. 

to feign, {to invent) bandhna, bunana, jorna, {to 
make shew of) dikhlana, izhar- heelu- buha- 
nu-k. In Arabic there is a particular conju- 




gation (bab i tufUiOol) to express the feign- 
ing of whatever the verb signifies. Thus, 
juhl, to he ignorant ; tujahool, to feign igno- 
rance; muruz, to be sick; tumarooz, to feign 
sickness. These and many others are com- 
pounded with kurna. Thus, tughafcol-k. to 
feign neglect, 
feignedhj, buhanu-se. 

feigner, heehi-baz, mcozuwwir, v. inventor, &c. 

feint, buhanu, lieelu, dhokha, bhoolawa, doocli- 
awa, mcnghalutu, siyaiui, dekhawa, bhugul, tu- 
jawooz, V. sham. 

to felicitate, hcxjlsana, khoosh-k. bilsana, and tlie 
other causals, under the verb to rejoice, v. to 
bliss, gladden, (to congratulate) moobarukee-, 
nioobaruk bad-d. or -kuhna, 

felicity, khrashee, khoorruniee, aram, sookh,chuen, 
furhut, V. bliss, prosperity. 

feline, gcorbu-kho, billee-sa. 

fell, sung-dil, klioon-kh\yar, zalim, be-duregli, 
kuttur, sukht, v. cruel, khoonee, kafir, jullad, 
ehundal, v. inhuman. 

to fell, mama, {to cut down) kat^d. kat-girana, 
girana, gira-d. v. to cut, mar-girana, buethalna, 
V. to knock. 

feller, (of wood) tubur-dar, {vulg. tubuldar) {in 
comp.) bcnr, kush. 

fellness, sung-dilee, be-ruhmee, be-moaruwwutee, 
bc-diircghee, zoohn. 

felloe, mendra, poothee, v. hoop. 

fellow, {peer) hum-chushm, hum-jolee, hum- 
jumb, rufeeq, sathee, {match) jora, doosra, 
joree, blia|ee, buradur, go,iya, v. comrade, pul- 
la, jot, burabur, juwab, puwa,ee, v. equal, si- 
pahee, miyan, admee, ghur busa, klianu-abad 
or -khurab, ghurguya, v. person, gudha, buel, 
V. ass, wight, {equal) sanee, nuzeer, {blade) 
uzeez, yar, ashiq, ugla, {speaking with con- 
tempt) looclicha, shmhda, Icoqqu, looqundra, 

hurani-zadu ; a fine fellow, khassu yar, {a 
horse, man. See.) ghazee murd, v. hero; a jolly 
felloiv, ueyash, yar-bash; fellow, in composi- 
tion, is expressed by hum, v. in/rw ,• fellow- 
creature, hum-khilqut, hum-khulq; fellow- 
student, hum-durs; fellow-sujferer, huni-durd, 
hum-azar, hum-sufeer or -awaz; fellow-feeling; 
riqqut, hum-sozee or -ghumee, su-niel, su-neh, 
V. sympathy/, {collusion) guntha,o, from gunth- 
na, to collude, v. to join ; fellow-artist, hum. 
peshu or-khidmut; fellow-lodger, iunn kha- 
nu ; fellow-traveller, Imm-rah ; fellow-believer, 
hum-muzhub, -mushrub, -a,een, or -tureeq, v. 
brother, fraternity, congenial, &c. {combina- 
tion) sutta butta. The Hindoos in like man- 
nor have su nugree, afellow-citixen; su sala, 
a fellow-student ; sujjun, a fellow-creature, 
mate, lover, &c. Wlien words occur com- 
pounded witli hum, tlie best rule is to consult 
the 2d Vol. for the word in conjunction with 
it, provided the compound itself is not to be 
found ; there being no more required than to 
annex the idea of unilt/, association, or equality, 
to the primitive vocable, v. con, and its com- 

fellowship, {equality) hum-suree, hum-jumbee, 
bhuewad,, v. partnership, {society, &c.) 
cons, consut, moowafuqut, mel, ikhtilat, kun- 
iyuras, shurakut, ishtirak ; good fellowship, 
yarbashee, uesh-ushrut, y. festivity. 

felo de se, pet-jee- or chhooree-mar, rauskut, atum- 
ghat-ee, v. suicide. ) 

felon, gconali-gar, mrojrim, {a whitlow) chhiluo- 

felotiious, zuboon, bud, shureer, fasid, v. wicked, 
malignant. .' .y. /. .':i, ; n ,\v,ri:.,> 

feloniously, shurarutun. 

felony, goonah i kubeeru, goonah i uzeem, muha- 
pap, V. capital, crime. 




felt, (tlotk) numud, (skin) jild, post, cliumia 

bukriiote ka, v. hide, rug. 
to felt, jiimana, buethalna. 
femalr, madu, madeenu, madeen, (whence, per- 
haps, luadiyan, a mare,) Siisa; wliicli is much 
usud in the formation of female names. Thus, 
Zeb oin-nisa, the ornament of the sex, was the 
name of Uorung Zeb's eldest daughter, a lady 
equally famous (in the Eeast) as a poet, a 
beauty, and a wit ; v. woinan, (adj.) zunanu; 
istrce, mihraroo, triya, zun ; the female sev, 
lilum i nisa, mustoorat, istree burg, mihraroo- 
jat, X. feminine; a female face, madu-roo, zu- 
nance soorut ; fent'de craft, triya-bed, (rhymes) 

feme covert, ghurnee, uhiyatee, sohagun, shuo- 
hur-dar, v. maid. 

feminine, mihra, begiimec, uorut nooma, v. s(ft, 
female, (in gram.) moo,unnus, istiree ; a femi- 
nine noun, ism 1 moo,unnus; the feminine gen- 
der, tanees, istreeling, v. delicate, effeminate. 

femoral, janghee, ranee. 

fen, duidul, jhabur, pank, dhusun, mooroo, v. 

fence, (defence) himayut, moohafuzut, ar, pt, bu- 
cha,o, V. security, (enclosure) ihatu, tuttee, pur- 
du, char-dee waree, quenchee, v. hedge, khun- 
duq, sudd, punah, asra, jhang, ghera, v. rail. 

to fence, ihatu- kc. -banana, sudd- &c. -bandh- 
na or -gherna, tuttee-duorana, v. to enclose, 
shelter, (to guard) buchana, himayut-k. (to 
fortifij) bund-k. (ivith foils, he.) lukree- 
phenkna, putta-jharna, v. to cudgel, tilt, (to- 
guard against) bucha,o-k. lihaz-r. 

fenced, (defended) muhfooz, qued, musdood, 

fenceless, be-qued, be-piirdu, khoola, waz, furd, 
V. open. 

fewer, ferudng-master, lukree-baz, putuet, ba- 

nuet, phenkuet, nial, oostad. 
fencing, phuree gudka, lukree-bazee, (a position 

or motion in) chhcot, v. quarter-staff. 
feru)ing-school, ukliara. 
to fetid, talna, katna, rokna, arna, otna, v. to 

fender, bucha.oo, ar, v. defence, mendra. 
fennel, suonf, raziyanu, so,a, sliibt. 
fenugreek, mcthce, sluniilxolecd, hoolhu. 
feodal, (land) '^ageer, niudud-mu.asb, siyoorghal, 

' zumoen-darce, v. fee. 
ferine, wuh,shec, bhurkel, durindu. 
ferment, mawa, khumeer, mayu, (tum^ilt) bul- 

wa, hungamu, fitnu. 
to ferment, v. n. oobulna, oothna, josh-khana or 

-(Krthna, pukna, scejhna, v. to efferoesce, boil, 

(to leaven) khumeer-oothna, phoolna; v. a. 

oobalna, oothana, josh-d. kliumeer-k. or -oot- 

hana, pukana, seejhana, uontana, v. to sour, 
fermentable, khumeer puzeer, uonta,oo, v. the 

fermentation, 'jOih, oobal, khumeer, uonta,o, uon-, v. the verb, also effervescence, 
fermentative, mcukhununir. 
fermerited, mmkhummur; fermented bread, khu- 

meeree rotec. 
ferocious, wuli,shee, durindu, shikaree, khoon- 

klnvar, khoon-asham, kurukht, be-ruhm, be- 

durd, zalim, kuttur, v. icild, savage, fell, du- 

rindu-kho, subu, nir-mohee, kuthor, kroor, v. 

bloody, &c. 
ferocity, wuh,shut, durindugec, khoon-kh\yaree, 

sung-dilee, kurukhtec, sukhtee, be-ruhme^ 

bc-durdee, /.culm. 
ferret, newul, rasoo, v. squirrel, 
ferriage, ootura,oe, (contracted, 
ferrule, chhula, kuree, choora, smn,hoora, hulqu, 
G o 




V. ring, (of a scabbard) kothee, tuhnal, tuli- 

ferry, goozaru, mU|Ubur, ghat, ootara, goozur, v. 

boat, fare, 
to ferry, v. a. par-ootarna, pueleewu-puhoon- 
chana, par-k. or -lejaiia, pailiee-d. v. to trans- 
port ; V. n. par-ooturna, coboor-k. 

ferry-boat, goozare kee na,o. 

ferry-man, mullah, nueya, putnee, ghat-manjhee, 
V. boat-man. 

fertile, zur-khez, zur-rez, ser-hasil, jueyud, ha- 
silu, pmr, mu,umoor, bhura, oopjunhar, tur o 
tazii, sur subz, mota, burkutee, piieda|isliee, 
muhsoolee, goonja,ishee, fuyaz, fuez-rusan, 
mootubuiTuk, susgur, oopia,oo, julla, v. abun- 
dant, fruitful, full. 

fertiletuss, fertility , zur-khezee, zur-rezee, mU|ii- 
mooree, tur o tazugee, burkut, susgurta, v. 

to fertillxe, jueyud-k. qoowwut- zor-d. raotana, 
muzboot- poor zor-k. 

fervency, fervour, shuoq, hurarut, chuonp, dil- 
sozee, dil-gurmee, joshish, sur-gurmee, dil- 
dihee, v. meal. 

fervent, gurm, dil-soz, dil-gurm, v. zealous. 

fervently, surgurniee- &c. -se. 

fervid, he. V. fervent. ,K>t •,•, 

fervour, ag, ugun, julun, jo.ala, shoo,uJa, jigur- 
sozee, jan-sozee, soz, oomung, v. flame, heat, 


ferula, duwal, chhuree, v. strap. 

fescue, tinka. 

fesels, khisaree, unktee, v. vetch. 

to fester, pukna, qurhu-h.; to cause fester, pu- 
kana, qurhu-k. 

festival, (feast) eed, tyohar, purub, jug, holee, 
phugwa, nihan, bura^din, v. holy-day, jubilee. 
eed-ool-fitr, is the grand festival on the first of 
the month Shuwal, which follows the fast 

of Rumuzan. Buqru eed, or eed-ool-uZ|ha, 
the feast in commemoration of the sacrifice 
which Abraham intended to make of his son 
Isaac, or, according to the Mcosulmans, Ish- 

festival, festive, eedee, khoosh, muhzooz, khoor- 
rum, khoosh-hal, niusrbor, bushash. 

festivity, shadec, khooshee, jushn, iiesh-ushrut, 
khoosh-halee,sooroor, bushas]iut,uhlad, anund, 
dhumar, v. feasting. 

festoon, goolkaree, bel-boota, har, v. garland, 
(nuptial) bund-nuwar. 'it.i/, i 

fetch, pech, buhanu, heelu, fitrut, mukr, funn, 
fureb, dhokha, lupet, jhookee, hirkee, \. feint, 
doubling, stratagem. 

to fetch, le-ana, le kur ana, puhoonchana, (to 
bring out) nikalna, numood-k. (to restore) bu- 
lial-k. (to j^erform) kurna, lena ; to fetch a 
turn, phera-k. chukkur-khana; to fetch a sigh, 
ah-marna or-klieenclma; to fetch a leap, just- 
-k. or -bhurna ; to fetch breath, dum Jena, (to 
reach) puhoonchna, jana, (to produce) khura-h. 
oothna, v. to call, ootha-lana, nikal- karh- 
lana, v. to britig, mar-girana, v. to fell, (to 
hit) mama, lugana, v. to strike, (to draw) 
khuenchna, bhurna, v. to take ; it will fetch 
about sioo rupees in the market, is ke roopu,e 
chjiu ek buzar men oothenge, or khure ho- 
wenge, v. to drive. 

fetcher, lawunhar, arindu, lane wala. 

fetid, gundu, oobsa, mootu.ufiin, v. stinking. 

to be fetid, oobusna, bud bo-k. majtu,uffin-h. 

fetidness, nofoonut, tu,ufFoon, sura,end, bud-boO|ee. 

fetlock, bubree ka bal, tukhne ka bal. 

fetter, beree, pue-kura, puwa,ee, sankur, beri- 
yan, pue-kure, paiC-bund, v. manacles, chain, 
(of birds, &c.) pa,ezu. 

to fetter, puekure-bhurna, qued- pa bund-k. (a 
camel) zanoo bund-k. v. to bind. 




fettered, pa-bu-zunjcer. ' •" «!' ' 

to fettle, tutolna, otna, v. to fiddle, 
fetus, buchu, juneen, moozghu, ulqu, pootla, san- 
cha, V. enthri/o.  ,, -'-rfivncoin ^-i^hj^iiu ,-. >.»'.. '^ 
fettd, jfiugra, jhunjtitit; bukhera,' t|urfy(i, khar- 

khushn, fusad, khanu-jungee, v. discord, 
feu-duty, khuzanu, v.\/feg,> > .v-W>«c;y;ir'siuTV 
fever, tub, {vulg. tup or tap) jur, hiirarut, boo- 
khar, hromma, jara, liirzii, v. agne, hiirjur, 
bhcorblicoree, \. feh'ifup;e; ft hectic fever, tup 
i diqq, clijiue-rog, v. intermittent, 
feverish, feverous, gUrto;'' /iH.>iir,vv.' 
few, thore, chund, mu.ndood, quleel, unduk, 
thora ek, docbar, do ek, mootn,udid, birle, 
gintec-kc, birkhe, kum, kmchh to, ko,ee to ; 
in few words, ulqissu, ghur?., uor kya, bat- 
yoon hue, v. briefly, short; few people, there 
log, chund^ushkhas, v. a few. .Jt,«ti>«tv^ .- 
fewel, eendhun, julawuti, beemu. 
fewness, kumce, kumtee, qilliit, ghata, ghuttee, 

V. scarcity. 
Jib,]hoo\b, V. mistake, error, luppa,ee, gup, shup, 

chootkoola, \.joke. 
tofih, jjhooth mooth-k. i-. p: s  ' • > 
fibber, hipatee, guppee, lldjai lubra, lubbar, ki- 

burghuta, bibkha, v. to lie. 
,/lbre, reshu, jhothra, sun, soot, khoojhra, tar, 

nus, V. thread. ' ■:;««i«*>-i 

fibrous, reshu-dar, jhothrecla, sunuela, rugeela, 

nusdar, {root) darhee, juta, jhuonda. 
fibula, nulcc. 

fickle, ocbha, ma)tuluwwin-mizaj, boolliuwus, 
hur-dum-khiyal, soobook-mizaj, chuncliuJ, be- 
kul, be-chuen, na-pa,edar, be-thikana, sonst- 
pueman, snobook-pa, (incmistanf) be-wufa, be- 
fickleness^ chun-chulahut, na-pa.edaree, v. incon- 
fico, to give the, ungootha-dikhan*. <' '•' < 

fiction, eejad, ikhtira,u, bunawut, sakht, bundisli, 

ba,o bundcc, tuotiya, v. fable, lie. 
fictitious, jhootha, sakhtu, tugliuUoobee, umulee, 
j' ,»v*' allegorical, nuqlee, Ruwangee, muyaroopeu, 

v. imaginary, false, forged. , ai i \,j-^ \i. 

fiddle, sarungee, sarindu, behla,orbnee, chuoti^ 

sitaru, kingree, v. rudin, (small) chikaru. ""o" 

to fiddle, sarungee- or sarindu-bujana, (to trifle) 

tapato,ee-d. otna, geet-gana, mukhee-marna, 

panee-pectna, v. to piddle.^ 

fiddle-faddle, wahiyat,, huk jhuk, tana- 
bhurnee, v. non.sense. 

fiddler, sarungiya, sarungee-nuwaz, sarindu-nu- 
■ttaz, sitar-baz. .rhi -aof«;isf t^\<*'9:Pi.\ 

fiddle-stick, kumanee, kuman-chu, otnee, dhun- 
wee, zukhnui, mizrab. -  

fiddle-string, tax. .(/••I'^S 

fidelity, diyanut, deen-daree, eeman^ree, rast- 
bazee, rastee, wufa, numuk-hulalee, suchuo- 
tee, pidq, sudaqut, hitkar, fidwiyut, inqiyad, 
\. faith, loyalty. 

^o fidget} uhra tuhree-lugana, chootur-hilana, 
chail-bcolana, v. tofiirt, wriggle. 

fief, zumeen-daree, jagcer, tu,ullooqu, siyoorgna., 
ultumgha, v. freehold, freeholder. 

field, khet, muedan, (also the field of battle) qu- 
tu,u, muzn},u, jung- nuburd- or ruzm-gah, 
musaf, joodh-bhoom, beer-bhooni, v. land, 
stage, room, kisht, kisht-zar, kola, bhcetha, 
tand, jungul, v. wilderiiess, park; field, (used 
figuratively for space, &c.) duriya, the sea ; 
the field or ground of a picture, zumeen, bhoom, 
V. extent, farm; afield-day, quwB,id kajdhi, 
V. e.vercise; in the field, baiiur, sufur-men, 
V. abroad; afield bed, sufree pulung; to take 
the field, as trofy})s, muedan-lena or -pukuma ; 
to lose the fieJd, khet-harna, opposed to khet- 
jeetna, to gain the field; to he in the field, mue- 
dan men-h. opposed to chjhca,onec men buna, to 
Gu 2 




be in winter quarters ; to be slain in thejield, I 
khet-ruhna, kam-ana; to keep thejield against 
an enemy, khet- muedan-thamna or -r. opposed 
to puhlootihee-k. ghoonghut-khana, to retire^ 
or fall hack before an enemy ; who won the field? 
khet kis ke hath ruha ? v. battle. 

field-piece, ruhkuhi, ruhkula, sufree top, opposed 
to mcoqamee. 

fiend, shuetan, bhoot, bhootna, puret, dcoshmun, 
V. satan, demon. 

fierce, toond, juld, kunikht, sukht, dooroosht, za- 
lim, khopn-kh^yal■, khooii-rez, durindu, sung- 
dil, be-ruhm, ghoorkee, v. furious, fiery. 

fiercely, tcondee- &c. -se. 

fierceness, tcondee, juldec, kurukhtugee, dooroosh- 
tee, zcohrs, khoon-rezue, khoon-khwarec, du- 
rhiduEree, suno-dilee, be-riihmee, v. vehemence. 

fieriness, gurmee, hurarut, hiddut, jlial, tezee, 
tcondee, juldee, atush-niizajee. 

fiery, atusbee, naree, harr, gurni, atufth-mizaj, 
juld, tez, toond, hadd, v. hot, aginec, ag-sa, 
shoo,ulu kho, agin sobha,o, \. fierce, violent. 

fife, bajisree, moorlee, ulghozu, nue, bunsec, {an- 
gelot) pongee, \. flute. 

fifteen, pundrub. 

fifteenth, pundruwan, pundruhan. 

fifth, panch^van ; the fifth part, panchwaii hissu. 

fiftieth, puchaswan. 

fifty, puchas, {as a weight or integral number) 
puchasa, like chalees-a or -ee, beesee, a score. 

fig, unjeer, (/ree) unjeer ka durukht ; the wild 
fig, goolur, doonibur, bur, buigut, peepul, 
pankur, {fruit) burbutta, peeplee, kuemree. 

fight,, joodh, Jung, karzar, ruzm, mue- 
dan, moojadulii, nuburd, puckar, mooharubu, 
mooqatulu, mu.uriku, run, {duel) khauu-jun- 
gee, V. battle, combat ; in the heat of the fight, 
uen lura,ee men. 
to fight, lurna, jhugurna, lura,ee- muedan- &c. -k. 

mara maree-k joodhna, bigurna, jhurupna, 
{cocks, &c.) lurana, v. to ccmtend, also conten- 

fighter, moobariz, mooharib, jung-awur, lunvuya, 
liirunhar, luraka, lurne-murne wala, v. waj'- 

fighting, '^nagce, v. martial, also supra and effec- 

fig-pecker, iinjeer-kh\yar. 

figurahle, soorut- or shukl-puzeer. 

figuration, tusbkeel, v. formation. 

figurative, niooradcc, mujazee, rungeen, shuklee, 
nuqlce, muya roopee, drisbtantee, tuniseelec, 
siiroopee, \. flowery, metaphorical. 

figuratively, nmjazun. 

figure, {form) soorut, shukl, roop, hue|Ut, liue- 
kul, suroop, kalbood, qamut, clihub, turash, 
V. person, shape, {in gram.) moohawuru, siyaq- 
kulani, dhub, v. phrase, {eminence) numood, 
nounui,ls)li, dubdubu, sliuokut, shuilirut, v. dis- 
tinction, (47a;«/e)fus\vccr, cbitr, nuqsliu, {paint- 
ing) nuqqasiiee, boota, chitrkaree, v. picture, 
{hwoscope) rand, za,ichu, {number) ank, ru- 
qvnn, udud, hnndiisu, v. type, {in rhclorir) 
nioorad, niisal, kinayu, v. trope, &C. ; a circu- 
lar figure, shukl i moastudeer, v. sij^uarc ; to 
cast a figure from the horoscope, runil- or noo- 

to figure, bunana, niiqshu- &c. -k. {to sheio, ex- 
press) dikhlana, butlana, misal- tumscel-lana, 
{to carve) moonuqqush- &c. -k. {to conceive) 
kbiyal- qiyas-k. v. to imagine, diversify. 

figured, moonuqqush, v. to ca)-ve. 

filament, i-esliu, jhothra. 

filbert, flndooq. 

to filch, chorana, choree-k. onrana, oora-lejaua, 
ootha-d. hurna, moosna, hurJcna, mohna, v. 
to pilfer. 

filcher, chor, chotta, doozd, huth lupuk, huthe- 




mar, hurunhar. A rat is called moosa, and a 
mouse moosree, probably from moosna, tojilch, 
V. to purloin, also thief. 

Jile, (of soldiers) qutar, pant, v. row, suf, luen, 
from litie, q. v. (the instrumetit) soohan, vulg. 
soliun, retee, (catalof^uc) duftur, tubluq, (of 
papers) tubuq, v. roll, (of men) tanta, mor- 
chal, V. strinf^; to draw up injiles, qutar-b. ; 
to march injiles, sl)a)tiir qiitar-chulna ; to make 
men march iu files, qutar qutar-chulana, v. to 
to Jile, piro-r. v. to string, (to cut) retna, retiya- 
na, V. to sully, nisp, polish. 

Jiler, retwuya. 

filial, furzundee, pisuree, supotee, bcta-sa, pidu- 
ree, maduree, v. parental, as the application 
is reversed in Hindoostan. 

filing, reta,ee. 

filings, choor, booradu, rezu, clioonee, retun; iron 
filings, lohchoon. 

till, pet-bhur, bhurpet ; eat your Jill, pet bhur 
kha,o, V. full. 

to fill, V. a. bhur-d. bhurna, pour-k. (to satisfy) 
ser-k. chhukana, uphana, v. to glut, swell, 
(with earth) bhuthana, bhathiia, v. to close; 
to fill up to the hrim, lub rez- lub a lub- bhur 
poor-k. ; to fill or pour out, dalna, oolendna, 
oondelna, na,ona, (to eaitend) phoolana : to fill 
up, (a well, &c.) patna, (to employ) lugana ; 
to Jill a statioti, mhdu-r. ; v. n. bhur-jana, 
bhurna, ser- &c. -h. chhukna, bhuthna, put- 
na, V. to increase, (as fruit) gudrana; to weep 
one's fill, dil kholkur-rona, v. heartily, also to 

filler, bhurne wala, bhurunhar, bhurwuya, v. ea'- 

fillet, puttee, bund, usabu, v. bandage, roller, Ao- 
ree, chuonree, bundhun, selee, nara, chotee- 

bund, (of meat) poothe ka gosht, (ornament) 
hurra, v. roll. 

Jillip, chootkee, choochkaree, choomkaree, tukora. 

to fillip, chootkee-bujana, choocli-karna, choom- 
karna, v. to rouse. 

Jilly, buchheree. 

Jilm, jhillee, (in diseased eyes) phoolee, manda, 
jala, purdu. 

filmy, jliillee-sa, v. fiimsy. 

to Jilter, filtrate, chhanna, v. to strain. 

Jilth, muel, chirk, ala,ish, gund, uglior, kudurj, 
ronghut, ghuleez, chikut, mul, chirkeen, mu- 
lamut, kusafut, kirkit, keet, leebur, pheesee, 
liwar, V. dirt. 

JilthUy, niijasut- &c. -se. 

Jilthini'ss, nujasut, ghula/.ut, gundugee, na-pakee, 
chiktu,ee, ronghuta,ee, muleenta, ghinahut, v. 

filthy, muela, chikut, gundu, na-pak, ghuleez, 
muleen, churpooz, unjus, bhusrer, bhishtul, 
na saf, ghinghina, gooliee, v. dirty, jiasty. 

fin, pur, bal, bazoo, punk,h, duena, v. wing. 

finable, jnoriiuanu puzeer. 

final, akliir, ukheer, akiiiree, pichhla, wapuseen, 
ghaee, V. last, (complete) kaniil, poora. 

Jittully, (lastly) akhirush, akhir col umr, pus, 
aqibut ool umr, purunt, urlhant, hasil i kulam, 
ulqissu, ulghuruz,, (completely) kamilanu. 

Jinance, mal-goozaree. 

Jinajices, amud, yaft, pueda,ish. mahu>ul. 

Jinajicier, amil-peshu ; a farmer of the revenues^ 
amil i mcostajir; a person who understands tlta 
collections, rusa, v. collector. 

to find, niilna, paiia, pura-pana, hath-lugna or 
-ana, buhum-puhcunchna, pueda- mcuyussir-li. 
(to know) mu,uloom-k. janna, v. to cvperience, 
(lo reach) puhoonchna, (to acquire) hasil- pueda- 
-k. (to observe) dekhna, duriyaft-k. v. to per- 
ceive, (to catch) pukurna, (to award) hcokm-k. 




futwa-d. {to determine) thuhrana, {to provide, 
supply, &c.) puhoonchana, kliubur geeree-k. 
khubur-lena, purdakht-k. {to approve) soanna, 
manna, ja,iz- doormst-r. {one''s self) pana, lio- 
na, ruhna; \_IJind myself somewhat indisposed 
to-day, aj hum iipne tu,een kaochh kusul mund 
pate huen ; aj hum kusul mund huen ; at this 
time I generally fmd iiu/self indisposed, in rozoii 
men muen uksur kahila ruhta boon ;] to find 
out, {discover) tliikana-lugana, nikalna, boojli- 
na, sumujhna, pukur-pana, dhoondh-k. khoj- 
nikalna, v. to comprehend, {invent) eejad- ikhli- 
ra,u-k. {to get) joorna, luhna, dustyab-h. v. to 
procure. N. B. milna is used inversely in such 
expressions as, I found this thing on the road, 
yiii clieez moDJhe rah pur milee, never muen 
is cheez ko mila rah pur, v. to get, meet ; to 
find fault with, tokna, v. to censure. 

finder, pawiinhar, yabindu, pane-wala. 

fine, adj. bareek, miiieen, v. subtile, {p7M-e) saf, 
pakeezu, nab, khura, suchcha, useel, kujla, v. 
refined, clear, {thin) putla, ruqeeq, kaghuzee, 
komul, jhillee-sa, v. delicate, {elegant, q. v.) 
luteef, nazook, nazneen, v. etnhellished, {rice) 
isti,umalee, {as poivder) scnrmu-sa, mueda-sa, 
(£un) runjukee, v. nice, finally, {excellent) 
khassu, besh, toorfu, nadir, bhuia, pyara, nu- 
fees, bihtur, khoob, khnash, shoostu, soothra, 
uch-chha, {accomplished) kamil, moohuzzub, 
{showy) numood, jila-dar, bhurkeela, turawe- 
dar, V. splendid, {soft) mc»la,im, nurm, srok- 
vvar: khassu, uch-ciiha, &c. are used ironi- 
cally, as fine, kc. are in English, very fine, 
uch-chhee bunee, buhmt khoob, &c. pro- 
nounced in a particular manner, become iro- 
nical, V. artful, &c. .jt-Kiiioio «nl iimiH^ • 

fine, subs, tawan, dand, jureemanu, vulg. jcolma- 
nu, moosaduru, goonah-garee,,(M?</;^ia/) mconh 

dek]i3,ee, {in leaving service abruptly) khood- 
rcokhsutee, v. mulct, penalty, also end. 
in fine, ulqissu, ghuruz, qissu kotah. 
to fine, saf- &c. -k. muel-chhantna, v. to jmrify. 
to fine, {for a n-ime) dandna, tawan- &c. -lena. 
to fimedraw, santh-milana, kanta-pherna. 

fimely, bareekee- &c. -se, khoobee- &c. -se, v. 
fineness. •:t,«* '\'* '>'s>-' ' w ^.\^■ 

fineness, bareekee, {pureness) pakeezugee, sufa,ee, 
khura, ee, suchaiCe, shuffafee, {thinness) riqqut, 
lutafut, {elegance) nuzakut, {excellence) nufa- 
sut, toohfugee, bihturee, khoobee, shoostugee, 
khooshee, soothra,ee, uch-chha,ee {showiness) 
numoodaree, ruonuq, jila-daree, zuruq burq, 
bhuruk, {softness) moola,imut, nurmee. 

finery, buna|0, ara|ish, zebajsh, sunwar singar, 
zeb zeenut.  .iHiieoaJKuH pj hi-n^fn A 

finesse, heelu, mukr, fitrut, buhanu. >« ,1^;^*''', 

finger, unglee, ungoosht, (a measure) ungool, v. 
hand, fore finger ; the thumb, ungootha, ungoosht 
i nur, ibham, {little) kan-unglee, {ring) chich- 
unglee, {middle) niunjhlee- or bichlee-unglee ; 
the tip of the finger, pupota. ' •'■•'' .^.s  
to finger, tutolna, clihoona, chherna, [the last also 
signifies to touch a musical instrument], v. to 
steal, handle, ungliyana. 

fingers, unamil. • i-iooq 

fingerstool, nakhoonu, mizrab. 

fime-work, miheen doz, v. splendour. 

fine-writing, khmsh-khutt or -quhim, v. excellent. 

finical, zunanu, mihra, ochha, hulka, chibuUa, 
saibook, chilohla, wuswasee, lurba,ola, chiba- 
ola, shuekh chillee, sahib zadu, v. delicate, silly. 

fiinicalness, ochha-pun, zunanu-pun, chibulla-pun, 

to finish, tumam- khutm- &c. -k. niberna, qutu- 
-k. V. to end, unjam ko puhoonchana, bhoog- 
tana, sarna, niptana, mooruttub- tue-k. v. to 




Jinished, tutnam, akhir, khutm, kaniil, mookum- 
mul, tueyar, poora, raoonqutu, moonquzee, 
lo be Jin is lied, ho-cliookna, be baq-h. niputna, nl- 
burna, bhoogutiia, v. do7ic, to terminate. 

fmisher, niptaroo, nibahoo, nibcroo, v. complete. 

finite, muhdood, bundhejee, v. limited, fanee, v. 

Jir, sunuobur, v. pine. 

Jire, ag, ugin, atush, nar, unul, uhru, na,iru, du- 
hun, lookwa,ee, v. volley, {conflagration) iig- 
wahee, {Jlame) shoo.ulu, anch, bhubhooka 
(light) ruosliuhee, puituo, noor, v. lustre, (spi- 
rit, &.C.) jan, juldee, plirart, jaii-bazee, kiir- 
wahut, tcondee, chabnokee, turraree, juodut, 
ab-daree, duput, churpurahut ;^^re or spirit in 
the eyes, numuk, (lit. salt) v. life, fancy. 
jL to fire, V. a. ag-lugana, julana, oorana, looka-Iu- 
gana ; v. n. ag-lugna, v. to Imrn, sliulukh-, 
awaz- sur-k. v. to shoot, (a gun) chhorna, mar- 
» na, chulana, daghna, julna, phoonkna. 

to be fired, dughna, chhootna, chulna, v. to dis- 
charge. , 

fire-arms, agin-ban, topen-bundooqen. 

fire-ball, atushee-gola. 

fire-eater, atush-khor. 

firer, atush-ufroz, atush-ungez. 

fiff-fiy-i bliug-joognee, joognee, joognoj, putbeejna, 

firelock, bunJooq, toofung, toapuk, puthur-kula, 
V. piece. 

fire-pan, boorsee, ungethee, atush-dan, (of a hooq- 
qu) chilum, (of a gun) piyalu, runjukdanee, 

fire-place, side, choolha, atush-dan, atush-kudu, 
deg-dan, chuoka, v. pan, vent. 

fire-shaoel, kurcha. .iiiiii)| 

fire-stick, soklitu, looktha, loowath, laokwaree, 
hoolka, T. brand. 

fire-stone, agin-puthur, sung-atushee, v.fiint. 

fire-wood, fiiring, eendhun, julawun, heemu, he- 
zum, V. fud. 

firc-tcorks, atush-bazce, haia-liur\va,ee ; there 
are several sorts, viz. muli-tabL-e, phool-jurce, 
anar-danii, huth-phool, qulum, nior, rothee, 
chhuchhoondur, churkhee, bhoo,en-nar, ghotu- 
khoru, deepuk, rung-muhtab, petara, chuddur, 
liuthnal, moorni, jaha-joohee, blioo,cen-chumpa, 
jjiaree, sookbundu, tonta, nuree, niukhee, lo- 
tun, surwa, chingaree, gool-rez, mundeera ba- 
zee, bansbazee, ara bazee, looka, sitaru, balee- 
jhanka, v. cracker, rocket, squib. 

fire-work-maker, atush-baz, hu\^a,ee-gur or -saz. 

fire-worship, zundeeq. 

fire-worshipper, atush-purust. 

fire-worshipping, atush-purustee. 

firm, siikht, kura, suleeb, muzboot, mcohkum, - 
oostoowar, qaini, moostuqil, bur-qurar, pa,edar, 
sabit, rasikh, wasiq, v. fixed, uchul, utul, ust- 
hir, wuseeq, suboot, quwee, sabit-pa, v. strong, 
tight, (compact, q. v.) thos, tantha, v. constant, 
stout, (solid) garha, ghufs, bustu, v. thick. 

firmament, asman, fuluk, fuluk ool boorooj, gur- 
doon, swurg, kcorsee, v. heaven, sky. 

fiirmly, mu/.bootee- &c. -se, yuqeenun, qutu,un, 
V. steadily. 

fiirmness, sukhtee, .sulabut, muzbootee, porhaee, 
pa,edaree, qiyam, subat, biir-quraree, istiqlal, 
roosookh, woosooq, v. constancy (solidness) sun- 

first, adj. puehla, ad, ugla, jetha, sabiq, uwwul, 
nicoquddum, v. great i for the first time, puehie 

first, adv. puehie, uwwuhin, age, ek,oottini, nu- 

khoost, prithum; in the first place, or for one 

thing, puehie puehlar, ibtida.iin, ek to ; from 

first to last, uwwul se akhir tuk, ad se unt 




tuk ; from the first, nuye sir se, v. again ; at 
first, ibtida-men, awa,il-men;^Vs< or last, kub- 
liee nil kubhee, kisee wuqt; first-born, puliiot- 
ha ; first-fruits, puehla phui; to, or be- 
gin, q. V. puhl-k. V. calends, to aggress. 

fish, muchhlee, muchhee, mahee, julsuenee, hoot, 
meen, rauts, jhuk, {salted) sookthee, {flesh 
of) mas, gosht, v. meat. The most common 
are as follows : ruhoo, kutla, mirga, bhikthee, 
kooja bhikthee, hilsa, suor, ku\vu,ee, bo,alee, 
pungas, phulee, kliulsa, arh, niungree, magoor, 
seenghee, guru,ee, potha, tengra, kukla, kuwa, 
morela, pyasee, tulgiigra, tupussee, tupsee, 
chulha, saliya, chilwa or chilha, chuela, gujjal, 
sankooch, bhangun, revva, bhola, undwaree, 
buliya, sal, puehna, gonchh, bhakoor, bitkee, 
sidree or sigree, bunsputta, dhuniya, piipta, 
bhut muchhee, pursee, mo,e, chanda, puthur- 
chutta, bhooree, genth, khuera, pupsa, cheng, 
guenchee, chundurbijwa, goshta, reetha, dhalo, 
kunwul, V. eel, mangoe, skate, pm-poise, &c. 

to fish, muchhlee-marna, muchhlee ka shikar-k. 
bunsee-khelna, v. to angle, jharna, v. to sou7id, 

fisJt-bone, mahee-dundan, sheer-mahee. 

fisherman, muchhwa, juliya, mookeree, mahee- 
geer or -shikar, dheemur, muchhee-mar, v. 

fishery , fiishmg, v. supra, mahee-shikar. 

fish-hook, kutiya, kanta, qooUab, shust. 

fisfi-kettle, mahee-tabu. 

fish-manger, mahee-furosh, muchhlee-wala. 

fishy, {flavour) bisahind. 

fissure, chak, turuq, durz, shigaf, v. cleft. 

fist, moothee, mook, ghoosa, killee, moosht, gcn- 
ma, mookka, gudda, hoolee. 

to fist, ghcnsiyana, mcokiyana, dhoosna, v. to 

fisticuffs, ghoosum-ghoosa, glioosuvvwul, mookka- 

mookkee, mookkuwwul, koota-koot, mookor 
ghoosor, goothum-gootha, v. settle. 

fisttila, nasoor, suen, bundur-gha,o, gur, chor, v. 
ulcer, {lachrymalis) dhulka, dhoolkee, dumu,u, 
{urethra:) qooruh, v. s'lmis, {in ano) bhugundur. 

fistulous, chora, goorgooriya. 

fit, subs, {of a fever) nuobut, wuqt, amud, chur- 
ha,o, a,ee, paree, baree, bela, halut, ghulbu, 
josh, dhmn, turuiig, luhur, v. paroxysm, khi- 
yal V. ichim, course ; a fainting fit, zoO|Uf, 
ghush ; a drunken fit, nushu, v. convulsions. 

fit, theek, dojroast, moonasib, la^iq, buja, suza- 
war, mu,iiqool, wajib, lazim, qabil, joga, v. 
expedient, scndh, sobhaman, wajibee, v. com- 
petent, suitable, proper, decent, compatible. 

to fit, V. a. theek- S:c. -k. ; v. n. doorcost- &c. 
-h. {to become) phubna, sohna, chhajna, sood- 
hurna, buethna, nishust-khana, sujna, sudhna, 
V. to agree, ansiver, apply, furnish, befit. 

to befit, or 7neet, chahna, lugna, milna, purna, 
V. incumbent. 

to fit up, tueyar- sar bohar- sur burah- theek- 
thak-k. bunana, sajna, v. to set, repair, pre- 
pare, adorn. 

fitchat,fitcheiv, bham, bhum, bhondur, \.fuli- 
mart, cat, ferret. 

fitly, liyaqut- &c. -se. 

fitness, doorcDstee, liyaqut, mcnwafuqut, suzawa- 
ree, sha|istugee,, v. capable. 

five, panch, punj, punju, punjree, gahee, l^n, 
khums, ivhence mookhummus ; five per cent. 
q. V. duh neemee ; nue punj aoid mule punj 
are applicable to the age of horses, q. v. 

fives, {game of) gend bazee, oolaluu bocha, gen- 
da bazee, v. ball, and court. 
to fix, mooqurrur- qa,im- &c. -k. garna, lugana, 
jurna, thambna, jumkana, chuptana, suptana, 
utkana, luptana, rukhna, v. to fastest, {a bay- 
onet) churhana, v. to set, chookana, budna, 




Ifufu-k. V. id ileUrmiM, esfab/lsh, &c. {in the 
mind) dil nusheen-k. v. to impress, {to settle) 
thiihrana, mooqurrur- &c. -k. (to stop) rokna, 
bund-k. (to rest, q. v.) ruhna, thuhurna, iqa- 
mut-k. ; to be Juved on any thing, qurar-d. 
thanna, kumur-b. ; to fiv onc''s habitation, 

Jixed, qa|iin, sakin, nioostuhkuni, mooshukhkhus, 
muzboot, V. steady, usthir, bil-mooqtu, moo- 
([urrurcc, buha],v. certain, (not volatile injire) 
qa,im oon-nar, y. firm. 

^Liedness, {jiyaiii, istihkani, so)boot, v.Jinnncss. 

tojis, sursuraua. 

,/ixgig, (of powder) chukurban, v. fire-works, ti- 
karee, v. harpoon. 

Jlabby, Jlacrid, dhcela, pilpila, zholeedu, mirm, 
pichpicha, jhoor jhoora, v. loose, soft. 

Jlaccidity,Jlabbiness, pllpilahut, zholee dugee, nur- 

Jlag, (plant) hoogla, (n species of) zoo-iilfiqar, 
(stone) chutan, (colours, q. v.) nisban, jhiinda, 
dhujja, ba,ota, putakha, liwa, v. pennant, sila, 
puthrce, v. slab, (o/'ulee) toogh, punju, sbud- 
du ; to come or go with a flag of truce, jholce 
marke-a. or -j. 

to flag, dheela- oodas-h. ooturna, cbhutiia, pil- 
pilana, pichpichaiia, jhoorjhrorana, v. to fail, 
droop, (with flags) fursh-b. 

flagelet, ulghozu, nuhawulee, ^..flfe. 

flagellation, korc-bazee, sbullaq-bazee, chabook- 
bazee, hudd-shurUiCc, v. to whip. 

flaggy, V. faint, gira-hoo,a, jhooka-hoo,a, \. Jlab- 
by, punsa, V. insipid. 

Jlagitious, ushur, shudeed, kura, boora, muha pa- 
pee, murdood, v. atrocious, enormotis, icicked. 

flagitiousness, sukhtce, shiddut, v. villany. 

flagon, soorahee, koozu, gojlabec, (jurabu, v. gob- 
let, khoom, bhubka, suqawu, v. bottle, jhun- 
jhrec, (of leather) kooppa, v. jar, pot. 

flagrant, (no<onoMs) xahir, sha,ee,u,ashkara,rau.sti^ 

hoor, mu.uroof. 
flagstaff, chhur, bans. 

flail, sant, silara, khirmun kob, peetna, peetuor. 
flake, phaha, gala, (layer) tub, tiibuq, purt, v. 

stratum, cbhal, pupra, v. to cake, phootkee, 

V. knot, 
to fluke, phootkiyana. 
flaky, tub-dar, purteela, pupraha, pupree-dar, 

flam, heehi, buhanu, hiiwa, ba,obundce, pukh- 

und, \. farce, fetch, 
flambeau, mushii,u], damur. 
flame, shto.iilu, loo, tcni, bhubhooka, jot, zub- 

anii, iltiliab, ancb, lubub, shubab, sees, luhur, 

lupuk, V. ardour, flrc. 
to flame, shoa,ulu-oothna, dhudhukna, inooshtu,il- 

-b. bhurukna, lupukna, v. to blaze, flash, (to 

shine) chumukna, jhulukna. 
flame-coloured, narunjee-rung, sbumu-rung, mu- 

slia,ilee, sliuhabee, chiinipUiCe, v. oratige. 
flriming,flaniy, niooshtu, jl, shro,iilii-zun, v.flashy, 

sboj.ulu-geer, temaha, \. glaring, {ind the verb, 
flank, (of the body) kokh, bukhee, kokha, pukha, 

V. loin, ailing, bazoo, v. wing, (of an army) 

bugbul, piihloo, kiimur, v. side, 
to flank, (to attack thefiank) bugbul- &c. -mariia, 

benda-marna, tirchha-marna, v. side, also to 

secure, (to command, q. v.) surkob-li. maxna, 

V. to gall, 
flannel, 10,66, dhoossa. 
flap, damun, v. skirt, putuk, jhutas, jhutuk, v. 

clap, zerbur, kanee, jhool, v. border, (of flesh) 

lothra, cbhichhra; a cap, &c. haicing flaps, 

to flap, ]hn\na.,'fi\arna., inariia, putkana, jhutkann, 

phutphutana, bhurbhurana, v. to lap, v. n. pu- 

tukna, &c. r. to fan, ply, beat, brush, (tht 

wings) pur-marna, v. to flutter, 

H H 




to flare, chuniukna, v. to glare. Sec. 
flash, luhuk, kuoiidh, bhubhuk, chumuk, du- 
rukhshundugee, biu-q, v. dash, uchpulee, luo- 
ka, chumchumaliut, jhuluk, bhuruk, turaka, 
jhumakra, ziirq burq, v. glare, (of wit) jliu- 
jhuk, luhur, chuluk, v. blame, glimmering. 

to flash, luhukna, kuondhna, cliuniukna, bhu- 
bhukna, v. to flame, luokna, chunichumana, 
V. to lighten, glitter, (to 6?<rs^) jhujhukna, chu- 
tukna, V. to break, splash; to flash in the pan, 
runjuk-oorjana, runjuk-khajana,-runjiikchat-j. 
bhuk-kluina, v. to explode. 

flashy, bhurkeela, rungeela, bhuruk- &c. -dar, 
luhkeela, chumkeela, jhumakre-baz, dhum- 
keela, chhuel cbhubeela, v. gaudy, empty, in- 
sipid, mimood be bood, v. showy, tinsel. 

flask, sbeeshu, soorahee, qurabu; a leather flask, 
kcxjppa, koappec, {a powder-horn) sengra. 

flMt (not globular) chilput, cbupta, furshee, chuo- 
put, buethwaii, pctla, neecha, puiimai', v. even, 
hollow, (prone, &c.) put, chit, v. supine, (as a 
roof) saqfee, (close) suta hoo,a, zunieen-doz, 
(dull, q. V.) mota, v. dead, vapid, be-rus, 
seetha, be-kuefiyut, v. dry, (-cock) chuput- 
baz, chuptec, cbuput-riuiid, (to play at-) chup- 
tee- &c. -k. -lurna or -marna, ajjplicable to 
eunuchs, &c. (level) burabur, humwar, moo- 
Piittuh, kufi-dust, nusheb, v. low, (insipid) 
pheeka, be-numuk, (dejected) oodas, ufsoordu, 
dil-geer, (downright) saf, khoola, (as sound) 
bharee ; to become flat, (as aane^ &c,) ootur- 
jana. ' .n?inj!«f» ;i\!-^' 

^flnt, mucdan, v. field, plain, &c. ooncha, khura- 
bu, V. bank, sand, (depression) toot, pustee, v. 
breach, &c. (of a knife) kuor, bughul, v side, 
(shallow) chur, guthana. 
flatly, V. close, dotook, kholke, pharke, murda- 
, »A' murdee, wa-shigaf, v. plainly, openly, peremp- 
torily. .V-i;N»i'»\>)\ f fSHItti'ii-iiKj (i.Vi,Wt''^. 

K n' 

flatness, ehuptha,ee, buraburee, humwai'ee, nu- 

shebee, be-muzugee, v. the a(/;,.beRn|uattkee, 
seethas, \. insipidity, lowness. • ,>t|7.4tfitfr« 
to flatten, v. a. chupthana, humwar-k. buethalna, 

V. n. chuptha-h. (as wine) ooturjaua, v. to de- 
ject, &c. 
to flatter, khooshaniiid- &c. -k. v. to soothe, pjiqos- 

lana, v. to wheedle, 
flatterer, khoosh-amudee, chaploos, phcolasre-baz, 

V. wheedler. 
flattery, khmsh-amvid, chaploosec, lullo-putto, 

dum-bazee, phoolasre-bazee, zumanu sazee, v. 

to fawn, tumullcoq, ustootkar, khmsh aoiud- 

go-ee, lubbo shubbo, meethee-baten, v. praise. 
flattish, chupta-sa, v. sunk, 
flatulency, ba,ee, ba,o, reeh, nuf kh, v. vanity, 
flatulent, phoola, nuf kli, nuffakh, badee, buyala, 

V. turgid. .vViVtvivVi 

flatwise, kiirwut, putkur, v. side, prone. ,; 
to flaunt, V. to flounce, phurana, thurrana, thirik- 

na, ])liurkana, tuiawa-marna, bunbunana, v. 

airs^ ostentation, also to flutter, 
flavour, goondhawut,inuzu,luz.z,ut,suwad,(orfc»<r) 

kh(«sh-bo, soo-gundh, v. fragrance, 
flavoured, sondha, v. smell, 
flaw, durz, durar, shigaf, (in glass, &c.) bal, 

(defect) iieb, jirm, zuboonee, dokh, dagh, ku- 

lunk, butta, khot, pue, v. foible ; there is a 

flaiv in his character, cDskee abroo men ek 

butta luga hue, (having) doopulka, doolohee, 

V. fault, 
flax, kutan, suft, v. lint. .v .^"^''^ 

to flay, oodherna, kheechna, khuliyana, chum- 

ree-lena, ooklialna, v. to skin, ji-ij jT.^fvjis^rik 
flea, pcesoo, kuek, (bite) chootkee^ ohyoontee, 

dudora, v. nip, scratch- 
fleam, nushtur,'X5<fj!!'-mj .ijmhiJ .'iniiV' 
flea-wort, ispughol, nulg. isbugliol, buzur-qo>- 

toona. ,'KH. • < V '{'j".'". I i jif'Vsj>s', \^) ^-nli 




tojleckyflerher, teetur budlee-h. 
Jledged, purdar, ooniroo, \. feathered, 
to flee, bhagna, goorez-k. firar-h. surukna, peeth- 

peechha-d. blchulna, purana, chul- rum-j. or 

-d. nathna, tulna, v. to abscond, Jly. 
fleece, pushm, (x)n, kutrun, katun, nioondun, v. 

ivool, tcoolly. 
to fleece, kuturna, bubrce-k. {to plunder) moond- 

na, lootna, nichonia. 
to fleer, boloc-marna, v. to jeer, 
feet, buhr, nuwara, bera, (m charge of) buhr- 

dar, mcer-buhr, v. float, 
fleet, (swift) juld, tez, chalak, juld-baz, biul-ruf- 

ter, bad-puema, bad-pa, v. nimble, quick, 
to fleet, (enjot/ life) dunduiiana, v. to skim,jnnJcet. 
fleeting, arizee, chund-rozu, nnqsh bur ah, chula- 

jata, buhta, oorta, hcobabce, be-buqa, hadis, v. 

fleetly, juld, juldee- &c. -se. 
fleetness, juldee, tezee, chalakee, phoort, juld- 

_flcsh, gosht, mans, luhm, hera, mas, (Jtody) bu- 

dun, (carnality) nufs, shuhwut, v. blond. As 

the Indians apply flesh to fish ako, tlie reader 

must be aware of this ; see below. 
fesh-brrtsh, khecsa. 

_flegh-mea-t, (animal food) mas-udhar, giiiza-luh- 
 mee, suguotee, v. meat, 
fleshy, mota, fiubih, juseem, dul-dar, good-gur, 

poor-gosht, supind, dund-pel, v. plump, muscu- 
,fletcher, teer-gur, kuman-gur. 
flexibility, chimra,ec, dum-daree,mcola,imut,nur- 

flexihle, chimra, lucheela, nimlaim, dum-dar, 

nurm, suleem, v. ductile, 
flexion, flexure, luchka,o, kujee, khum, bank, v. 

hend, joint. . ^vtao/^ 

Jiier, bhiigora, gc»rez-pa. 

flight, bhugcl, bhagehur, bichlahiit, rum, (of 
birds) ooran, tucran, purwaz, ooriiree, v. wing 
(from danger) firar, goorez, bhagur, (flock, 
q. V.) ghol, gut, guthree, dul, dar, (shmver 
q. V.) chJiuntao, (space) oraree, tuppa, puUa, 
V, distance, (sally) luhur, v. crcursion, flash, 
flirty, (volley) sliul]u(], barli ; the flight of an 
arrow, purtab; the sublime flight of a poet, boo- 
lund-purwazee, \. fancy. 

flighty, uch-pulee, hur-dum khiyaloc, v. capri 

flimsy, puteela, jhirjhira, jhainliar, boda, kum- 
zor, na-pa,edar, jhillee-sa, v. slight, thin. 

to flinch, hiitna, tulna, hilna, pliirna, surukna, 
tujawa)Z-k. kuchiyana, kutrana, liichkicha- 
na, hichiia, khisukna, kuniyana, piclipanw-h. 
khisiyana, goedurana, pjuisphusana, thoomuk- 
na, V. to shrink, boggle 

flincher, v. sculker, hichka,oo, khiska,oo, hich- 
kara, Sec. v. the verb. 

fling, phenk, nokchok, v. gilic, throw. 

to fling, phenkna, chulana, dalna, v. to throw, 
beegna, ntama, phenk-marna, chhor-d. put- 
kana, v. to dash, toss, (to scatter) chhitkana, 
bithrana, bikherna; to fling open, kho]-i.; tv 
fling away, phenk- dal-d.; to fling down, gira- 
na, dhana, mismar-k. ; to fling as a horse, doo- 
luttee-chhantna, proshtuk-marna, v. to hick. 

flinger, phenkwuya, beegunhar, v. the verb. 

flint, puthuree, chukhmukh, chukmuk ka put- 

flinty, sukht. 

flinty-hearted, sung-dii. 

flippant, lubluba, tcortrora, turrar, v. i-ohible. 

flirt, jhurjhurahut, y. jilt. 

to flirt, ciihirukna, mama, jhurjhur.nna, jliuljhu- 
lana, v. to flap, niara mani-phirna, chun ehu- 
la,ee-k. v. to coquet, jeer. 

flirty, choolbwia, chunchul, v. nrry,jode. 
H H 2 




to flit, ghur budul-k. v. to remove. 

float, (raft) bera, g][iurnu,eej (of a flsh'mg-line) 

to float, V. n. ootirana, bhusna, tuerna, buhna, 
chulna, oothna, v. to rise ; v. a. bhurna, doo- 
bona, \. to fly, ooplana, oothlana, tirna, v. to 
swim, buhana, sirana, v. to flood, 
^floating, moo,ulluq, udhur, v. suspended, 
flock, guUu, ewur, hulqu, tliuth, pal, cDinmut, v. 
drove, herd, (flight) jhoond, ghol, v. company, 
lock, flake, dul, ruma, bag, jhankh, dara,jatha, 
rcia, V. crowd. 
to flock, jumu-h. .butoorna, joorna, v. to crowd, 
tootna, girna, duorna, relna, toot-purna, v. to 
to flog, chabook-marna, korebazee-k. kore-phut- 
karna, v. to drub, also flagellation, bet- or 
jootee-marna, jootiyana, ang hulka-k. v. to 
flogging, kore-bazee. 

flood, ahla, barh, suelab, toolanee, tpofan, v. de- 
luge, (flow) juwar, niudd, kuthul, v. tide, 
boora, churha,o, julmue, luhra, v. inundation, 
river, &c. 
to flood, doobona, ghurq-k. borna, v. to drown, 

churhana, buhana, v. to flow, 
fl^od-gate, band ka phatuk, banjee, (flgur.) pet, 

purdn, nul. 
flooding, istiha/.u, iiufas, purbali, puera, y.fliior 

Jlook, pura, phool, kanta, dant, punkhree. 
flow, zumeen, gucli, v. terrace, &c. (story) kot- 

lia, bam. 
to floor, tuklitubinidee-k. guch- &c. -k. 
flooring, tukhtu-bundee, putuotun, puta,o, oot- 

' rung, munjhiya, v. roof, ground, 
florican, (a bird) kurwanuk. 
florid, soorkh, lu,ul, lal, sooha, rata, gcol-fam, 
goolrung, V. fresh, gool anaree, goolgoona. 

bhubhooka, v. fair, red, ruddy, rungeen, run- 
floridness,floridity, soorkhee, lalee, rungeenee. 
florist, gool-kar, gcol-cheen. 
flomice, sunjaf, jhalur, v. trimming, fringe, 
toflounce, tuluphna, turupna, tinungna, tilichhna, 
koodna, oochhulna, nachna, v. to toss, tulmu- 
lana, lotna, thulukta-chulna, jhoomna, lutpu- 
tee-chal-chulna, v. to swagger, 
flounder, mo,a. 
to flounder, V. to tumble, clihutputana, sutputana, 

V. toflounce. 
flour, V. dust, kunik, suttoo, besun, chuos, soo- 
jee, ubeer, clilkus, &c. under floiver, q. v. 
(dry) pulethun, khooshkee, v. powder, (mer- 
chant) purchoonee, niodee, &c. v. grain, 
flourish, nooma.ish, chumkahut, ghoonghoonahut, 
V. ornament, (in writing) tooghru, goolzar, (in 
music) gut, chhoot, luhuk, v. quaver, 
to flourish, phoolna, kliilna, tuhtuhana, duhdu- 
hana, tazu- turotazu- serab-h. (to brandish) 
chumkana, v. to prosper, (in music) luhukna, 
ghoonglioonana, v. to trill, (iti style) rungee- 
nee-k. chiknana, v. to bloom, (a cudgel) ghoo- 
mana, v. to adorn, 
to flout, mulamut-k. v. to jeer, insult, 
flow, V. volubility, turrara, idrat, v. stream, flood,^ 
(abundance) ifrat, kusrut, (of words) amud. 
to flow, buhna, jaree-h. chulna, duorna, dhulna, 
buh-chulna, dhulukna, jhurna, v. to overflow, 
burst, issue, (as a flood) burhiyana, phoolna, 
churhna, bhurna, burhna, relna, v. to rise, (as 
milk) pinhana, ooturna, v. to fall, (as metals) 
panee-h. pich-pichana, v. to run, (as the tide) 
juwar-ana, (to melt) pigludna, goodaz-h. tu- 
ghilna, (to proceed) nikulna, pueda-h. v. to 
flower, phool, gool, pcohp, soomun, nagesur, v. 
blossom, (prime) buhar, jobun, oomung, qorooj, 




(meal) ata, pisan, choon, arcl,miiedii, (essence) 
khooUus, klitulasu; the flower of youth, ronfu- 
wan, V. bloom, (the best part) nubh, sir o miin, 
j^ouI-diistM, jan, v. prime, choice, 
to Jluwer, plioolna, khilna, shiginftu-h. goolka- 
ree-k. kusliccdu- &c. -karhna. 

flowered, Iwotedar, (stuffs) doo-damec, jam-da- 
nee, v. chints, embroidery. 

flower-garden, phool-waree, gool-zar, gool-shun, 

flower-pot, phooljjiaree, gool-dan, koozu, (stick 
or rod of) luolasee, v. garland. 

flowers, phool, v. menses. 

flowers on cloth, he. bel boota, gunga jumnec, 
boota. The flowers generally known, and 
which perhaps do not occur elsewhere in this 
volume, are as follow: gool-uja.ib, motiya, gool- 
shubbo, niogra, bela, kuthbela, gool-mukh- 
mul, gool-trorru, goal-rana, gool-da,oodec, gcul- 
mihndee, gool-achecn, gool-chandnee, niisreen, 
nusturun, suda-sohagun, kesoo or tcesoo, hiir- 
singar, kurna, gcol-ju.ufree, orhul, soodursun, 
do-puhriya, sookh-diirsun, chumpa, kunik- 
chiimpa, bhoo,een-chiinipa, joohee, jahee-joo- 
hee, kiichnar, gool-sooree, son-joohee, na-fiir- 
man, ketukee, kyora, oolut-kunwul, thul pud- 
do, gool-furung, gool-nar, kuchnar, thulpud, 
(of grasses. Sec.) ghoo,a, bhoo,a, boor, \. jalap, 
balsam, marigold, lily, violet, rose, narcissus, 
jusamine, sun-flower, lotos, &:c. &c. liere. 

flowery, rungeen, phoolphoola, chikkun, soon- 
dur, rusgur, v. florid, 

.flowing, churha.o, &c. v. the verbs, also flood. 

to fluctuate, lidirana, hilkorna, ghat barlj- susta- 
muhinga- kuni besli -be qurar- dawandol-h. 
V, to vibrate, dhuchook-k. v. to hesitate, lea- 
ver, (to he uncertain) be thuor tliikana-h. be 
subat-h. V. to change. 

flicctuation, luhra,o, hilkor, be-subatee, tuzui- 

ztwl, ootar churha,o, tana-bhurnee, juwarbhata, 

(iawandolce, be-quraree, v. instability, uncer- 
tainty, also the verb. 

zuban-awiiree, goya,ce, lussaniyiit, v. fhw, 

fluent, lussan, zuban-a^jur, v. elwiuent, tcond- or 

tez-zuban, sookhoon wur. 
fluently, ruwan, sal". be-liiga,o, be-iituk, surpul, 

V. ease, freely, 
fltiid, V. liquid, panee, punsa, v. to flow, also thin, 

buha,oo, ruwan, jiriyan, unjiinia, mooruqqiq, 

V. running, current, 
fluid, sueyal, ruqeeq, putla, v. supra, rus, ru- 

qeequ, rutoobut, v. humour, liquor, water, 

juice. ' 

fluidity, fluidness, sueyalee, riqqut,riqaqut, put- 

lahut, biiha|0, v. thinness, 
flummery, nishastu, faloodu, maqootee, firnec, 

hulwa, duliya, lupsee, v. pottage, 
fluor albus, pursoot, purdur, puera, purmyo, v. 

gleet, (having the) punuelee, puniyahee, piir- 

sootee, V. whites, 
flurry, jhutaka, jhutka, v. gust, hurhuree, hiir- 

burahut, v. to hurry, 
flush, flushing, jhuluk, bhoor-bhcDree, v. heat, 

soDrkhee, lu,ulee, v. purple ; flush of cash, v. 
fullf lalolal, V. to overflow, 
to flush, tunitiunana, soorkh-h. phoolna, jhuluk- 

na, tutuhana, dnduhana, bhcorbhoorana, tum- 

ukna, V. to colour, glow, (to elate) phoolana, 

bagh bagh-k. v. to redden, 
to fluster, scorkh- rungeen-k. v, to fuddle, 
flute, bansree, bunsee, iiighozii, nue, moorlee, v. 

flagelet, pipe, khiyar, hurra, v. channel, 
to flute, kumrukhec-bunana. 
fluted, kuin-rukhee, hurre-dar, khiyar-dar. 
flutter, bhurbhurahiit, dhurdhiirahut, dhuruk. 




ghubrahut, iztirab, be-quraree. pjiuruk, phur- 
kahut, V. the verbs, also agitation. , 

to flutter, V. n. Tpur-]harna, bhurbhurana, pliur- 
phurana, turphiirana, phurukna, dhukdhuka- 
na, oothuina, tiluchhna, v. to vibrate, {to jial- 
pitale) dhurdhurana, djhurukna, (lo be agitated) 
hilna, moozturib- bequrar-h.; v. a. ghubrana, 

flu.v, (flowing) buha.o, suelan, jiriyan, beg, pe- 
tokha, untichar, illaq, v. looseness; rezish, pur- 
bah, V. evacuation, discharge, (for metals) pegh- 
la,oo, mooslih, sohaga, v. to melt, (dysentery) 

 ishal, jiriyan i shikum, sungruhnee, v. Itqui- 
f action ; to hace a flux, pet-chulna, ishal-h. 
anw-girna, v. mucus. 

fly, mukhee, mugus, machhee, dans, kookruonch- 
hee, zoobab, (locust) bhumhheeree, v. swarm, 
(of a tent) uspuk, qulundru, v. top. 

to fly, oorna, purwaz- tuer- or tueran-k. hut-j. v. 
to remove, purran-h. ooraree-niarna, (swiftly) 
soorkhab ka pur lugna, v. to speed, (in a pas- 
sion) bhubhuk-oothna, turupna, (up) oothna,' 
oochliulna, v. to bounce, (to burst) niltulna, 
phootna, v. to fire, (in the face of) moonh pur 
churhna, v. to spring, flee; to makefli/, oorana; 
to fly in pieces, choor choor-h. poorzu poarzii- 
corna; to fly at, jhuputna, humlu-k.; to fly out, 
oor-bliagna, (to commit e.iccsses) khool-khe]- 
na; to let fly, chhorna, mama, v. to discharge. 

Jly-blown, sa,ee-mara. 

Jiy-boat, bhunwuliya, purewa, ghoorab, luchka, 
V. infra. 

fly-catcher, niiikhee-mar ; niukhee-niarna, to 
trifle or loiter away otie's time; (a spider) niu- 
ffus-khor or -geer. 

flyer, ta,ir, tueyoor, v. bird. 

fly-flap, chuoree, moorchhul, chuor. 

flying, purewa, oorak, oorung, \. flier. 

flying-fish, mahee purind. 

foal, buchheree, v. colt. ' K..aW»>s; . 

to/o«/, byana, junna. 

foam, kuf, phen, v. froth. 

to foam, phenana, kuf-ootlina, (to l>e enraged) 
burhum- ag-h. v. to rage. 

foamy, kuf-dar. 

fob, pbent, phanda, dub, v. pocket, also to trick. 

focus, mudar, nooqtu, teepa, v. middle, (of a 
glass) deed-ban, nuzur, v. sight. 

fodder, gnas, charu, putlia, guont, pala, lihna, 
ghaspat, V. grass, straw, forage, browse. 

foe, ghuneem, hureef, mcokhalif, bueree, udoo, 
niooddu,ee, bud-khwah, shutoor, v. enemy. 

foetus, buchu, juneen. 

fog, kohur, kohera, koliasa, shub-dood, kohes, 
dhoondh, bookhar, ghoobar, v. mist. 

foggy, dhoondla, v. misty. 

foh, chhee chhee, tuobu, v. fy ! 

foible, ueb, nooqsan, qoosoor, kan, piie, pooth, 
ja,c-ungoosht, rukhnu, hurf, v. failing, blind- 
side, flaw, fault. ^um;tmti.\ 

foil, (fm fencing) gudka, putta, phool-hutha, 
bana, v. cudgel, &c. (for jeirels) dak, jug- 
juga, kitkura, v. leaf, nok, thokui', y., check, 
(flg.) dhal, arsecy v. mirror, &c. .! .^iA 
to foil, hurana, shikust-d. v. to defeat, 
to foist, ilhaq-k. mila-d. ghooserna, santna, r. to 

fold, (for sheep) gonda. buthan, buesuk, bara, 
bcrh, uvar, v. enclosure, (of a door, q. v.) pulla, 
pat, put, kewara, v. board, leaf, coil, &c. (dont- 
ble) la,ee, lura, purta, kura, bura, tuba, lupet, 
which are generally used in comp. as in 
' Gram, page 96, &c. q. v. tor, v. lerinkle, &c. 
(flock) gullu, V. boundary, (ply) tub, purt, 
(plait) cheen, choonut, kasnjluk, v. rumple, 
(of a rope) pech, pher, (in comp.) chund, 
goona, burabur; thus, doo-chund, &c. two- 
fold, &c. 




to fold, tuHaua, tuh-k. lupetna, torna, mortia, 
santna, v. to wrap, {sheep) berhana, Iwnia, 
ruhana, v. faldtrge, {a letter, &c.) multbof-, 
kham- bund-k. v. to close, (to shut, q. v.) ln- 
gana, lugiia, bandhna, bundhna, v. to claup, 
chhatee-lugana, gliutput-k. v. to emhrace, 
V. n. liputna, &c. supra, v. to lap, to inclose. 

folded hands, dust bustu, huth bundha. 

folding, (door) do pulliya, doo-putta, v. double. 

foliage, putiyaluit, burg buhar, burg sazee, 
\. flower. 

foliation, wuru(j-saz-ee, v. plate. 

folio, do wurqii, v. quarto, &c. 

folk, log or lok, [pi. oblique, logon] admee, niur- 
doom, ushkhas, v. person, family, nation, peo- 
ple, &c. 

to follow, peeclihe-ana or -jana, (to pursue) ru- 
gedna, ' tii,a(}oib-k. peechha-k. (to imitate) 
pueiHiwee- nkhii7.-k. chal-chulna, i(jtida- &c. 
-k. V. imitation, ponchhiyana, peechha-, 
damun-pukiirna, pecclihe-chulna, pueiule- 
purna, v. to adhere, quduin bu qudum-chiilna, 
V. to copy, mind, duim bala- dcDm guzu- moo- 
tu.aqqib- &c. -h. v. follower, to attend, &c. ni- 
kulna, bona, V. after, to come, go, flow, iss^ue, 
obey, practise, &c. (to accompajnf) sath-d. 
luga-ruhna, puedurpue- puehum-ana, (to 
obey) manna, qubool-k. (to be busied wit/i) 
mushghool-h. kurna ; to follotv a profession, 
peshu-k. ; fofolloto a»a consequence, nnteeju- 

follower, pus-ro,puero, peeclili-luga,daniun-geer, 
V. companion, moo,utuqid, punthce, dustbuc, 
mooqtudce, sewuk, puchhee, tabi, t. servant, 
&c. pi. (lonunut, V. believer, &c. (dependant) 
tabi-dar, (disciple, q. v.) sbagird, chela, v. sc/to- 
lar, (imitator) akhiz, mootutid)bi. 

fbllowing, (day, &c.) doosra, ugla, aindu, ma- 
bu,ud, V. ne.ri, stibsequent, aito foregoing. 

folly, be-wuqoofee, himaqut, uWnhec, na^anee, 
hoomotxj, V. madness, ulunuqce, uhmuqa pun, 
bodla,ec, gegla,ee, gudha pun, sufahut, bula- 
hut, V. absurdity, foible, 
to foment, (a sore, &c.) senkna, tutama, lukonia, 
V. to wash, (to encourage) oothana, (lalna,bona, 
niuchana ; to foment mischief, fusad-oothana. 

fomentation, senk, tutar, tukora, nutool, kumad, 
V. the verb. 

fomenter, (of mischief) moofsid, fitoorya, moof- 
turce, fitnu-ungez, fusadee. 

fond, v. foolish, shaiq, ashiq, nia,il, v. dotard, 
talib, khojcc, mungta, luoleen, luttoo, mcD,uz- 
ziz, neh-ec, ,v. addicted, desirous, silly. Sac. 
(in comp.) dost, jo, tulub, purust, khwah, 
goDzeen, l